Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720140002&lang=pt vol. 79 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Christian leadership in the workplace - introduction</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The potential of spiritual leadership in workplace spirituality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt We live in the transition period between the old definition of work as survival and the new definition of work as livelihood. A new awareness of the value of spirituality can add to the innovation and creative capacity of 'human capital', increased authenticity in communication and has the potential for increased ethical and moral behaviour. For organisations wanting greater commitment this means opening up the conversation to include dimensions of soul and spirit that have been traditionally left at the office door. Workplace spirituality has potential for leadership development as it allows employees and leaders to act from personal truth, integrity, values and ethical practice. Spiritual leadership taps into the fundamental needs of both leader and follower for spiritual survival so that they become more organisationally committed and productive. This article focuses on the potential of spiritual leadership to transform and to contribute to the success of an organisation.<hr/>Ons lewe in die oorgangsperiode tussen 'n tradisionele verstaan van werk as oorlewing en 'n nuwe verstaan van arbeid as 'n bron vir lewensvoorsiening. 'n Nuwe bewuswording van die waarde van spiritualiteit kan bydra tot die innovering en kreatiewe kapasiteit van 'menslike kapitaal' en toenemende outentisiteit in kommunikasie - dit hou ook potensiaal in om etiese en morele gedrag te bevorder. Derhalwe behoort organisasies in hulle strewe na groter toewyding van werkers ontvanklik te wees vir die akkommodering van dimensies soos die siel en gees wat tradisioneel in 'n kantooropset afgeskeep is. Spiritualiteit in die werkplek hou potensiaal vir leierskapontwikkeling in, aangesien dit werkers en leiers in staat stel om volgens persoonlike oortuigings, integriteit, waardes en etiese praktyke te handel. Spirituele leierskap put vanuit die fundamentele behoeftes van beide leier en volgeling vir spirituele oorlewing, sodat hulle organisatories meer toegewyd en produktief kan wees. Hierdie artikel fokus op die potensiaal van spirituele leierskap vir die transformasie en sukses van 'n organisasie. <![CDATA[<b>Spiritual and ethical transformational leadership: Critical discourse analysis within a practical theology praxis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The objective of this article is to focus renewed attention on ethics in contemporary dialogue through value-based leadership. This is done with reference to the value of meaning in social research and critical discourse analysis within a framework of leadership discourse praxis. Discourse constructs, such as dominance and power, are analysed in the (re)production of oppression, injustice and inequality. The objective is to analyse the way in which human ideas and the actions of powerful and dominant leadership elites are influencing and dominating ethical and/or unethical public enactments. The hypothesis is that ethical discourse enactments (practices) could foster authentic ethical and transformational leadership.<hr/>Hierdie artikel poog om hernude fokus te plaas op etiek in kontemporere dialoog in terme van waardegebaseerde leierskap. Derhalwe word die waarde van betekenis in sosiale navorsing en kritiese diskoers analise binne die raamwerk van 'n leierskapsdiskoers-praxis bestudeer. Diskoers konsepte, onder andere oorheersing en mag, word geanaliseer in die lig van die (her)produksie van onderdrukking, ongeregtigheid en ongelykheid. Die mate waartoe alledaagse idees en handelinge van die magtige en dominante leierskap elite etiese en/of onetiese publieke interaksie bei'nvloed en oorheers, word geanaliseer. Die hipotese is dat etiese diskoershandelinge (praktyke) ware en/ of betroubare etiese en transformatiewe leierskap kan bevorder. <![CDATA[<b>Faith and business practice amongst Christian entrepreneurs in developing and emerging markets</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article examines the impact of faith on the business approach of Christian entrepreneurs in developing and emerging market settings. Special attention is given to the distinctive context for business in these environments (including high levels of poverty and corruption); the entrepreneurs' responses, and how faith influences these responses. Focusing on the experience of two entrepreneurs out of a larger pool of 65, we found that faith appears to play an important role in shaping their priorities. Putting reputation before short-term profit, both entrepreneurs adopted a zero-tolerance policy towards corrupt dealing, and have become known for this stance. Both entrepreneurs also exhibit a sense of dependence on God that is greater than that documented amongst Christian entrepreneurs in developed countries, perhaps reflecting the challenges associated with their environments.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek die impak van geloof op die besigheidsbenadering van die Christelike entrepreneurs in ontwikkelende en opkomende markinstellings. Spesiale aandag word gegee aan die kenmerkende konteks vir besigheid in hierdie omgewings (insluitend hoë vlakke van armoede en korrupsie); die entrepeneurs se antwoorde; en hoe geloof hierdie antwoorde beïnvloed. Uit 'n groep van 65 persone is daar op die ervaring van twee entrepeneurs gefokus en gevind dat geloof 'n belangrike rol in die vorming van hulle prioriteite blyk te speel. Beide hierdie entrepeneurs het reputasie bo korttermyn wins verkies en bekend geword vir 'n zero-verdraagsaamheidsbeleid oor korrupte handeldryf. Hierdie twee entrepeneurs het ook tot 'n groter mate 'n sin van afhanklikheid van God vertoon as wat onder Christen-entrepeneurs in ontwikkelde lande gedokumenteer is; dit is moontlik toe te skryf aan uitdagings wat met hulle omgewings verband hou. <![CDATA[<b>Spiritual character traits and leadership in the school workplace: An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and school leadership in some private and religiously affiliated schools in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The South African educational system is in a crisis. This situation places huge demands on school principals and school management teams, and raises many theoretical and empirical questions. Transformational leadership is needed to deal with these challenges and complexities. Not all school leaders show the same level of transformational leadership. Some leaders conform more to other leadership styles. The aim of this article is to explore the relation between spiritual character traits and leadership styles from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The theoretical part focuses on the conceptualisation of leadership (styles) and spirituality. The empirical research consists of a web-based survey conducted in some private and religiously affiliated schools in South Africa in 2011-2012. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and Cloninger's shortened Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-140) were used to measure leadership styles and spiritual traits respectively. Statistical procedures included confirmatory factor analysis, correlation (Pearson rho) and regression analysis. Key findings are that leaders of private schools in South Africa mostly conform to a transformative leadership style, disagree with corrective leadership and strongly disagree with passive-avoidant leadership. Regarding the spiritual character traits they agree with self-transcendence and strongly agree with self-directedness. Spiritual character traits are strong predictors for transformational and passive-avoidant leadership. Higher levels of self-transcendence and self-directedness are strong predictors for transformational leadership. Our research suggests that traditional religious variables are less important as predictors of leadership style than spiritual character traits.<hr/>Die Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysstelsel is in 'n krisis. Hierdie situasie stel skoolhoofde en skoolbestuursliggame bloot aan geweldige eise, en gee aanleiding tot verskeie teoretiese en empiriese vrae. Transformatiewe leierskap is nodig om hierdie uitdaging en kompleksiteite die hoof te bied. Skoolleiers verskil egter ten opsigte van transformatiewe leierskap, met sommige leiers wat andersoortige leierskapstyle het. Die doel met hierdie artikel is om die verband tussen spirituele karaktereienskappe en leierskapstyle teoreties en empiries te ondersoek. Die teoretiese gedeelte gee aandag aan die konseptualisering van leierskap(-style) en spiritualiteit. Die empiriese navorsing maak gebruik van die resultate van 'n web-gebaseerde ondersoek wat onder leiers van 'n aantal privaat- en godsdiens-geaffilieerde skole in Suid-Afrika in 2011-2012 onderneem is. Die Multifaktor-leierskapvraelys (MLQ) en Cloninger se verkorte weergawe van die Temperament- en Karakteropname (TCI-140) is gebruik om onderskeidelik leierskapstyl en spirituele karaktereienskappe te meet. Die statistiese ontledings sluit bevestigende faktoranalise, korrelasie (Pearson se rho) en regressie-analise in. Die vernaamste bevindinge is dat leiers van privaatskole in Suid-Afrika meestal saamstem met 'n transformatiewe leierskapstyl, 'n korrektiewe leierskapstyl verwerp, en glad nie saamstem met 'n passief-vermydende leierskapstyl nie. Met betrekking tot die spirituele karaktereienskappe stem die leiers saam met self-transendensie en veral met selfgedrewenheid. Dit blyk dat spirituele karaktereienskappe sterk voorspellers is vir transformatiewe leierskap. Die navorsing suggereer verder dat tradisionele godsdiensveranderlikes minder belangrike voorspellers is vir leierskapstyl as spirituele karaktereienskappe. <![CDATA[<b>Entering through the narrow gate and walking the hard road: The role of Christian leaders in exposing moral evil in the South African workplace</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The South African workplace is a complex one; it is influenced by our conflict-ridden past and it needs to meet a host of contemporary challenges. This article discusses the nature and outworking of moral evil in the workplace with reference to the local government sector. It is argued that in counteracting incompetence, a lack of responsibility, injustice towards honest staff, narrow group solidarity and the abusive exercise of executive authority, Christian leaders can legitimately and constructively engage in the public space. In order to do so, they need to deepen their relationship with God, develop moral discernment, and grow in their ability to act responsibly in the cause of human solidarity.<hr/>Die Suid-Afrikaanse werkplek is kompleks - dit word beïnvloed deur ons konflikbelaaide verlede, maar moet ook 'n menigte hedendaagse uitdagings die hoof bied. In hierdie artikel word die aard en uitwerking van sedelike bedorwenheid in die werkplek met verwysing na die plaaslike regering bespreek. Daar word betoog dat Christelike leiers die teenwerking van onbekwaamheid, die gebrek aan verantwoordelikheid, onregverdigheid teenoor eerlike personeel, eng groepsamehorigheid en misbruikende uitoefening van gesag deur die bestuur, geldig en konstruktief in die openbaar kan aanpak. Vir hierdie taak moet hulle egter versterk word deur hulle verhouding met God te verdiep, morele onderskeiding te ontwikkel, in hulle vaardigheid om verantwoordelik op te tree te groei, en hulle te beywer vir die bevordering van menslike samehorigheid. <![CDATA[<b>Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style such as pro-social behaviour and a panorama view. We will also deal with the issue of how women approach power and the power bases women would typically use. One conclusion is that we need the benefits of both male and female leadership for the 21st century.<hr/>Die 21ste eeu toon 'n toename in die aantal vroue in leierskapsposisies. Die uitdaging is: Hoe kan hulle lei in 'n konteks wat steeds deur mans oorheers word? Dikwels probeer vroulike leiers eenvoudig die manlike leierskapstyl waarmee hulle vertroud is, naboots. As 'n gevolg verloor vroue soms hul vroulikheid en organisasies verloor die spesifieke geleenthede wat vroulike leierskap bied. Een doel van hierdie artikel is om die geleenthede en sterkpunte van 'n vroulike leierskapstyl, soos pro-sosiale gedrag en 'n panorama-uitsig, te bespreek. Ons sal ook kyk na die kwessie van vroue se benadering tot mag en die magsbasisse wat vroue tipies gebruik. Een gevolgtrekking is dat ons die voordele van beide manlike en vroulike leierskap vir die 21ste eeu benodig. <![CDATA[<b>Modern slavery in the post-1994 South Africa? A critical ethical analysis of the National Development Plan promises for unemployment in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In African ethics, work is not work if it is not related to God or gods. Work, or umsebenzi, is for God or gods ultimately; work without God is the definition of slavery in my interpretation of the African ethical value system. If one succeeds from that understanding to define what slavery is, then God-lessness in work might imply the need for us to search for the gods of modernity post-1994 that have dethroned God, if they have not disentangled work from God. This article looks at the problem of unemployment by analysing the National Development Plan (NDP) and in particular the solutions proposed in relation to unemployment in South Africa. The article examines the language and grammar of the NDP to evaluate its response to the violent history of cheap, docile and migratory labour in South Africa.<hr/>In Afrika-etiek word die idee van 'werk' aan God of gode gekoppel. Werk, of umsebenzi, is uiteindelik vir God of gode; volgens my interpretasie van die Afrika-etiese waardestelsel is werk sonder God gelykstaande aan slawerny. Met so 'n verstaan van slawerny kan goddeloosheid in werk impliseer dat ons post-1994 na die gode van moderniteit wat God onttroon het, indien nie werk van God ontkoppel het nie, soek. Hierdie artikel kyk na die probleem van werkloosheid deur die Nasionale Ontwikkelingsplan en in die besonder die voorgestelde oplossings vir werkloosheid in Suid-Afrika te analiseer. Die artikel ondersoek en evalueer die taal en grammatika van die NOP as respons op die gewelddadige geskiedenis van goedkoop en gewillige trekarbeid in Suid-Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>Adopting a human rights based approach to international Christian development</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt It is only in the past decade that religion has been recognised as critical to ensuring sustainable international development efforts. This is due in large part to the failure of the dominant development paradigm of Western secularism in the global South. This article focuses on the significant historical contribution of evangelical Christianity in international development and explores some of the ideological tensions that challenge partnership with secular organisations. The resulting separate and parallel efforts of evangelical Christianity and the international non-governmental organisations (INGO) sector are costly and counter-productive in serving the poor. Recently, many INGOs have adopted the human rights-based approach underpinned by its commitment to social justice and solidarity with the poor - values also central to the Bible. It will be argued that this shared approach could provide the necessary bridge to facilitate deeper engagement in the form of social action between secular development actors and evangelicals. The critical role of evangelical Christianity in addressing poverty as a human rights issue in South Africa is also dealt with briefly.<hr/>In die afgelope dekade is godsdiens erken as van kritieke belang om die volhoubare internasionale inisiatiewe vir ontwikkeling te verseker, terwyl die dominante paradigma van die Westerse sekularisme skyn te misluk in die globale Suide. Hierdie artikel fokus op die evangeliese Christendom se belangrike historiese bydrae tot internasionale ontwikkeling en ondersoek sommige van die ideologiese spanninge wat 'n vennootskap met sekulêre organisasies bemoeilik. Die gevolglike afsonderlike en parallelle pogings van die evangeliese Christendom en die internasionale nie-regeringsorganisasie sektor (INGO) is duur en teenproduktief in die versorging van die armes. Vele INGO's het onlangs die menseregte-gebaseerde benadering, wat 'n sterk verbintenis tot sosiale geregtigheid en solidariteit met die armes het, aangeneem - waardes wat sentraal is tot die Bybel. Daar sal aangevoer word dat hierdie gedeelde benadering die nodige brug kan voorsien om 'n dieper betrokkenheid in die vorm van sosiale aksie tussen sekulêre ontwikkelingsagente en evangeliste te fasiliteer. Die kritieke rol van die evangeliese Christendom in die aanspreek van armoede as 'n menseregte-kwessie in Suid-Afrika word ook kortliks behandel. <![CDATA[<b>Leader responsibility in the workplace: Exploring the shepherd metaphor in the book of Jeremiah</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Leadership and responsibility go hand in hand in the workplace. Secular literature has explored this aspect in great length and has emphasised the various aspects this characteristic of leadership entails. In this article I briefly refer to some of the areas and aspects of responsibility that come the way of leaders in the workplace. However, this article aims at making a contribution from a biblical perspective, more particularly by exploring some aspects of the shepherd metaphor in the book of Jeremiah. From looking into this metaphor there are three aspects of leadership which emerge that I wish to address, namely: to lead people, to care for people and the less obvious third aspect of exercising justice and righteousness. Not only are leaders responsible for exercising justice and righteousness in the area of their leadership; they also have to see that justice and righteousness prevail and are safeguarded in settings where they have leadership responsibilities. The aim of this article, finally, is to relate these insights which emerged from the investigation of the shepherd metaphor in the book of Jeremiah to the context(s) of the modern-day workplace<hr/>Leierskap en verantwoordelikheid gaan hand aan hand in die werkplek. Hierdie aspek is in detail ondersoek in die sekuljre literatuur en baie van die kenmerke van leierskap is al beklemtoon. In hierdie artikel word verwys na areas en aspekte van belang wat leierskap in die werkplek raak. Die doel van die artikel is egter om vanuit 'n Bybelse perspektief 'n bydrae te maak deur 'n ondersoek te doen na die gebruik van die herdermetafoor in die boek Jeremia. Ek wil drie aspekte in die verband uitlig: om mense te lei, om na mense om te sien en 'n derde minder voor die hand liggende aspek, om reg en geregtigheid te laat geskied. Dit is leiers se verantwoordelikheid om self reg en geregtigheid toe te pas, maar ook om toe te sien dat reg en geregtigheid geskied in die plekke waar hulle die verantwoordelike leiers is. 'n Laaste oogmerk met hierdie artikel is om die kennis wat verwerf is deur die navorsing in Jeremia relevant te probeer maak vir die werkplek vandag. <![CDATA[<b>Called to work: A descriptive analysis of Call42's research on faith and work in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Very little empirical research has been conducted into faith and work, particularly as it relates to the experience and expectations of Christians in the world of work in South Africa. This article discusses the most recent research of this kind that was conducted by Call42. Call42 conducted an empirical research project on faith, calling, and the world of work between 2011 and 2012. The findings were released to the public after July 2012. Not only is this the most up to date data on this subject at present; the research findings and research process are also worthy of academic consideration. The Call42 research was initiated and commissioned by a group of young Christian professionals (mainly engineers) and as such it brings a perspective on faith and work from within the primary context of the world of work, rather than the theological academy or the church. The findings of the research have implications for the church and its officers (priests, pastors and leaders). It also arrives at some conclusions for Christians in the world of work, students who are contemplating a vocation or career path, and companies and organisations that have an explicit or implicit Christian orientation.<hr/>Daar is baie min empiriese navorsing gedoen oor die geloof en werk, veral as dit verband hou met die ervaring en verwagtinge van die Christene in die 'wêreld van werk' in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie artikel bespreek die mees onlangse navorsing van hierdie aard wat uitgevoer is deur Call42. Call42 het gedurende 2011 en 2012 'n empiriese navorsingsprojek oor geloof, roeping en die wêreld van werk uitgevoer. Die bevindinge is ná Julie 2012 aan die publiek bekendgestel. Dit is tans die mees onlangse inligting wat oor hierdie onderwerp beskikbaar is; ook die bevindinge en navorsingsproses self is verdere akademiese oorweging werd. Die Call42 navorsing is geïnisieer deur 'n groep jong Christen professionele mense (hoofsaaklik ingenieurs) en as sodanig bring dit 'n perspektief op die geloof en die werk van binne die primêre konteks van die wêreld van werk, eerder as vanuit die konteks van die teologie of die kerk. Die bevindinge van die navorsing het implikasies vir die kerk en kerklike beamptes (priesters, pastore en leiers). Die gevolgtrekkings het ook implikasies vir Christene in die wêreld van werk, studente wat dit oorweeg om 'n beroep of loopbaan buite die pastorale bediening op te neem, en maatskappye en organisasies wat 'n eksplisiete of implisiete Christelike oriëntasie het.