Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720140001&lang=pt vol. 79 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial: <i>Koers</i> 79, 2014</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Redaksioneel - <i>Koers</i> 79, 2014</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The concept <i>woman:</i> A feminist historiography of the relation between female and male</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel analiseer die vooronderstellings waaruit die geskiedenis van die konsep vrou in die feministiese filosoof Prudence Allen se belangrike werk, The concept of woman, filosofies benader word. Volgens 'n ideëgeskiedenismetode ondersoek sy die visies van 60 manlike en vroulike Westerse denkers ten opsigte van die vrou gedurende 750 v.C. tot 1250 n.C. Sy bespreek ook drie basiese modelle vir die verhouding tussen die vrou en die man, naamlik geslagtelike eenheid, polariteit en komplementariteit. Twee van die artikelskrywer se belangrikste probleme met haar filosofiese historiografie is eerstens dat sy nie duidelik genoeg aantoon hoe die verskillende onties-antropologiese uitgangspunte op die mens die uiteenlopende visies op die twee geslagte bepaal nie. Tweedens soek sy na die norm vir die relasie tussen die twee geslagte op subjektivistiese wyse in hulle verhoudings self, in plaas van in 'n maatstaf buite die verhoudings. Haar eie voorkeur vir 'n komplementêre verhouding word ook bevraagteken. Verder blyk dit dat sy die onderskeid tussen natuur-genade en filosofie-teologie nie konsekwent op die geskiedenis kon toepas nie. Met die oog op verdere besinning, word ter afsluiting die standpunte van enkele kontemporêre Protestantse denkers oor die onderwerp vermeld. Verder word 'n opvolgartikel in die vooruitsig gestel waarin aangetoon sal word dat 'n konsekwent probleem-historiese metode van wysgerige historiografie antwoorde kan bied op die twee hoofgebreke van Allen se andersins boeiende en baanbrekende studie.<hr/>This article analyses the presuppositions underlying the feminist philosopher Prudence Allen's important book, The concept of woman, on the history of the idea of woman and women's relation to the other sex. Following the method of the history of ideas, she investigates the viewpoints of about 60 male and female western thinkers during 750 BC - AD 1250. She distinguishes three basic models in the relation between female and male, viz. gender unity, polarity and complementarity. The writer of his article, however, highlights apart from other queries, two major problems with her historiography. Firstly, she does not indicate clearly enough how different ontic-anthropological philosophical starting points determined the differing viewpoints on the two genders. Secondly, instead of accepting a norm from outside, she looks for a directive on the relation between male and female (in a subjectivist way) in the relation itself. Such an approach is the consequence of her dualistic division between a supposed neutral philosophy and Christian theology. She also does not succeed to apply her nature-grace and philosophy-theology distinction consistently in her review of history. Furthermore, Allen's preference for the idea of complementarity is questioned. To stimulate further reflection, a few contemporary protestant views on the same issue are pointed out. In conclusion a follow-up contribution is envisaged which will indicate that a consistent problem-historical method of philosophical historiography may provide answers to the two main shortcomings identified in Allen's otherwise captivating and ground-breaking study. <![CDATA[<b>Forgiveness and non-forgiveness: The defence of self-respect in alternative responses to wrongdoing</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The focus of this article is on the notion that, whether in forgiveness or non-forgiveness, negative moral emotions towards a wrongdoer may remain extant and continue to generate memories of wrongdoing. This constitutes a kind of objection to the wrongdoing, even a sort of protest against it insofar as the wrongdoing seems to undermine the victim's sense of worth. I argue that certain non-retributive attitudes or emotions play under-appreciated roles in policing the boundaries of victims' self-respect and I attempt to explain what makes such attitudes or emotions - those that reflect the deepest concerns of victims of wrongdoing - centrally important. I defend the need for diverse responses that better fit the nuanced reactions amongst those who seek to come to terms with their hurt, especially those choosing not to forgive. Whatever stance is adopted, protecting one's self-respect remains the core value that victims of wrongdoing seek to defend.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die opvatting dat negatiewe morele emosies teenoor 'n kwaaddoener, hetsy in vergifnis of as gevolg van 'n nie-vergewensgesindheid, kan voortduur en herinneringe van onreg aanwakker. Dit maak 'n tipe beswaar teen die onreg; selfs 'n soort protes daarteen omdat dit blyk dat die onreg die slagoffer se waardegevoel ondermyn. Ek voer aan dat die waarde van sekere nie-vergeldingsgesindhede of -emosies by die polisiëring van die grense van slagoffers se selfrespek onderskat word en probeer verduidelik waarom sulke gesindhede of emosies - wat die diepste bekommernisse van die slagoffers van onreg reflekteer - van sentrale belang is. Ek verdedig die behoefte aan diverse response wat beter pas by die genuanseerde reaksies onder diegene wat hulle seerkry probeer verwerk, veral diegene wat kies om nie te vergewe nie. Watter houding ook al aangeneem word, bly die beskerming van hul selfrespek die kernwaarde wat slagoffers van onreg probeer verdedig. <![CDATA[<b>Finding the academic self: Identity development of academics as doctoral students</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Internationally and in South Africa there is great pressure on academics to obtain doctoral qualifications. A doctorate helps to facilitate full membership of academic communities and develop academic identities. Thus, this article investigates the identity development of academics who have been enrolled for their doctoral degrees for a few years. The article is written from a postmodern perspective. The situated learning theory and symbolic interactionism were used as conceptual frameworks. By means of a narrative enquiry research approach eight interviews were conducted. Thereafter, three narratives were selected for follow-up research with the participants. From the findings, three major themes emerged with implications for universities and for postgraduate supervision. These themes are: (1) socialisation into the language and values of a stable disciplinary and/or institutional community of practice; (2) internal-external dialectic of identification (self-definition and definition of oneself offered by others) to find meaning and build self-esteem, and (3) role-taking and role-conflict.<hr/>Internasionaal en in Suid-Afrika is daar baie druk op akademici om doktorale kwalifikasies te verwerf. 'n Doktorsgraad help om volle lidmaatskap van die akademiese gemeenskap te fasiliteer en akademiese identiteit te ontwikkel. Hierdie artikel ondersoek dus die identiteitsontwikkeling van akademici wat vir 'n paar jaar vir hul doktorsgrade geregistreer was. Die artikel is geskryf vanuit 'n postmodernistiese perspektief. Gesitueerde leerteorie en simboliese interaksionisme is gebruik as konseptuele raamwerk. 'n Narratiewe navorsingsbenadering is gevolg. Agt onderhoude is gevoer en daarna is drie onderhoude geselekteer vir verdere navorsing met die deelnemers. Die bevindings het drie hooftemas opgelewer met implikasies vir universiteite en nagraadse supervisie. Die temas is: (1) sosialisering in die taal en waardes van 'n stabiele dissiplinêre gemeenskap van praktiseerders; (2) interne-eksterne dialektiese identifikasie (self-definisie en definisie van die self deur ander) om betekenis te vind en selfagting te bou, en (3) rol-aanname en rolkonflik. <![CDATA[<b>The shift to the subject in 20th century philosophy of science: A liberating move?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt During the 20th century, the 'subject' of knowledge (i.e. the individual scientist or a scientific community) was attributed an increasingly relevant role in (the philosophy of) science. Anchoring scientific knowledge to the subject (rather than to the object, as in early positivism) was proposed as a 'liberating' move, leading to a less authoritarian and rationalistic view of science. This article provides a reformational point of view on the topic. A historical documentation of the shift to the subject is provided by visiting the philosophies of Popper, Kuhn, Collins and others. It is argued that the promise of a more libertarian or emancipating conception of science was challenged by several problems. In particular, the conflict between an individual and a communal understanding of the subject is highlighted. Furthermore, it is argued that the roots of the phenomenon in most cases remain hidden. An interpretation of the shift and the sketch of an alternative approach conclude the article.<hr/>Gedurende die 20ste eeu is toenemende relevansie in die (filosofie van die) wetenskap toegestaan aan die 'subjek' van kennis (i.e. die individuele wetenskaplike of 'n wetenskaplike gemeenskap). Die verankering van wetenskaplike kennis tot die subjek (eerder as tot die objek, soos in vroeë positivisme) is as 'n 'bevrydende' verskuiwing voorgestel wat aanleiding gee tot 'n minder outoritêre en rasionalistiese siening van die wetenskap. Die verskuiwing na die subjek word histories gemotiveer deur die filosofieë van Popper, Kuhn, Collins en ander te besoek. Dit word geargumenteer dat die belofte van 'n meer liberalistiese of emansiperende opvatting van die wetenskap deur verskeie probleme gekonfronteer is. Veral die konflik tussen 'n individuele en 'n kommunale verstaan van die subjek word beklemtoon. Boonop word dit geargumenteer dat die wortels van die verskynsel in die meeste gevalle versteek bly. Die artikel word afgesluit met 'n interpretasie van die verskuiwing en die buitelyne van 'n alternatiewe benadering. <![CDATA[<b>Sustainability in South Africa in the light of worldviews: Practical theological perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Volgens die Fund for Peace (FFP) se indeks vir die volhoubaarheid van verskillende lande flikker daar gevaarligte vir Suid-Afrika as gevolg van verskynsels soos 'n stygende demografiese druk op natuurlike hulpbronne en 'n ongelyke verdeling van welvaart. Hierdie toestand kan tot 'n mindere of meerdere mate toegeskryf word aan die wyse van regering. In hierdie artikel word die moontlikheid ondersoek of die huidige onvolhoubare pad waarop Suid-Afrika ditself bevind, beïnvloed word deur die regerende party se wêreldbeeld(e). Die konsep wêreldbeeld word kortliks beskryf en ontleed in die konteks van die samestelling en ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis van die Suid-Afrikaanse regerende party. Vervolgens word enkele verbande tussen volhoubaarheid en wêreldbeeld verken. Ten slotte word die vraag gestel hoe Christene wat die Woord van God op alle lewensterreine wil gehoorsaam, oor volhoubaarheid behoort te dink en wat hulle kan doen om Suid-Afrika se situasie te verbeter. Die sentraal-teoretiese argument in hierdie artikel is dat 'n reformatoriese wêreldbeeld 'n raamwerk bied waarvolgens mense hulle denke, besluite en optrede kan beoordeel en, indien nodig, kan verander om volhoubaarheid in Suid-Afrika tot die voordeel van alle landsburgers te bevorder.<hr/>According to the index of Fund for Peace (FFP) regarding the sustainability of different countries, the situation in South Africa is unfavourable due to phenomena such as a growing demographic pressure on natural resources and unequal distribution of wealth. This condition can be attributed to a greater or lesser extent to the way in which South Africa is governed by the ruling party. The researchers investigate whether this unsustainable situation could possibly be connected to the worldview(s) of the ruling party. The concept worldview is briefly described and analysed in the context of the composition and development of the ruling political party. After that, some connections between worldview and sustainability are examined. The article concludes by exploring the way in which Christians who want to obey God's Word in all aspects of their lives, should think about sustainability and about what they could do to improve the situation in South Africa. The central theoretical argument of this article is that a reformational worldview can provide a framework for people to evaluate and change, if necessary, their thinking, decisions and behaviour in order to promote sustainability in South Africa to the benefit of all her citizens. <![CDATA[<b>The implications of a consistent problem-historical method of philosophical historiography for gender distinctions and relations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie ondersoek verken die moontlike implikasies van Dirk H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892 1978) se konsekwent probleem-historiese metode met die oog op groter duidelikheid oor die vraagstuk van menslike geslagtelikheid en die onderlinge verhouding tussen die twee geslagte. Dit toon ook terloops aan hoe die resultate van hierdie Christelike filosoof se noukeurige analise van Westerse werklikheids- en mensvisies belangrike leemtes in die baanbrekende navorsing van suster Prudence Allen kan vul. Allen se navorsing is in 'n voorafgaande artikel in hierdie tydskrif bespreek. Eers word Vollenhoven se siening ten opsigte van die onderskeid en die verband tussen God, sy wet en die kosmos verduidelik. 'n Volgende afdeling bespreek dan die hoofkontoere van sy wysgerige historiografie, naamlik sy indeling van die filosofiegeskiedenis in drie hooftydperke (voorsintese, sintese en antisintese), 'n verskeidenheid normatiewe stromings en drie basiese kosmologiese probleme (konstantheid versus verandering, eenheid versus verskeidenheid en die universele versus die individuele). In 'n derde onderdeel word uit 'n seleksie van die groot aantal mensvisies nagegaan wat hulle moontlike implikasies vir die vraagstuk van geslagtelikheid kan wees. Ten slotte word 'n ondersoek geloods na Vollenhoven se eie mensvisie om te probeer vasstel waarom hy, ten spyte van sy diepgaande blootlegging van die ontiese en antropologiese grondslae van die Westerse denke, hom nie meer eksplisiet oor die implikasies daarvan vir menslike geslagtelikheid uitgespreek het nie.<hr/>ABSTRACT Reconnoitring the possible implications of the consistent problem-historical method of Dirk H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978) to attain more clarity on the issue of gender and gender relations is the main aim of this investigation. In passing, it also indicates how the results obtained by this Christian philosopher's careful analysis of Western ontologies and anthropologies may alleviate the deficiencies in the otherwise groundbreaking study of sister Prudence Allen. Allen's study was discussed in a previous article in this journal. The introductory section explains how Vollenhoven himself viewed the difference and relation between God, his laws and his creation. The next section discusses the main contours of his historiography of philosophy, viz. his division of the history of philosophy intothree main periods (pre-synthetic, synthetic and anti-synthetic), a diversity of normative time-currents and three basic cosmological problems (consistency versus change, unity versus diversity and universal versus individual). From the great number of anthropologies, the third section selects a few examples to illustrate their possible implications for the problems related to sexuality and gender. The conclusion tries to pinpoint Vollenhoven's own anthropology in order to ascertain why he, in spite of his thorough and profound exposure of the ontological and anthropological foundations of Western thinking, did not more explicitly express himself about their implications for gender issues. <![CDATA[<b>The missional impulse of the biblical narrative</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie ondersoek verken die moontlike implikasies van Dirk H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892 1978) se konsekwent probleem-historiese metode met die oog op groter duidelikheid oor die vraagstuk van menslike geslagtelikheid en die onderlinge verhouding tussen die twee geslagte. Dit toon ook terloops aan hoe die resultate van hierdie Christelike filosoof se noukeurige analise van Westerse werklikheids- en mensvisies belangrike leemtes in die baanbrekende navorsing van suster Prudence Allen kan vul. Allen se navorsing is in 'n voorafgaande artikel in hierdie tydskrif bespreek. Eers word Vollenhoven se siening ten opsigte van die onderskeid en die verband tussen God, sy wet en die kosmos verduidelik. 'n Volgende afdeling bespreek dan die hoofkontoere van sy wysgerige historiografie, naamlik sy indeling van die filosofiegeskiedenis in drie hooftydperke (voorsintese, sintese en antisintese), 'n verskeidenheid normatiewe stromings en drie basiese kosmologiese probleme (konstantheid versus verandering, eenheid versus verskeidenheid en die universele versus die individuele). In 'n derde onderdeel word uit 'n seleksie van die groot aantal mensvisies nagegaan wat hulle moontlike implikasies vir die vraagstuk van geslagtelikheid kan wees. Ten slotte word 'n ondersoek geloods na Vollenhoven se eie mensvisie om te probeer vasstel waarom hy, ten spyte van sy diepgaande blootlegging van die ontiese en antropologiese grondslae van die Westerse denke, hom nie meer eksplisiet oor die implikasies daarvan vir menslike geslagtelikheid uitgespreek het nie.<hr/>ABSTRACT Reconnoitring the possible implications of the consistent problem-historical method of Dirk H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978) to attain more clarity on the issue of gender and gender relations is the main aim of this investigation. In passing, it also indicates how the results obtained by this Christian philosopher's careful analysis of Western ontologies and anthropologies may alleviate the deficiencies in the otherwise groundbreaking study of sister Prudence Allen. Allen's study was discussed in a previous article in this journal. The introductory section explains how Vollenhoven himself viewed the difference and relation between God, his laws and his creation. The next section discusses the main contours of his historiography of philosophy, viz. his division of the history of philosophy intothree main periods (pre-synthetic, synthetic and anti-synthetic), a diversity of normative time-currents and three basic cosmological problems (consistency versus change, unity versus diversity and universal versus individual). From the great number of anthropologies, the third section selects a few examples to illustrate their possible implications for the problems related to sexuality and gender. The conclusion tries to pinpoint Vollenhoven's own anthropology in order to ascertain why he, in spite of his thorough and profound exposure of the ontological and anthropological foundations of Western thinking, did not more explicitly express himself about their implications for gender issues. <![CDATA[<b>A Derridarean critique of Logocentrism as opposed to Textcentrism in John 1v1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In Kelber's hermeneutics of John, the notion of the pre-existence Logos is central. The Logos, in his reading, is prior to the realm of history and outside the reality of the narrative text. I have argued that the Logos in John can be seen as a leading case of logocentrism as coined by Derrida. The term 'logocentrism' refers to the Graeco-Christian or Johannine Platonic tradition according to which written language belongs to the realm of the imperfect whereas true knowledge pertains to the pre-existent, personified Logos. Derrida provides an uncompromising critique of logocentrism. He read Western theology and philosophy not in terms of a fading logocentrism and a rise of textcentrism, but rather in terms of the illusion of logocentrism. Derrida's principle of distress is the referential paradigm of language. The linguistic sign is defined by the signifier and the signified. The signifier constitutes the visible marks committed to paper and the signified is the so-called meaning we attached to them. For Derrida, written language is generally seen as inferior whereas spoken language takes on transcendental significance and an ontological status to the referent of language. The Western tradition of philosophy and theology views writing as exterior whereas speech appears as innocent. Derrida's logocentrism approach challenges the privileging of speech over writing in the referential system, accusing Western theology and philosophy of falsely enslaving the sign by establishing a transcendental signifier over against writing. In this article, these ideas of Derrida are applied by reading the Logos in the Johannine narrative from the perspective of orality and textuality.<hr/>OPSOMMING In Kelber se hermeneutiek van Johannes is die pre-eksistensie van die Logos sentraal. Die Logos, volgens sy lesing, gaan vooraf aan die historiese gebied en staan buite die realiteit van die narratiewe teks. Ek het geargumenteer dat die Logos by Johannes beskou word as 'n eksemplariese geval van logosentrisme, soos Derrida dit omskryf het. Die term 'logosentrisme' verwys na die Grieks-Christelike of Johanneïese Platonistiese tradisie waarvolgens geskrewe taal tot die onvolmaakte hoort, terwyl ware kennis verband hou met die vooraf-bestaande, gepersonifieerde Logos. In sy werk bied Derrida 'n ongekompromitteerde kritiek op logosentrisme. Hy lees Westerse teologie en filosofie nie in terme van 'n wegvaag van logosentrisme en die opkoms van tekssentrisme nie, maar eerder in terme van die illusie van logosentrisme. Derrida se noodbeginsel is die verwysingsraamwerk vir taal. Die taalteken word omskryf deur die betekenaar en betekende. Die betekenaar konstitueer die sigbare merkies op die papier geplaas en die betekende is die sogenaamde betekenis wat ons aan hulle heg. Volgens Derrida word geskrewe taal in die algemeen as minderwaardig beskou terwyl gesproke taal transendentale betekenis verkry en 'n ontologiese status met betrekking tot die verwysing van taal. Die Westerse tradisie in filosofie en teologie sien skrywe as uiterlik terwyl praat as onskuldig verskyn. Derrida se logosentriese aanpak val die bevoorregting van praat bo skrywe in die verwysingsraamwerk aan en beskuldig Westerse teologie en filosofie dat dit die teken valslik verslaaf deur 'n transendentale betekenaar teenoor skrywe te stel. In hierdie artikel is bogenoemde idees van Derrida toegepas deur die Logos in die Johanneïese narratief uit die oogpunt van oraliteit en tekstualiteit te lees. <![CDATA[<b>A green economy?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe's view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes's views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.<hr/>OPSOMMING Ekonomiese groei het in 'n fetish ontaard en daar word geglo dat dit vele voordele vir die samelewing inhou. Die oorsprong hiervan kan in die Verligtingsideaal van vooruitgang deur wetenskap, tegnologie en 'n vryemark ekonomie gevind word. J.W. Goethe het die probleme van vooruitgang in sy gedig Faust, veral die tweede gedeelte daarvan, geantisipeer. Binswanger interpreteer Goethe se siening van die moderne ekonomie as 'n vorm van alchemie en as 'n poging om tyd deur die uitvinding van monetêre kapitaal te bemeester. Keynes se sienings van vooruitgang en likiditeit is versoenbaar met hierdie analise. Die probleme wat deur die onkritiese toepassing van wetenskaplike tegnologie ter wille van die toename in materiële welvaart opgeroep is, het aanleiding gegee tot 'n dialektiek tussen besigheid opsoek na groei en diegene wat bekommerd is oor die gevolge daarvan, veral die ekologiese gevolge. Volhoubare ontwikkeling is 'n uitkoms van hierdie dialektiek, sonder dat dit agtergelaat word. Ander, veral diegene wat décroissance [de-groei] voorstaan, verwerp die konsepte wat groei onderlê. Onderliggend hieraan is 'n ideologie wat 'n kombinasie van tegnisisme en ekonomisme is. 'n Spirituele revolusie is nodig om die houvas wat hierdie ideologie op die samelewing het, te verbreek. Dit sluit in dat die huidige metafoor van die wêreld as 'n masjien na 'n metafoor van 'n tuin-stad moet verander. Daar word voorgestel dat werksgroepe die verskeidenheid voorstelle vir verandering vanuit die perspektief van die tuin-stad metafoor analiseer. <![CDATA[<b>Violent societies: Educating the upcoming generations about their social contract</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The citizens of many countries in the world, particularly of South Africa, are experiencing the collapse of the social order in their country as a result of certain circumstances. This fact of social disintegration has led educationists to again examine the nature and contents of the social contract that the South African citizenry has entered into. In secular states, the social contract should at least be rooted in two ethical principles, namely trust and humanistic versions of the Golden Rule. Analysis of the South African social contract demonstrates this point, and also shows how a positive modus vivendi [living together] can flow from the recognition and application of these two principles. The upcoming generations should therefore be educated to understand the nature and content of their social contract, the two ethical principles, and the need for a positive modus vivendi based on their particular social contract.<hr/>OPSOMMING Dieburgers van baie lande indie wêreld, dog in die besonder diévan Suid-Afrika, ervaar tans die ineenstorting van die sosiale orde in hulle land as gevolg van die inspeling van baie faktore. Hierdie toestand van sosiale disintegrasie het opvoeders en opvoedkundiges daartoe gelei om andermaal die aard en die inhoud van die sosiale kontrak waartoe Suid-Afrikaners hulle verbind het, te ondersoek. Die sosiale kontrak behoort in sekulêre state minstens in twee etiese beginsels gewortel te wees, naamlik vertroue en humanistiese weergawes van die Goue Reël. 'n Ontleding van die Suid-Afrikaanse sosiale kontrak illustreer hierdie punt, en toon ook hoedat 'n positiewe modus vivendi [saamlewe] kan voortvloei uit die erkenning en toepassing van hierdie twee beginsels. Die komende geslagte behoort derhalwe opgevoed te word om die aard en inhoud van hulle sosiale kontrak, die twee etiese beginsels waarop dit behoort te berus, en die noodsaaklikheid van 'n positiewe modus vivendi te verstaan en toe te pas. <![CDATA[<b>Can we know God is real?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article examines the question as to what ground we have for believing that God is the only true Divinity. A re-evaluation of the misconception of faith as 'blind trust' or belief without reason is provided. From this it is seen that faith, as used in the Bible, may refer to the whole of Christianity as 'the faith', to trust based on expectation (not 'blind trust'), or to faith as genuine knowledge derived from experience. Based on the idea of faith as knowledge derived from experience, this article investigates religious experiences and the self-evident beliefs often arising from these experiences as possibly forming a valid part of our knowledge of God. The traditional restrictions on self-evident truths (that a truth must be recognised by all who understand it, that it must be a necessary truth and that it must be an infallible truth) are shown to be unsupported and contradicted by experience. The definition of 'self-evidence' defended is that such beliefs are simply produced in the mind by experience instead of being inferred from other beliefs, that they are experienced as prima facie true, and that they are irresistible or impossible to disbelieve for the person who had the experience. If we accept this definition of self-evident truths, which corresponds to the way they are actually experienced rather than the version that includes arbitrary restrictions imposed by a few philosophers, not only will beliefs such as that other people have minds, or that our names are what they are, be allowed as self-evident. The experience of the gospel as the truth about God will also be a genuine self-evident truth to those who experience it as such.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag na die gronde waaroor ons beskik om te glo dat God die enigste ware Goddelikheid is. 'n Herevaluering van die wanopvatting van geloof as 'blinde vertroue' of geloof sonder rede word verskaf. Hieruit kan gesien word dat geloof, soos dit in die Bybel gebruik word, na die hele Christendom as 'die geloof' kan verwys, dus, na vertroue wat op verwagting gebaseer is, en nie blinde vertroue nie; dit kan ook verwys geloof as kennis wat van ervaring afgelei is. Hierdie artikel maak gebruik van die idee dat geloof kennis is wat van ervaring afgelei word om ondersoek in te stel na die religieuse ervarings en die self-evidente oortuigings wat dikwels vanuit hierdie ervarings ontstaan as 'n moontlik geldige deel van ons kennis van God. Daar word aangetoon dat die tradisionele beperkings wat op self-evidente waarhede geplaas word (dat 'n waarheid deur almal wat dit verstaan erken moet word, dat dit 'n noodsaaklike waarheid moet wees en dat dit 'n onfeilbare waarheid moet wees) nie oortuigend is nie en nuwe kriteria word voorgestel. 'Self-evident' is dan oortuigings wat eenvoudig deur ervaring in die verstand geproduseer word en dit is vir die persoon wat die ervaring beleef onmoontlik of onweerstaanbaar om die oortuigings nié te glo nie. Indien ons hierdie definisie van self-evidente waarheid, wat ooreenstem met regte ervaring eerder as met daardie weergawe waarin arbitrêre beperkings deur 'n paar filosowe voorgeskryf word, aanvaar, sal nie net oortuigings soos dat alle persone 'n verstand het of dat ons name is wat dit is, as self-evident aanvaar word nie. Ook die ervaring van die evangelie as die waarheid omtrent God sal as 'n egte self-evidente waarheid aanvaar kan word deur diegene wat dit as sodanig ervaar. <![CDATA[<b>Classic Exodus commentary still relevant</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article examines the question as to what ground we have for believing that God is the only true Divinity. A re-evaluation of the misconception of faith as 'blind trust' or belief without reason is provided. From this it is seen that faith, as used in the Bible, may refer to the whole of Christianity as 'the faith', to trust based on expectation (not 'blind trust'), or to faith as genuine knowledge derived from experience. Based on the idea of faith as knowledge derived from experience, this article investigates religious experiences and the self-evident beliefs often arising from these experiences as possibly forming a valid part of our knowledge of God. The traditional restrictions on self-evident truths (that a truth must be recognised by all who understand it, that it must be a necessary truth and that it must be an infallible truth) are shown to be unsupported and contradicted by experience. The definition of 'self-evidence' defended is that such beliefs are simply produced in the mind by experience instead of being inferred from other beliefs, that they are experienced as prima facie true, and that they are irresistible or impossible to disbelieve for the person who had the experience. If we accept this definition of self-evident truths, which corresponds to the way they are actually experienced rather than the version that includes arbitrary restrictions imposed by a few philosophers, not only will beliefs such as that other people have minds, or that our names are what they are, be allowed as self-evident. The experience of the gospel as the truth about God will also be a genuine self-evident truth to those who experience it as such.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag na die gronde waaroor ons beskik om te glo dat God die enigste ware Goddelikheid is. 'n Herevaluering van die wanopvatting van geloof as 'blinde vertroue' of geloof sonder rede word verskaf. Hieruit kan gesien word dat geloof, soos dit in die Bybel gebruik word, na die hele Christendom as 'die geloof' kan verwys, dus, na vertroue wat op verwagting gebaseer is, en nie blinde vertroue nie; dit kan ook verwys geloof as kennis wat van ervaring afgelei is. Hierdie artikel maak gebruik van die idee dat geloof kennis is wat van ervaring afgelei word om ondersoek in te stel na die religieuse ervarings en die self-evidente oortuigings wat dikwels vanuit hierdie ervarings ontstaan as 'n moontlik geldige deel van ons kennis van God. Daar word aangetoon dat die tradisionele beperkings wat op self-evidente waarhede geplaas word (dat 'n waarheid deur almal wat dit verstaan erken moet word, dat dit 'n noodsaaklike waarheid moet wees en dat dit 'n onfeilbare waarheid moet wees) nie oortuigend is nie en nuwe kriteria word voorgestel. 'Self-evident' is dan oortuigings wat eenvoudig deur ervaring in die verstand geproduseer word en dit is vir die persoon wat die ervaring beleef onmoontlik of onweerstaanbaar om die oortuigings nié te glo nie. Indien ons hierdie definisie van self-evidente waarheid, wat ooreenstem met regte ervaring eerder as met daardie weergawe waarin arbitrêre beperkings deur 'n paar filosowe voorgeskryf word, aanvaar, sal nie net oortuigings soos dat alle persone 'n verstand het of dat ons name is wat dit is, as self-evident aanvaar word nie. Ook die ervaring van die evangelie as die waarheid omtrent God sal as 'n egte self-evidente waarheid aanvaar kan word deur diegene wat dit as sodanig ervaar. <![CDATA[<b>Goals, ways and the roots of our economic crisis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article deals with the question if and how far religious points of view and messages of churches involved matter in the analysis of the roots of the present global economic crisis, and even more in the discussion about how to overcome the crisis itself. Economic experts such as Stiglitz point to the presence of factors such as greed, fear and utmost selfish behaviour. It inevitably leads to the ethical, but in fact also the religious question of how far people, especially economic agents, can go in the pursuit of their own economic interests without doing harm to others. Jesus asked his disciples to follow him: with Bonhoeffer, we could call that a Way-orientation. Where and how far can a conflict therefore arise between human goal-orientations, on the one hand, and a biblical Way-orientation, on the other hand? And is it indeed relevant when considering our present economic crisis? This article defends the last position, describing some categories (such as the choice of ultimate meaning, the sacro-sanctity of chosen instruments, and the demonisation of opponents) which indicate that the borderline has been passed between responsible and irresponsible goal-orientations. The glorification of greed and the delegation of ultimate power to financial markets indicate that at this moment elements of idolatry (or the obedience to Mammon) are at hand. They are also aggravating the present economic crisis. This implies that returning to the choice for decisive normative Way-orientations in economic life is possibly the only true way out of the present economic crisis.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel vra of, en tot watter mate, religieuse standpunte, insluitend die standpunte van die kerke wat betrokke is, saak maak in die analise van die wortels van die huidige globale ekonomiese krisis, en selfs meer in die bespreking van hoe om die krisis self te oorkom. Ekonomiese kundiges, soos Stiglitz, wys op die teenwoordigheid van faktore soos hebsug, vrees en uiterste selfsugtige gedrag. Dit lei onvermydelik tot die etiese (en eintlik ook religieuse) vraag van hoe ver persone, veral ekonomiese agente, kan gaan in die najaag van hulle eie ekonomiese belange sonder om ander skade te berokken. Jesus het sy dissipels gevra om hom te volg: saam met Bonhoeffer kan ons dit 'n Weg-oriëntasie noem. Waar en hoe ver kan 'n konflik tussen menslike doel-oriëntasies aan die een kant, en 'n Bybelse weg-oriëntasie aan die ander kant ontstaan? En is dit inderdaad relevant wanneer ons ons huidige ekonomiese krisis bekyk? Hierdie artikel verdedig laasgenoemde posisie en beskryf van die kategorieë (soos die keuse van finale betekenis, die onaantasbaarheid van gekose instrumente en die demonisering van opponente) wat aantoon dat die grenslyn tussen verantwoordelike en onverantwoordelike doel-oriëntasies oorgesteek word. Die verheerliking van hebsug en die delegeer van finale mag na finansiële markte dui daarop dat elemente van idolatrie (of gehoorsaamheid aan Mammon) inderdaad tans teenwoordig is en die huidige ekonomiese krisis vererger. Dit impliseer dat die terugkeer na 'n keuse vir bepalende normatiewe Weg-oriëntasies in die ekonomiese lewe moontlik die enigste ware Weg uit vir die huidige ekonomiese krisis is. <![CDATA[<b>Attitudes and perceptions regarding metabolomics research on HIV and AIDS: Towards a dynamic model relating basic beliefs, technology and behaviour</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic are hitting hard in Africa, not the least in South Africa. In addition to preventative measures, better ways of treatment and delaying the onset of symptoms are still urgently required. Recent developments in biomedicine in South Africa, notably genomics and metabolomics, could well contribute to more effective treatments and diets. However, these technologies are rooted in modern Western culture and may embody concepts and values that are foreign to people with a different culture and worldview in semi-urban communities in South Africa. How can those technologies be introduced into such communities in an ethically acceptable and effective way? To begin answering this question, we conducted qualitative research amongst representatives of such a community near Potchefstroom, South Africa. The results indicate that the worldview, belief system and cultural customs of these people significantly influence the interpretation of HIV and AIDS and their treatment. The results led us to expand an earlier theoretical version of a qualitative model relating cultural factors and worldview to individual behaviour into an empirically informed, dynamic model that envisages possible influences of the introduction of new technologies on the belief and behavioural system of the community.<hr/>OPSOMMING Afrika is swaar getref deur die impak van die menslike immuuntekort-virus (MIV) en die verkreë immuungebrek-sindroom (VIGS) pandemie. Suid-Afrika is nie hierop 'n uitsondering nie. Afgesien van voorkomende maatreëls, is beter maniere van behandeling en 'n vertraging in die aanvang van simptome steeds hoog op die ranglys. Resente biomediese ontwikkelinge in Suid-Afrika, spesifiek ten opsigte van genomika en metabolomika, kan wesentlik bydra tot meer doelmatige behandeling en diëte. Die aard van hierdie tegnologieë is egter gevestig in die hedendaagse Westerse kultuur en sluit konsepte en waardes in wat vreemd mag wees aan persone met 'n ander kultuur en werklikheidsvisie in gemeenskappe van semi-stedelike gebiede in Suid-Afrika. Die vraag is hoe hierdie gemeenskappe op 'n eties verantwoordbare en doelmatige wyse aan hierdie tegnologieë bekendgestel kan word. Om hierdie vraag te probeer beantwoord, is 'n kwalitatiewe navorsingsprojek met verteenwoordigende individue vanuit so 'n gemeenskap van Potchefstroom in Suid-Afrika onderneem. Die resultate toon dat die wereldbeeld en oortuigings van hierdie groep betekenisvol bydra tot hulle beskouing van MIV en VIGS en die behandeling daarvan. Deur hierdie gegewens kon 'n bestaande kwalitatiewe en teoretiese model, wat kulturele en wêreldbeskoulike oortuigings met die oriëntasie van individue in verband bring, uitgebrei word in 'n empiries geïnformeerde dinamiese model wat die effek van die invoer van nuwe tegnologieë op die oortuigings en gedragsisteem van die gemeenskap uitbeeld. <![CDATA[<b>Kuyperania in recent years</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572014000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT This article is a review of several books written by Kuyper and about Kuyper in the past two years.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel is 'n hersiening van verskeie boeke geskryf deur Kuyper en oor Kuyper in die laaste twee jaar.