Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720190001&lang=es vol. 84 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Degrees of adequacy: the disclosure of levels of validity in language assessment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The conceptualization of validity remains contested in educational assessment in general, ana in language assessment in particular. Validation and validity are the subjective and objective sides of the pr ocess of building a systematic argument for the adequacy of tests. Currently, validation is conceptualized as being dependent on the validity of the interpretation of the results of the instrument. Yet when a test yields a score, that is a first indication of its adequacy or validity. As the history of validity theory shows, adequacy is further disclosed with reference to the theoretical defensibility ("construct validity") of a language test. That analogical analytical disclosure of validity is taken further in the lingually analogical question of whether the test scores are interpretable, and meaningful. This paper will illustrate these various degrees of adequacy with reference mainly to empirical analyses of a number of tests of academic literacy, from pre-school level tests of emergent literacy, to measurements of postgraduate students' ability to cope with the language demands of their study. Further disclosures of language test design will be dealt with more comprehensively in a follow-up paper Both papers present an analysis of how such disclosures relate to a theoretical framework for responsible test design<hr/>Om geldigheid te konsepsualiseer bly n betwiste saak in opvoedkundige meting in die algemeen, en in taalassessering in die besonder. Geldigmaking en geldigheid kan respektiewelik opgevat word as die subjektiewe en objektiewe kante van die sistematiese argument wat gevoer kan word vir die toereikendheid van toetse. Tans word geldigmaking gekonseptualiseer as afhanklik van die interpretasie van die resultate van die instrument. Tog is dit so dat wanneer n toets 'n punt oplewer, dit 'n eerste aanduiding is van sy geldigheid Soos die geskiedenis van geldigheidsteorie ook aantoon, word daardie toereikendheid verder ontsluit met verwysing na die teoretiese regverdiging (konstrukgeldigheid) van n taaltoets Daardie logies-analitiese ontsluiting van geldigheid word verder geneem in die analogies linguale vraag: Is die toetsresultate interpreteerbaar en betekenisvol? Hierdie artikel illustreer hierdie verskillende grade van geldigheid met verwysing na empiriese analises van toetse van akademiese geletterdheid, vanaf voorskoolse toetse van ontluikende geletterdheid tot by metings van nagraadse studente se vermoë om die eise van akademiese diskoers te hanteer. Verdere ontsluitings van taaltoetsontwerp word vollediger hanteer in 'n opvolgartikel. Beide artikels bied 'n analise van hoe sulke ontsluitings verband hou met 'n teoretiese raamwerk vir verantwoordelike toetsontwerp. <![CDATA[<b>Validation and the further disclosures of language test design</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The subjective validation of language tests and their objective validity remain contested. The debate is clouded by a lack of conceptual clarity: every measure of the adequacy of a test is either subsumed under validity, or other test features are promoted to prime consideration An alternative is to recognize the technical dimension of experience as the leading function of applied linguistic artefacts such as language tests. In its coherence with other dimensions of reality, the technical aspect generates echoes of those others. These references to other facets are the basis of technically stamped, applied linguistic concepts. While a previous analysis referred to a number of foundational concepts in test design, this paper examines the traces of the lingual, social, economic and ethical aspects within the technical. These are all regulative technical ideas, acting as lodestars in the design of language tests. They are disclosures of the technical meaning of test design. Moreover, they allow applied linguistics to conceive of them as design principles, which must be given concrete shape and form in the actual development of language tests. Acknowledging this state of affairs enables the applied linguist to develop a robust and non-reductionist theory of applied linguistics<hr/>Daar is geen eenstemmigheid oor wat die subjektiewe validering van taaltoetse asook hul objektiewe geldigheid behels nie. Die debat word vertroebel deur n gebrek aan konseptuele duidelikheid: elke maatstaf vir die effektiwiteit van 'n toets word óf ingetrek onder geldigheid, óf verhef tot belangrikste oorweging. Die alternatief is om die tegniese dimensie van ons ervaring as die leidende funksie van toegepaste taalkundige artefakte te erken. In sy samehang met ander dimensies genereer die tegniese aspek analogies van die ander. Daardie verwysings na ander aspekte vorm die basis van tegnies gekwalifiseerde toegepaste taalkundige begrippe Waar 'n vorige analise na 'n aantaal funderende begrippe verwys het, ondersoek hierdie bydrae die linguale, sosiale, ekonomiese en etiese spore in die tegniese aspek. Hierdie analogies is almal regulatiewe tegniese idees, wat optree as rigtingwysers in die ontwerp van taaltoetse. Hulle is ook ontsluitings van die tegniese betekenis van toetsontwerp. Terselfdertyd maak hulle dit vir die toegepaste taalkunde moontlik om hulle as ontwerpbeginsels te beskou wat in die ontwikkeling van taaltoetse konkrete beslag en vorm te kry. Om hierdie stand van sake ernstig op te neem is vir die toepgepaste taalkundige die beginpunt van die ontwikkeling van 'n robuuste en nie-reduksionistiese teorie van die toegepaste taalkunde. <![CDATA[<b>Philosophy at Potchefstroom the past century (1917-2017). Part 4: At the cross-roads?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In drie vorige artikels in hierdie tydskrif is die geskiedenis van filosofie op Potchefstroom vanaf die begin van die vorige eeu tot ongeveer 2009 behandel. In hierdie en die volgende bydrae bied die skrywer, weer h vlieg teen die muur, h volgende kyk op die huidige situasie teen die einde van 2017. Soos die subtitel van die huidige artikel aandui, wil dit voorkom asof die Potchefstroomse Christelike filosofie tans voor h tweesprong te staan gekom het. Verskillende redes kan daarvoor aangevoer word, soos die voortgaande sekularisering van die Noordwes-Universiteit (NWU). h Oorsaak vir die verskille binne die Skool vir Filosofie kan moontlik ook daarin gesoek word dat dosente van buite die tradisionele Christelik-Reformatoriese tradisie bygekom het en die denkgemeenskap van meer as h eeu nie deel nie. As een voorbeeld van so h alternatiewe visie sal die akademiese agtergrond, publikasies en standpunt van prof. A.H Verhoef in h laaste (vyfde) bydrae in besonderhede nagegaan word. Die huidige artikel oor die hoofkontoere van h Reformatoriese wysbegeerte dien as agtergrond waarteen die filosofiese teologie van Verhoef in die slotartikel analiseer en evalueer sal word<hr/>Three previous articles in this journal reviewed the history of philosophy at Potchefstroom from the beginning of the previous century up to about 2009. In this and the next, contribution the writer, acting again as a fly on the wall, provides a peephole on the current situation at the end of 2017. As the subtitle suggests, it seems that Christian philosophy at Potchefstroom has arrived at the cross-roads. Different reasons, like the on-going secularisation of the North-West University have contributed to the situation. A cause for differences within the School of Philosophy may also be that lecturers from outside the tradition of a Reformational approach are critical about the traditional Christian philosophical approach of more than a century. Since his viewpoint is one clear example of such an alternative approach the academic training, publications and viewpoint of Prof Anné H. Verhoef will be investigated in detail in a last (fifth) contribution. The present article about the main contours of a Reformational approach in philosophy serves as a necessary background from which the philosophical theology of Verhoef will be analysed and evaluated in the conclusion of this series <![CDATA[<b>'Self' and 'Other' in Non-Dualistic Vedānta: A Moral Interpretation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The article examines the metaphysical and ethical approaches appropriate to studying the image of the self and other in Non-Dualistic Vedänta (hereafter NDV). NDV examines the nature of the empirical division of the self and the other, referred to by the terms 'I' and 'you' - asmad and yu§mad, respectively Behind the mundane expressions of these terms, Sahkara identifies 'superimposition' as a metaphysical precursor, which generates a cognitive error in all such expressions using personal pronouns and the use of predicates thereupon. The prime intent of the paper is to demonstrate vis-à-vis the metaphysical framework of NDV that the distinction of self and other is founded upon ignorance. If this ignorance is replaced by true knowledge, the entire problems pertaining to 'self and 'other' will see the development of a different kind of understanding, exposing the underlying unity of self and other, which generates a different attitude. Taking recourse to the NDVs exposition of the issue, a moral interpretation of the underlying unity of self and other is also intended. <![CDATA[<b>Geborgenheid en opvoedende onderrig in Meganiese Tegnologie-werkswinkels by openbare skole</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In Suid-Afrika is daar h dringende behoefte can gekwalifiseerde mense met tegniese en meganiese vaardighede. Om aan hierdie behoefte te voldoen behoort die onderrig van tegniese vakke in openbare skole bevorder te word. h Sleutelaspek by openbare skole is die veiligheid van leerders in tegniese werkswinkels. Die teorie van Geborgenheid in die onderwys behels dat effektiewe onderrig-leer plaasvind indien die plekke van leer veilig en geborge is. Alhoewel die staat aanspreeklik is indien persone weens nalatige of skuldige optrede by skoolwerkswinkels beseer word, kan sulke insidente h negatiewe uitwerking op opvoeders (onderwysers, instrukteurs) en leerders hê. Werkswinkels moet h geborgenheidsruimte vir leerders skep sodat effektiewe onderrig en leer bevorder kan word. n Gebrek aan geborgenheid mag die onderrig- en leerproses ernstig benadeel. Die studie rapporteer bevindings van gemengde metodes navorsing, wat kwantitatiewe data-insameling by 220 tegniese skole asook kwalitatiewe navorsing oor veiligheid, die frekwensie en aard van beserings by Meganiese tegnologie werkswinkels behels het. Die bevindings dui daarop dat opvoeders onvoldoende kennis aangaande die reg het, insluitend onkunde oor die de minimis-beginsel, staatsaanspreeklikheid ingevolge artikel 60 van die Skolewet en die toepaslikheid van die Wet op Beroepsgesondheid en -Veiligheid op skole. Sommige leerders, veral swart skooldogters in sekere skole, is bang vir werkswinkelmasjinerie en weier om daarmee te werk Die studie bevestig ook dat sommige opvoerders nie behoorlik gekwalifiseer is om Meganiese Tegnologie aan te bied nie. Faktore soos die gebrek aan sekuriteit, nie-nakoming van wetlike vereistes en onkunde van die reg kniehaiter geborgenheid in die werkswinkels.Dit benadeel die effektivstenvan die onderrig-ieerproses<hr/>South Africa has both a shortage and an urgent need for qualified people with technical and mechanical skills. In order to meet this need, the teaching of technical subjects at public schools should be promoted and improved. A key aspect of teaching technical subjects in schools is to ensure the safety of all learners in technical workshops. The theory of Geborgenheit (safety, wellness, wellbeing) in education entails the notion that effective teaching and learning is enhanced if the places of learning are safe and secure. School workshops should be secure and safe spaces for learners in order for effective teaching and learning to occur. Although the state may be held liable if harm is caused in a negligent or culpable manner to a person in a school workshop, such incidents have negative effects on learners and educators as well. This study reports on the findings of mixed method research, which involved quantitative data collection among 220 technical schools as well as qualitative research about safety and the frequency and nature of injuries in Mechanical Technology school workshops. The findings indicate that educators (teachers, instructors) have insufficient knowledge of the law, including ignorance of the de minimis non curat lex-principle, state liability based on section 60 of the Schools Act and the applicability of the Occupational Health and Safety Act to school workshops. Some learners, especially black school girls, are afraid of machines and refuse to work with them. More importantly, the study confirms that some educators are unqualified to teach Mechanical Technology as a subject. Factors like the lack of security, non-compliance with statutory requirements and ignorance of the law contribute to reduce Geborgenheit in workshops. This, in turn, affects the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process in schools. <![CDATA[<b>The Idea of a "For-Profit" Private Christian University in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The one-sided focus of Christian higher education in South Africa on the field of theology ana the lack of integrating faith and learning in other subjects emphasizes the need for a Christian university in South Africa. The question addressed in this article is whether a Christian university can also be for-profit, considering the fact that all Christian private higher education institutions in South Africa are non-profit. There are numerous criticisms against for-profit higher education institutions. The greatest of these are that for-profit private higher education institutions miss the purpose of what it means to be a university and that profitable higher education institutions exploit students. The church also has numerous criticisms of the profit motive, but from the Bible it is clear that there are two lines of thought regarding profit. The one is that profit is dangerous and that it easily becomes an idol; the other is that people are called to be profitable. This article concludes that there is room for a for-profit Christian higher education institution in South Africa. This for-profit Christian higher education institution should be imagined in terms of its understanding of profit regarding its mission, students, faculty and governance <![CDATA[<b>Philosophy at Potchefstroom the past century (1917-2017). Part 5: A new direction?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Vier vorige artikels in hierdie tydskrif het gehandel oor die geskiedenis van Filosofie op die Potchefstroomkampus van die Noord-Wes Universiteit gedurende die afgelope eeu vanaf ongeveer 1917 tot ongeveer 2017. In die vorige (vierde) aflewering is aangetoon dat daar vanaf ongeveer 2010 onder die dosente in die Skool vir Filosofie nie meer unaniem aanvaar is dat hierdie dissipline vanuit h Reformatoriese perspektief beoefen word nie. In die bydrae is ook in besonderhede uiteengesit wat die hoofkontoere van so h integrale Christelike filosofie behels Terselfdertyd het dit die tafel voorberei vir die huidige laaste artikel. Soos die subtitel daarvan aandui, bevat dit vanuit so h tradisionele perspektief h gesprek met die denke van een dosent indieSkoolvanaf2010,naamlikprof.AnnéVerhoef. Die aandag word emiese agtergrond, sy publikasies en sy eklektiese metode. Dit blyk dat hy, ten minste wat sy standpunt tot dusver betref, sterk beïnvloed is deur onder andere die prosesteologie en veral ook twee ander denkers, naamlik Robert Jenson en Paul Ricoeur. Die ondersoek bied daarna h kritiese samevatting van sy religieuse vertrekpunt en filosofie. Ten slotte word die hele reeks van vyf artikels afgesluit deur die noodsaaklikheid te beklemtoon van dankbaarheid vir h ryk verlede, selfkritiek gedurende die hede en h ideaal vir die toekoms<hr/>Four articles in this journal have already reviewed the history of philosophy at Potchefstroom during the past hundred years from the beginning of the previous century up to about 2017. The previous (fourth) part indicated that from about 2010 unanimity no longer existed between lecturers in the School of Philosophy about the up to then Reformational approach followed. It also described in detail the main contours of such an integral Christian philosophy, preparing the table for this last article. As the subtitle of this article indicates it entails a discussion of the different thinking of one lecturer in the School since 2010, Prof Anné Verhoef. Attention is paid to his academic background, his publications and eclectic philosophical method. It appears that in his philosophical development up to now he has especially been strongly influenced by process theologies and two thinkers, viz. Robert Jenson and Paul Ricoeur The investigation is followed by a critical summary of his own religious presuppositions and philosophy. The series of five articles is finally concluded by emphasising gratitude for a rich past, self-reflection needed for the present and a future ideal <![CDATA[<b>Kuyperania in 2018</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article looks at new works published in 2018 by or about the Dutch polymath Abraham: Kuyper<hr/>Hierdie artikel kyk na nuwe werk gepubliseer in 2018 deur of oor die Nederlandse polimaat Abraham Kuyper.