Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720120001&lang=pt vol. 77 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b><i>Koers</i></b><b> - reflections on the origin and highs and lows of a focussed academic journal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>A vision of and for love: Towards a Christian post-postmodern worldview</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The theme of this article has to do with the identification of distinctive features that need emphasis in a biblical worldview attuned to the postmodern world of the 21st century. The first of these features is the embrace of difference as non-oppositioiial, as challenge to meet, rather than a threat to resist. The second is that with a postmodern understanding of the existence of limited rational knowledge (Reason and Science) and of the crucial role of faith, worldviews need to be seen, not in the first place as conceptual systems, but as faith-oriented, sensory expectancy filters, operating implicitly and largely beneath our conscious awareness. The third is the recognition that responsibility-to the other rather than freedom-from the other needs to be emphasised. Such responsibility involves recognising that voluntary suffering-with the other is crucial to a post-postmodern biblical worldview. Indeed, the final feature proposes that such a worldview needs to be rooted and grounded as a vision of and for Love. As God is Compassionate Love, and as God is with us (Emmanuel), so we, image-bearers of God, are to embody love and resist evil, living out our confession that we live by Grace and not by Blind Chance.<hr/>Die tema van die artikel was die identifisering van die onderskeidende kenmerke wat beklemtoon moet word in 'n bybelse werklikheidsvisie wat ingestel is op die postmoderne wereld van die 21ste eeu. Die eerste van hierdie kenmerke is die omarming van verskil as nie-opposisioneel, as 'n uitdaging om te ontmoet eerder as 'n bedreiging om te weerstaan. Met 'n postmoderne verstaan van beperkte rasionele kennis (Rede en Wetenskap) en van die kritieke rol van geloof, is die tweede kenmerk dat werklikheidsvisies nie in die eerste plek gesien moet word as konseptuele sisteme nie, maar as geloofsgeoriënteerde, sensoriese verwagtingsfilters wat implisiet en grootliks onder ons bewuste besef werksaam is. Die derde kenmerk is die erkenning dat verantwoordelikheid-teenoor, eerder as vryheid-van die ander beklemtoon behoort te word. So 'n verantwoordelikheid behels die erkenning dat vrywillige Ty met' die ander beslissend is vir 'n post-postmoderne bybelse werklikheidsvisie. Die laaste kenmerk stel inderdaad voor dat so 'n werklikheidsvisie gewortel en gegrond moet word in 'n visie van en vir Liefde. Net soos wat God Medelydende Liefde en God met ons is (Emmanuel), so behoort ons liefde te beliggaam en boosheid te weerstaan en so ons belydenis, dat ons deur Genade en nie deur Blinde Toeval leef nie, uit te leef. <![CDATA[<b>Flying on the wings of Vollenhoven's radical Christian worldview: A reconsideration of the usual typology of Christian worldviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article investigated the traditional typology of Christian worldviews from the perspective of the Christian philosopher, D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978). The usual categorisation started by Niebuhr (in 1951), and adopted by some Reformational scholars afterwards, is questioned as too simplistic, forcing Christian thinkers and schools of thought into five pigeonholes. Worldviews - including the Christian ones - are complex phenomena. They should not be considered, for example, as merely logical systems or aesthetic 'stories'. Vollenhoven's systematic philosophy and historiography of philosophy (his thetical-critical approach) can provide some clues for a new way to describe different Christian worldviews, as well as to arrive at the outlines of a more radical and comprehensive Christian worldview based on God's threefold creational, inscripturated and incarnated revelation.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek in hoofsaak die tradisionele tipologie van Christelike lewensvisies vanuit die perspektief van die Christelike filosoof, D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978). Daarvolgens word die gangbare kategorisering, wat by Niebuhr (in 1951) 'n aanvang neem en later ook deur verskeie reformatoriese denkers aanvaar is, bevraagteken as te simplisisties, omdat dit Christelike denkers en denkskole in slegs vyf tipes probeer indeel. Die artikel toon aan dat lewensvisies - ook die Christelikes - meer komplekse verskynsels is. Hulle mag byvoorbeeld nie as blote logiese of estetiese 'stories' beskou word nie. Vollenhoven se sistematiese filosofie en sy filosofiese historiografie (sy teties-kritiese benadering) bied belangrike suggesties vir 'n nuwe wyse om verskillende Christelike lewensbeskouings te bestudeer en bied daarbenewens ook die moontlikheid om 'n duideliker, radikaler en omvattender Christelike lewensvisie, wat op God se drievoudige skeppings-, skrif- en vleesgeworde openbaring gegrond is, te vergestalt. <![CDATA[<b>Worldviews: A blessing or a curse?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The concept of a worldview resonates with other concepts, such as those of 'culture', 'civilisation', and 'way of life'. Arguably, it is a modern phenomenon, the possibility of which was actualised at the dawn of the modern epoch. Nevertheless, in principle, its 'possibility' goes back as far as Plato's Republic. It is Heidegger, however, who is most informative for understanding what a worldview is, as well as why the modern epoch is its time of provenance. Consequently, an analysis of Heidegger's essay, 'The time of the world picture' (or worldview) provided the framework within which it was argued that worldviews are both blessings and curses in the current era: blessings, because, as Harries has argued, we have been disabused of the modern idea of one encompassing worldview or ideology, so that one can no longer believe in only a single 'correct' view of the world; curses, because they bedevil any well-intended attempts at communicating with understanding on issues of common concern. It was the burden of this article to provide a way of addressing this state of affairs with some hope of transcending the causes of alienation and it is again Heidegger who is the source of such a way, through his notion of the 'fourfold'.<hr/>Die begrip van 'n wêreldbeeld vind weerklank by ander begrippe, soos 'kultuur', beskawing, en lewenswyse. Daar kan geargumenteer word dat dit 'n moderne fenomeen is, waarvan die moontlikheid in die daeraad van die moderne epog verwerklik is. Die moontlikheid daarvan kan nietemin in beginsel so lank gelede as in Plato se Republiek nagespeur word. Dit is egter Heidegger wat die meeste insig gee in die aard van 'n wêreldbeeld, sowel as in die redes waarom dit eers in die moderne era gerealiseer is. Gevolglik voorsien 'n analise van Heidegger se essay, 'Die tyd van die wereldbeeld' die raamwerk waarin daar betoog word dat wêreldbeelde sowel seëninge as vervloekinge is in die huidige era: seëninge, omdat, soos Harries aanvoer, ons verlos is van die moderne idee van een omvattende wêreldbeeld of ideologie, sodat 'n mens nie langer in slegs een 'korrekte' siening van die wêreld kan glo nie; vervloekinge, omdat hulle alle goedbedoelde pogings om oor sake van gemeenskaplike belang te kommunikeer, in die wiele ry. Dat daar 'n manier is om hierdie toedrag van sake met die hoop op oorkoming van die oorsake van vervreemding aan te spreek, is die taak wat hierdie artikel sigself gestel het om aan te toon en dit is weereens Heidegger, met sy begrip van die 'viervoud', wat die bron is hiervan. <![CDATA[<b>The emergence of philosophy in Scottish secondary school Religious Education</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article considers changes in the subject Religious Education (RE) within the context of Scottish secondary schools, charting a development towards the increasing use of philosophical skills and content. Before considering the nature, extent and timing of this development this article provides a broader context within which to understand educational change in Scotland. The emergent hypothesis is that Religious Education has become more philosophical as a result of changes in society (particularly secularisation), changes in education (particularly the move to reflective pedagogy), and also as a result of the close epistemological relationship between philosophy and religious education. This article adopts an interpretative research paradigm and considers quantitative and qualitative data drawn from a survey of 126 secondary schools and seventeen key informant interviews. Taken alongside existing reviews of policy and research literature this data demonstrate that three interlinked hypothetical strands have been at the heart of the move towards more philosophical Religious Education, although other possibilities are also raised and considered. This study also suggests areas for further research based on the above findings.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bestudeer die veranderings ten opsigte van Religieuse Onderwys in die konteks van Skotse sekondêre skole. Dit vermeld ook die ontwikkeling aangaande die toenemende gebruik van filosofiese vaardighede en inhoud. Voordat die aard, omvang en tydsberekening van hierdie ontwikkeling oorweeg word, bied die artikel 'n wyer konteks waarin die veranderings in Skotse onderwys verstaan moet word. Die hipotese wat ontwikkel word, is dat verandering in die samelewing (veral sekularisasie) en in onderwys (veral die beweging na reflektiewe onderwysleer), sowel as die noue epistemologiese band tussen filosofie en religieuse onderwys 'n meer filosofiese aard aan religieuse onderwys verleen. Hierdie artikel maak gebruik van 'n interpretatiewe navorsingsparadigma en oorweeg kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe inligting wat verkry is deur 'n opname waaraan 126 sekondêre skole deelgeneem het en deur onderhoude met sewentien sleutelinformante. Wanneer hierdie data tesame met bestaande beleidsondersoeke en wetenskaplike literatuur oorweeg word, toon dit aan dat drie hipotetiese komponente wat onderling aan mekaar verbind is, die kern van die beweging na meer filosofiese Religieuse Onderwys vorm, hoewel ander moontlikhede ook geopper en oorweeg word. Op grond van bogenoemde bevindings stel hierdie artikel ook verdere navorsingsareas voor. <![CDATA[<b><i>Koers</i></b><b> and the ideal of Christian scholarship</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Commemorating the 75-year existence of the journal Koers is connected to the Reformational tradition, from Calvin to Kuyper, Stoker, Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven - all thinkers who realised that the biblical starting point of life indeed touches the heart, the religious root, of humankind and therefore cannot remain restricted to church life and religion in its narrow sense, but must come to expression in all walks of life. This awareness was a fruit of the Christian worldview and lifeview which currently is confronted by the Big Bang claims and by neo-Darwinism - both movements taking on cultic dimensions with an intolerance towards everyone who does not accept their perspective. Their attitude generated serious reactions on two websites, the impact of which was discussed in this article. Some problems entailed in Darwinism and physicalistic materialism were highlighted, before attention was given to the status of natural laws and normative principles. Particular attention was given to the elimination of God's law and the way in which modern Humanism explored the two cornerstones of modern nominalism, up to the point where human understanding was elevated to become the a priori formal law-giver of nature. This legacy was continued both by the later developments within the Baden school of neo-Kantian thought and Postmodernism, which is placed within the context of the three succeeding epistemic ideals of the past three centuries. Rationality can only fulfil its true calling when it accounts for the cohering diversity within reality without becoming a victim of any form of reductionism - and by following this guiding star, Koers will continue to strengthen its invaluable contribution to the advancement of Christian scholarship.<hr/>Die 75-jarige herdenking van die bestaan van die tydskrif Koers is verbind aan die reformatoriese tradisie vanaf Calvyn tot by Kuyper, Stoker, Dooyeweerd en Vollenhoven, almal denkers wat besef het dat die Bybelse uitgangspunt van die lewe die hart as religieuse wortel van die mens se bestaan raak en daarom nie tot die sfeer van die kerk en godsdiens in enger sin beperk kan bly nie - dit moet inderdaad in alle sektore van die lewe deurwerk. Hierdie besef is die vrug van die Christelike lewens- en wêreldbeskouing wat tans gekonfronteer word deur die Big Bang-aansprake en deur die neo-Darwinisme - beide bewegings wat kulties-godsdienstige vorme aanneem en wat intolerant is teenoor elkeen wat nie hul perspektief aanvaar nie. Hierdie instelling het ernstige reaksie op twee webtuistes ontlok. Sommige probleme wat in die Darwinisme en die fisikalistiese materialisme vervat is word belig alvorens aandag aan die status van natuurwette en normatiewe beginsels gegee word. Besondere aandag word geskenk aan die eliminering van God se wet en aan die wyse waarop die moderne Humanisme twee van die grondpilare van die moderne nominalisme ontglip het, tot op die punt waar die menslike verstand tot die apriories-formele wetgewer van die natuur verhef is. Hierdie erfenis is gekontinueer beide deur die latere ontwikkelinge in die neo-Kantiaanse Badense skool en in die postmodernisme, geplaas teen die agtegrond van die drie opeenvolgende kennisideale van die afgelope drie eeue. Rasionaliteit kan slegs die ware roeping daarvan vervul indien dit rekenskap gee van die samehangende verskeidenheid in die skepping sonder om die slagoffer van enige vorm van reduksionisme te word. Wanneer Koers hierdie leidster volg sal dit daarmee voortgaan om 'n waardevolle en onmisbare bydrae te bly lewer ten bate van die bevordering van Christelike wetenskap. <![CDATA[<b>A plea for inclusive worldview education in all schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Taking personhood education ('Bildung') of students as the aim of schools, the author argues that worldview education should form an integral part of this education in all schools. It is shown that such a conceptualisation of worldview education is adequately combinable with citizenship education. In worldview-citizenship education the emphasis is first of all on students' appropriation and (continuous) development of their own worldview. A second important aim of this modus of education is that students should learn to live together in the context of the school as an embryonic society which represents different worldviews. With this two-fold aim the individual or personal and the social or communal side of the pedagogical coin are kept together. In the final part a concrete example of an inclusive practice of worldview citizenship education is described in a partnership of a Christian, a state, and an Islamic elementary school in the area of Amsterdam South-East.<hr/>Indien die doel van skole die persoonsvorming ('Bildung') van leerders is, behoort lewensbeskoulike vorming in alle skole 'n integrale deel hiervan uit te maak, argumenteer die outeur. Daar word aangetoon dat so 'n beskouing van lewensbeskoulike persoonsvorming uitstekend gekombineer kan word met burgerskapsvorming. In lewensbeskoulike burgerskapsvorming word die klem allereers gelê op leerders se toe-eiening en (verdere) ontwikkeling van 'n eie lewensbeskouing. 'n Tweede doelstelling vir sodanige ontwikkeling is dat die leerders behoort te leer om in die skool saam te leef met ander persone wie se lewensbeskouings verskil van hulle eie lewensbeskouing. Op hierdie wyse word die individuele perspektief en die sosiale of gemeenskapsperspektief beskou as twee kante van dieselfde munt. Ten slotte word 'n praktiese voorbeeld waarin die doel van lewensbeskoulike burgerskapsvorming konkreet uitgebeeld word, gebied deur te wys op die samewerking van 'n christelike, openbare en islamitiese primêre skool in Suidoos-Amsterdam. <![CDATA[<b>How student teachers understand African philosophy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The question 'What constitutes African philosophy?' was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels's seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels's book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu's (1980) Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji's (1983) African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka's (1990) Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte's (1993) Philosophy for Africa, Masolo's (1994) African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye's (1995) An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Tempels's book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students' inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students' background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.<hr/>Die vraag 'Wat behels Afrika-filosofie?' was vir die eerste keer ge-opper met die publikasie van Placide Tempels se werk Bantu Philosophy in 1959. Dit was onvermydelik dat Tempels se boek 'n groot hoeveelheid kritiek uitgelok het van Afrika-filosowe, wat uitgeloop het op 'n wye reeks publikasies, soos: Wiredu (1980) Philosophy and an African Culture; Hountondji (1983) African Philosophy: Myth and Reality; Oruka (1990) Sage Philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy; Shutte (1993) Philosophy for Africa; Masolo (1994) African Philosophy in Search of Identity; en Gyekye (1995) An Essay of African Philosophical Thought: The Akan Conceptual Scheme. Sestig jaar sedert die publikasie van Tempels se boek is daar steeds ernstige gesprekke rondom Afrika-filosofie. Hierdie artikel wil bydra tot die debat rondom die begrip van Afrika-filosofie, maar met die klem op die uitdagings om Afrika-filosofie aan Filosofie van die Opvoeding studente aan 'n oop afstandsonderrig-instituut in Suid-Afrika te onderrig. Die artikel worstel met die neiging van voorgraadse studente van Filosofie van die Opvoeding om Afrika-filosofie te reduseer tot Afrika kulture en tradisies, asook die idee van ubuntu. Die artikel probeer om te verstaan waarom studente Afrika-filosofie op dié wyse hanteer. Daar word gekyk na die studente se agtergrondkennis van Afrika-filosofie, hulle kritiese denkvaardigheid en of die amptelike studiemateriaal dalk op wyse geselekteer en bymekaar gevoeg word wat kan bydra tot die uitdagings wat studente in die gesig staar. In die laaste instansie eksploreer die navorsers maniere waarop dosente van Filosofie van die Opvoeding hul pedagogie kan aanpas om studente te help om Afrika-filosofie beter te kan verstaan. <![CDATA[<b>A connected and plugged-in worldview: Young people and new media</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Considering their enthusiastic adoption and utilisation of the latest media technologies, the question whether today's (2011) youth is critically aware of, and paying due attention to, the multitude of influences and information that technology transmits into their lives, may legitimately be asked. Questions concerning connectivity, community interaction and peer interaction, identity (and loss of identity) and what the author terms 'space-time discrepancy' are raised in this article. The methods by which people (students or other young people) acquire and assimilate new knowledge (epistemologically), process and understand information (cognitively) and create or formulate personal meaning and significance (metaphysically), are all modified and informed by their consumption of new technologies. Therefore, in the pursuit of an 'acceptable' (by their peers and their community) worldview, young people have to grapple with both the objectively perceived, as well as the subjectively experienced manifestations of the networked world; a world 'immersed' in new media.<hr/>Gegewe die entoesiasme waarmee die jeug van vandag (2011) nuwe media-tegnologie aanvaar en gebruik, kan daar tereg gevra word of hulle enersyds bewus is van, en andersyds of dit hul werklik skeel in hoe 'n mate hierdie inligtingsoordosis hulle lewens raak. Vrae rakende interskakeling, gemeenskaps- en groepsdruk interaksie, identiteit (en identiteitsverlies), en wat die outeur as 'ruimte-tyd verwydering beskryf, word in hierdie artikel toegelig. Die wyse waarop mense (studente of die jeug) nuwe kennis verwerf en inneem (epistemologies gesproke), inligting verwerk en verstaan (kognitief gesproke) en persoonlike waardes en betekenis verwek of formuleer (metafisies gesproke), word deurentyd verander en toegelig, synde verbruikers van nuwe tegnologie. In die jeug se soeke na 'n werklikheidsvisie wat vir hulle gemeenskap en eweknieë aanvaarbaar is, word hulle verplig om sin te maak van die objektief waarneembare, sowel as die subjektief ervaarde gewaarwording van 'n netwerk-wêreld, 'gedompel' in nuwe media. <![CDATA[<b>Ethics as commodity in higher education of South African natural science and engineering students</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The fields of the natural sciences are increasingly shying away from purely theoretical approaches to knowledge and are instead looking toward real-world applications and products to be derived from research projects. This phenomenon is seen even in the academic setting, which increasingly seems to mimic the goals of the outcome-driven engineering world. Such developments are deemed necessary in a worldwide economy that is driven more by practical economic results and less by the ideal of contributing to discipline-specific facts and knowledge. This shift in research-perspective means that science and engineering are faced with a host of ethical and social issues which extend beyond the confines of the laboratory. With these changes, the importance of an ethical grounding for graduate students becomes ever more pressing. This article will look at the influence that a purely positivist worldview may have on the ethical and value-related education of university students in the natural sciences and engineering. It will attempt to show how the teaching of ethical approaches need not be seen as an obstacle for the training of a potential scientist or engineer, but rather as an opportunity for growth in the individual as a contributing member of his or her society and immediate community. A solution to this continually growing need for ethical grounding is suggested: educators should look at the underlying worldviews and collateral or hidden curriculum (that which is not taught formally in classes, but which the students learn anyway) and the null curriculum (that which is not taught in classes) to provide their students with ethical guidance, rather than simply focusing on adding extra ethics modules to highly technical university or college courses.<hr/>Die velde van die natuurwetenskappe beweeg al verder weg van suiwer teoretiese benaderings tot kennis en word toenemend 'n soeke na toepassings en produkte as die resultaat van navorsingsprojekte. Hierdie verskynsel word selfs in die akademiese milieu aangetref, waar die natuurwetenskap toenemend die doelwitte van die uitkoms-gebaseerde ingenieurswêreld nastreef. Sodanige ontwikkelings word as noodsaaklik beskou in 'n wêreldwye ekonomie wat al hoe meer deur praktiese ekonomiese resultate gedryf word en al hoe minder deur die ideaal om by te dra tot navorsingsveld-spesifieke feite en kennis. Hierdie verskuiwing in navorsingsfokus beteken dat natuurwetenskappe en ingenieurswese met 'n reeks sosiale en etiese probleme gekonfronteer word wat wyer strek as die grense van die laboratorium. Met hierdie veranderinge in gedagte word die etiese begronding van graduandi belangriker. Hierdie artikel sal poog om na die invloed wat 'n suiwer positiwistiese wêreldbeskouing op die etiese en waarde-geassosieerde opleiding van universiteitstudente van die natuurwetenskappe en ingenieurswese het, te kyk. Daar sal gepoog word om aan te toon dat opleiding in die veld van etiese benaderings nie as 'n struikelblok gesien moet word nie, maar eerder as 'n geleentheid vir groei van die individu as deel van die samelewing en as 'n lid wat 'n bydrae tot sy of haar gemeenskap lewer. 'n Oplossing vir die tekort aan etiese opleiding word ook voorgestel: Eerder as om slegs addisionele etiek-modules tot hoogs-tegniese kollege en universiteitskursusse toe te voeg, behoort na die onderliggende wêreldbeskouing en die versteekte en nul-kurrikula van grade gekyk te word om studente eties te begelei. <![CDATA[<b>Moving sciences beyond museums and theatres</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Recent literature suggests that art and aesthetics are evident in ancient times, as well as in Islamic, Indian, Chinese, African and Western medieval traditions. However, literature on the incorporation of art and aesthetics into economic and management sciences and social sciences is not so readily available. Using a narrative exploratory study, this article reported on two lecturers' interpretation of the sensory contemplation or appreciation of aesthetic judgement within their academic programmes at a higher education institution. Stimulating creativity, passion and imagination is just part of an array of characteristics that prospective educators will need to develop in their teaching. Research has indicated that to become a reflective practitioner, educators should be able to assess and explore the success of their practices. It is this freedom to imagine, assess, explore and reflect continuously on new ways of doing things that leads ultimately to practical application. Teaching aesthetically also requires a strong grounding in pedagogical content knowledge, thereby allowing students to become transformers of society. The main thrust of this article was to determine how we develop and embody these qualities in ourselves and in the modules we teach. The results of the study indicated that whilst early socialisation processes did impact on how aesthetics was incorporated for one participant, culture did not play a very significant role for the other. The findings also indicated that students have a real appreciation of the incorporation of the aesthetic domain within the disciplines.<hr/>Die jongste literatuur toon dat kuns en estetika in antieke, Islamitiese, Indiese, Chinese, Afrika en Westerse Middeleeuse tradisies voorgekom het. Inligting oor die inkorporering van kuns en estetika in sosiale wetenskappe en ekonomiese en bestuurswetenskappe is egter nie so geredelik beskikbaar nie. Hierdie artikel doen verslag oor twee dosente se vertolking van die sensoriese beskouing of waardering van estetiese oordeel in die akademiese programme aan 'n hoëronderwysinstelling deur middel van 'n narratiewe, verkennende studie. Om kreatiwiteit, passie en verbeelding te stimuleer, is maar 'n paar van 'n reeks eienskappe wat voornemende opvoeders in hul onderrig moet ontwikkel. Navorsing het getoon dat om 'n nadenkende praktisyn te word, moet opvoeders in staat wees om die sukses van hul praktyke te assesseer en ondersoek. Dit is hierdie vryheid om voortdurend nuwe maniere om dinge te doen te bedink, assesseer, verken en daaroor na te dink wat uiteindelik tot die praktiese toepassing lei. Om esteties te onderrig, vereis ook grondige kennis van die pedagogiese inhoud ten einde studente in staat te stel om transformeerders van die samelewing te word. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om te bepaal hoe ons hierdie eienskappe kan ontwikkel en in onsself en die modules wat ons onderrig, kan vergestalt. Die bevindings van die studie dui daarop dat hoewel sosialiseringsprosesse 'n invloed het op hoe estetika vir een deelnemer geïnkorporeer is, kultuur nie 'n beduidende rol vir die ander gespeel het nie. Die bevindings dui ook aan dat studente opregte waardering het vir die inkorporering van die estetiese domein in die verskillende dissiplines. <![CDATA[<b>Christian attitudes in scholarship: The role of worldviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article starts from the realisation that a few different approaches to science and scholarship are implemented within different Christian traditions. In an attempt at identifying the reasons behind such differences, it is argued that the approach to science and scholarship adopted in each Christian tradition corresponds to a considerable extent to the worldview accepted in that tradition. In this article, several versions of the main Christian worldviews are identified and related to the work of authors (e.g. Murphy, the Theonomic movement, Barbour, Van Huyssteen, Wolterstorff) who were not discussed in previous works on this topic. The possibility of 'mixing' the worldviews (thus adopting an eclectic approach) is also discussed. The proposed taxonomy may be used to understand at a deeper level both individual authors and trends, and also to sketch a 'map' of the different movements, contributors and available options. It is argued that the different worldviews are not equally valuable and that the reformational worldview should be regarded as more integrally and originally biblical. The article ends with a call to consistency for the sake of sound Christian scholarship.<hr/>Hierdie artikel begin met die besef dat 'n aantal verskillende benaderings tot tot wetenskap binne verskillende Christelike tradisies geïmplementeer word. In 'n poging om die redes vir sodanige verskille te identifiseer, word aangevoer dat die benadering tot wetenskap wat in elke Christelike tradisie aangeneem word, tot 'n groot mate met die aanvaarde wêreldbeskouing van daardie tradisie ooreenstem. In hierdie artikel word 'n aantal weergawes van die belangrikste Christelike wêreldbeskouings geïdentifiseer en in verband gebring met die werk van outeurs (bv. Murphy, die Teonomiese beweging, Barbour, Van Huyssteen, Wolterstorff) wat nie in vorige werke oor hierdie onderwerp bespreek is nie. Die moontlikheid om die verskillende wêreldbeskouings te 'meng' (en dus 'n eklektiese benadering te volg) word ook bespreek. Die voorgestelde taksonomie kan moontlik gebruik word om sowel individuele outeurs as tendense in meer diepte te verstaan, asook om ook 'n 'kaart' van die verskillende bewegings, bydraers en beskikbare opsies, te skets. Daar word aangevoer dat die verskillende wêreldbeskouings nie gelykwaardig is nie en dat die reformatoriese wêreldbeskouing as meer integraal en oorspronklik Bybels geag moet word. Die artikel sluit af met 'n oproep tot konsistensie ter wille van behoorlike Christelike wetenskap. <![CDATA[<b>Learners in the marketplace: Ethical and educational dilemmas</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Since the abolishment of legislation (the South African Schools Act, No. 84 of 1996) stipulating that a learner may only attend a certain school in an area, there is great competition amongst schools to attract learners to their schools. There is a tendency to regard as commodities learners who can be seen as assets to the school, especially if these learners show a talent for sports and have outstanding sporting achievements. The main aim of the research was to determine whether school principals, learners and parents think that it is unethical to 'buy' talented learners. A qualitative research approach was undertaken to determine the views of a purposefully selected sample of school principals, learners and parents regarding the 'buying' of talented learners. These participants were chosen as they were important role players in the process of 'buying' talented learners. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with semi-structured and open-ended questions. The participants' answers were critically analysed, and the ethical correctness was determined by evaluating them against the ethical ideas identified in five ethical approaches, namely the utilitarian approach, the rights approach, the fairness or justice approach, the virtue approach and the ethical problem solving approach. An extrapolation of these findings gives one an idea of our society's attitude to the 'buying' of talented learners and whether a need exists to actively create greater awareness of this practice. The findings are significant to illustrate the different viewpoints of school principals, talented learners and parents on the ethical and educational dilemmas of schools that 'buy' talented learners.<hr/>Sedert die afskaffing van wetgewing (die Suid-Afrikaanse Skolewet, Nr. 84 van 1996) wat bepaal dat 'n leerder net na 'n sekere skool in 'n area mag gaan, het daar groot kompetisie tussen skole ontstaan om leerders na hul skole te lok. Die tendens het ontstaan om leerders wat 'n aanwins vir die skool kan wees as handelsitems te beskou, veral as hierdie leerders 'n talent toon vir sport en uitstekende sportprestasies lewer. Die hoofdoel van die navorsing was om te bepaal of skoolhoofde, leerders en ouers reken dat dit oneties is om talentvolle leerders te koop. 'n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsbenadering is gevolg om die standpunte van 'n doelgerigte, geselekteerde steekproef van skoolhoofde, leerders en ouers te bepaal betreffende die 'koop' van talentvolle leerders. Hierdie deelnemers is gekies omdat hulle belangrike rolspelers is in die proses wanneer talentvolle leerders 'gekoop' word. Data is verkry met behulp van 'n vraelys met semi-gestruktureerde en oop vrae. Die deelnemers se antwoorde is krities geanaliseer en die etiese korrektheid daarvan is bepaal deur dit te evalueer in ooreenstemming met die etiese idees soos geïdentifiseer in die vyf etiese benaderings, naamlik (1) die nuttigheidsbenadering, (2) die regte-benadering, (3) die regverdigheidsbenadering, (4) die Deugdebenadering en (5) die etiese probleemoplossingsbenadering. 'n Uitbreiding van hierdie bevindinge gee 'n idee van 'n gemeenskap se houding oor die 'koop' van talentvolle leerders en dien ook om vas te stel of daar 'n behoefte tot groter bewustheid van hierdie praktyk bestaan. Die bevindinge is belangrik om die verskillende uitgangspunte van skoolhoofde, talentvolle leerders en ouers rakende etiese en opvoedkundige dilemmas van talentvolle leerders wat 'gekoop' word, te illustreer. <![CDATA[<b>A vision for a Reformed Christian college for South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A yawning gap has existed in the South African educational landscape since the effective termination of the Potchefstroom University (PU) for Christian Higher Education (CHE) by the government in 2004. The North-West University, which was formed through the merger of the PU for CHE and the University of North West, has been positioned as a value-driven university, but for all its good intentions and successes, it cannot (and never was intended to) continue the PU for CHE's tradition of Christian higher education. Given the growth of Christian schools in South Africa after 1994, it is clear that pupils from these and other schools have no Reformed option when they choose an institution of higher education. It is therefore suggested in this article that the concept of a new Christian college should find favour amongst Reformed Christians from all denominations, races, ethnic groups and languages in South Africa. The author argues that obstacles simply have to be overcome. A balanced Reformed approach which eschews extreme fundamentalism as well as attempts at undermining the fundamentals of the Christian faith is needed. Therefore, the formation of an inclusive pilot committee to investigate the idea is proposed.<hr/>Sedert die regering se terminering van die Potchefstroomse Universiteit (PU) vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys (CHO) in 2004, bestaan daar 'n groot gaping in Suid-Afrika se onderwyslandskap. Die Noordwes-Universiteit, wat uit die samesmelting van die PU vir CHO en die Universiteit van Noordwes ontstaan het, is op waardes gegrond, maar ondanks goeie bedoelings en suksesse kan dit nie die PU vir CHO se tradisie van hoër onderwys voortsit nie. Dit was ook nooit die bedoeling nie. Dit is duidelik dat diegene wat uit Christelike en ander skole kom nie meer 'n Gereformeerde alternatief het om van te kies nie. Daarom word hier beklemtoon dat 'n nuwe Christelike kollege byval sal vind onder Gereformeerde Christene uit alle kerkverbande, rasse, etiese groepe en tale in Suid-Afrika. Die outeur argumenteer dat hindernisse doodgewoon oorkom moet word. 'n Gebalanseerde Gereformeerde benadering wat sowel fundamentalisme as 'n afwatering van die basiese boustene van die Christelike geloof vermy, word voorgestel. In die lig hiervan word 'n inklusiewe loodskomitee voorgestel wat die saak verder kan ondersoek. <![CDATA[<b>Competence development as normative practice - Educational reform in medicine as heuristic model to relate worldview and education</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, a Normative Practice Model (NPM) for education was developed. Two hypotheses guided this article: (1) the presupposition that developments in medical education are relevant for education in general and (2) the idea that medical education, just as education in general, can be interpreted as a normative practice. The Normative Practice Model was initially designed for medicine. This original version attempted to clarify why norms and values are intrinsic to medical practice, what these norms and values are, and how they are related. This article introduced the recent reform of medical specialist training programmes in the Netherlands as a case study for application of the Normative Practice Model to education. This reform elucidates how and why norms and values are intrinsic to medical education. The Normative Practice Model offers a global framework that enables one to locate and evaluate the relative contribution of each of the norms and values. By doing so the model also gives an answer to the more general question of whether and how worldview and education are connected. It appears that in highly technical and specialised practices such as medicine, the concept of competence is used as bridge between valued-laden motivations and attitudes on the one hand and measurable performance on the other hand. In this article it was argued that thinking about competences in the context of normative practices helps to elucidate the relationship between worldview and education.<hr/>In hierdie artikel is 'n normatiewe praktyk-model (NPM) vir die onderwys ontwikkel. Twee hipoteses het hierdie artikel gelei: (1) dat die ontwikkelinge in die mediese onderwys relevant vir onderwys in die algemeen is en (2) dat mediese onderwys, net soos algemene onderwys, as 'n normatiewe praktyk geïnterpreteer kan word. Die normatiewe praktyk-model is aanvanklik vir geneeskunde ontwerp. Hierdie oorspronklike weergawe het probeer om te verduidelik hoekom waardes en norme intrinsiek aan die mediese praktyk is, wat hierdie norme en waardes is en hoe hulle met mekaar verband hou. Die artikel stel die onlangse hervorming van opleidingsprogramme vir mediese spesialiste in Nederland as 'n gevallestudie vir die toepassing van die normatiewe praktyk-model in die onderwys. Hierdie hervorming belig hoe en waarom norme en waardes intrinsiek aan mediese onderwys is. Die normatiewe praktyk-model bied 'n globale raamwerk wat 'n persoon in staat stel om die relatiewe bydrae van elk van die waardes en norme op te spoor en te evalueer. Deur dit te doen, bied die model ook 'n antwoord op die meer algemene vraag of en hoe wêreldbeskouing en die onderwys verwant is. Dit blyk dat in hoogs tegniese en gespesialiseerde praktyke soos geneeskunde die bevoegdheid-konsep as brug tussen waarde-belaaide motivering en houdings aan die een kant en meetbare prestasie aan die ander kant dien. In hierdie artikel is geargumenteer dat nadenke oor bevoegdheid in die konteks van normatiewe praktyke help om die verhouding tussen werklikheidsbeskouing en die onderwys toe te lig. <![CDATA[<b>Worldview, the credit crisis and the 'unity of life'. From 'framework' to 'deep commitment'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The term 'worldview' harbours different dimensions that are not always clearly distinguished. A worldview can be considered to be a personal matter, but it may also be a more collective phenomenon, as it can manifest itself for example within a certain sphere of life (e.g. politics or economics) as a full-blown ideology or a more implicit 'embedded worldview'. A second distinction can be made between the dimension of a deep, existential commitment and that of an encompassing mental framework, between spiritual inspiration and a more or less intellectually coherent system. There may be tensions between these various dimensions. Having a worldview as a person may imply being in conflict with other worldviews that are embodied in certain social fields. How can people deal with these conflicts? One can easily be seduced to avoid the conflicts and to shift gears between them. With the credit crisis and economics used as an illustration, this article explores some of the techniques that people - consciously, semi-consciously or unconsciously - may employ to navigate the differences between various social domains and their inherent worldviews. In order to support people to regain some unity, the notion of worldview may still be helpful, but interpreted primarily as 'deep commitment'.<hr/>Die begrip 'werklikheidsbeskouing' het minstens twee dimensies wat nie altyd duidelik onderskei word nie. Die begrip kan na iets individueel verwys, maar ook na 'n meer kollektiewe fenomeen, byvoorbeeld wanneer daar binne 'n bepaalde sosiale domein (soos die politiek of die ekonomie) sprake is van 'n rigtinggewende ideologie of 'n meer implisiete verwysingsraamwerk. Tweedens kan die begrip verwys na sowel diepe eksistensiële keuses as na 'n omvattende, sistematiese geheel van oortuigings, dus na 'n spirituele inspirasie sowel as 'n sisteem wat intellektueel min of meer koherent is. Tussen hierdie verskillende dimensies kan spanninge voorkom. Die lewensbeskouing waaroor 'n individu beskik kan in konflik wees met ander lewensbeskouings wat in bepaalde sosiale domeine beliggaam is. Hoe kan persone met hierdie konflikte omgaan? 'n Mens kan maklik verlei word om die konflikte te vermy en om bloot hiertussen oor te skakel of 'ratte te verwissel'. Hierdie artikel maak van die kredietkrisis en die rol van ekonomiese wetenskappe gebruik om te illustreer watter 'tegnieke' persone kan aanwend - bewustelik, half-bewustelik of onbewustelik - om te navigeer tussen hulle inherente werklikheidsvisies en die verskeie implisiete werklikheidsbeskouings in die verskillende sosiale domeine. Die begrip 'werklikheidsbeskouing' kan waardevol wees om 'n mate van eenheid te herwin, maar dan primêr geïnterpreteer as die manifestasie van 'n eksistensiële keuse en diep verbintenis. <![CDATA[<b>Singing for your supper: Staff singing for transformation and teambuilding in a South African bank</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Transformation entails meaningful change. In South Africa (as is increasingly the case in Europe and elsewhere), such change hinges on interaction and communication between citizens of different cultures, ethnicities and languages. Where the inability to speak the others' language(s) can inhibit real interaction and genuine communication, choral singing proffers unique opportunities for shared communicative experiences. In 2005, Dr Steve Booysen, then Group Chief Executive of the Absa Group, initiated an internal choir festival as a platform for social interaction and teambuilding for staff across all cultures, age groups and post levels in the bank. Booysen envisaged the choir project as a means of moral support during the Absa-Barclays merger. This article reports on the results of a Doctoral investigation into the extra-musical benefits of this project for Absa, such as transformation and teambuilding. Choral singing as social capital is discussed. The Absa choir project can serve as a microcosm of larger multicultural, multilingual macrocosms. The benefits attained through communal singing in this project may also hold possibilities for attaining unity in diversity in South Africa.<hr/>Transformasie behels betekenisvolle verandering. In Suid-Afrika (soos toenemend ook die geval is in Europa en elders) is sodanige verandering afhanklik van die interaksie en kommunikasie tussen landgenote van verskillende kulture, tale en rasse. Terwyl die onvermoë om mekaar se tale te praat ware interaksie en kommunikasie kan inhibeer, bied koorsang unieke geleenthede vir gesamentlike kommunikasie-ervarings. Dr Steve Booysen, destyds Groep Uitvoerende Hoof van die Absagroep, het in 2005 'n interne koorfees ingestel om te dien as platform vir sosiale interaksie en spanbou vir personeel van alle kultuurgroepe, ouderdomme en posvlakke in die bankgroep. Booysen se visie was dat hierdie koorprojek sou dien as 'n middel tot morele ondersteuning gedurende die Absa-Barclays-samesmelting. Hierdie artikel fokus op die resultate van 'n doktorale studie wat die nie-musikale voordele van koorsang, soos transformasie en spanbou, ondersoek. Die Absa-koorprojek kan gesien word as 'n mikrokosmos van 'n groter, multikulturele, veeltalige makrokosmos. Die voordele wat die samesang in die koorprojek teweeg gebring het, mag belofte inhou vir die bou van eenheid in diversiteit in Suid-Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>Bullying in schools - The educator's role</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572012000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Worldwide there is a problem with violent incidents occurring amongst learners in schools. Bullying is one mode of violence that often occurs at school level. Bullying means repeatedly attacking a person psychologically, physically and/or emotionally in order to inflict harm. Bullying behaviour cannot be ignored, because the victims often report physical and mental health problems caused by the abuse they suffered. The future of the bully is also at stake, because such a person can turn into an abuser in his or her adult years. This research focused on the challenges for teachers in the school system to handle bullying behaviour. The specific aims of the study were to research the role of school policies and ethos, as well as the teacher's role, in dealing with bullying. The researchers investigated the problem by using social identity theory as theoretical framework and Christianity as worldview. The researchers mainly used a qualitative research design. Data for this study were collected by means of a literature study and questionnaires with closed questions as well as open-ended questions about teachers' experiences regarding bullying. The main emphasis was on the feedback on the open-ended questions. It became clear from the research that schools should adopt an anti-bullying policy. Teachers should give more attention to classroom rules and they should become skilled in dealing with bullying. Recommendations were made concerning the role of teachers as well as the place of school ethos and policies when the above-mentioned behavioural problem needs to be managed.<hr/>Wêreldwyd is daar 'n probleem met insidente van geweld wat tussen leerders in skole plaasvind. Afknouery is een wyse van gewelduitoefening wat op skoolvlak plaasvind. Afknouery beteken om 'n persoon herhaaldelik sielkundig, fisies en/of emosioneel skade aan te doen. Afknougedrag kan nie geïgnoreer word nie, omdat die slagoffers dikwels fisiese- en geestesgesondheidsprobleme kry as gevolg van die mishandeling. Die toekoms van die afknouer is ook ter sprake, aangesien so 'n persoon kan ontwikkel in 'n mishandelaar in sy of haar volwasse jare. Die navorsing wat gedoen is, het gefokus op die uitdagings vir onderwysers in die skoolsisteem om afknouery te hanteer. Die spesifieke doelwitte van die studie was om navorsing te doen oor skoolbeleid en etos, sowel as die rol van onderwysers in die hantering van afknouery. Die navorsers het die probleem vanuit 'n sosiale identiteitsteorie as teoretiese raamwerk benader, asook vanuit 'n Christelike werklikheidsbeskouing. Die navorsers het hoofsaaklik 'n kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode gebruik. Data vir hierdie studie is ingesamel deur middel van 'n literatuurstudie en vraelyste met geslote vrae en oop einde-vrae oor die onderwysers se ervarings rakende afknouery. Die klem het geval op die response op die oopeinde vrae. Dit het duidelik uit die navorsing na vore gekom dat skole 'n teen-afknouerybeleid in plek behoort te stel. Onderwysers moet meer aandag skenk aan klaskamerreëls en hulle behoort vaardighede te ontwikkel om afknouery te hanteer. Aanbevelings is gemaak oor die rol van onderwysers asook oor die hulp van skooletos en beleide om genoemde gedragsprobleme te hanteer.