Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720110001&lang=pt vol. 76 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Voorwoord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Foreword</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b><i>Over grote en kleine dingen - </i></b><b>een bijbelse metafoor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Metaphor: The intertwinement of thought and language</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The analysis of this article aims at reflecting on the nature of metaphoricity within the context of thought and language -inspired by the contributions of Elaine Botha in this regard commencing about three decades ago. This paved the way for those who were working within the tradition of reformational philosophy to take a new look at the nature of metaphor. Since thinking and talking are concrete activities in principle functioning in all aspects of reality, they cannot as such provide criteria to decide on the order relationship between the logical-analytical and lingual aspects of reality. It turns out that, without a proper view of the differences between concept and word, an account of the nature of metaphor remains inconsistent. Universal traits, logical objectification, and the conceptual unknow-ability of what is individual, surfaces in the article. The founda-tional role of spatial relationships appears to be linked to imaging and imagining, informing the proposal to differentiate between modally and entitary directed knowing. The linguistic turn in particular inspired a renewed interest in language and the central place of metaphorical language use. After considering the connections between analogy and metaphor a new approach to the distinction between modal analogies and metaphors is proposed - one that is geared towards the interconnections between the different dimensions of our experiential world. The last part is dedicated to Lakoff and Johnson (1999) who have developed a peculiar view of the "embodied mind", "conceptual metaphor", and "cross-domain mappings", while the article concludes with an argument about the limits of substitution and take into account expanded conditions.<hr/>Die ontleding van hierdie artikel is gerig op die aard van meta-fore binne die konteks van taal en denke - geïnspireer deur die bydraes van Elaine Botha oor hierdie problematiek wat sowat dertig jaar gelede begin het. Dit het die weg gebaan vir diegene wat binne die reformatories-wysgerige tradisie werk om met nuwe oë na metafore te kyk. Aangesien denke en taalgebruik konkrete aktiwiteite is wat in beginsel in alle werklikheidsaspekte funksioneer, kan dit as sodanig nie maatstawwe bied met behulp waarvan die orde-relasie tussen die logies-analitiese en die linguale aspekte van die werklikheid bepaal kan word nie. Dit blyk dat rekenskap van die aard van 'n metafoor nie op 'n konsistente wyse gegee kan word, sonder 'n verantwoorde siening van die verskille tussen 'n begrip en 'n woord nie. Universele trekke, logiese objektivering, begripskennis, en die begripsmatige onkenbaarheid van wat individueel is, verskyn ook in die artikel. Die funderende rol van ruimteverhoudings skyn verbind te wees aan beeldvorming en verbeelding, wat die voorstel ondersteun om tussen modaal- en entiteitsgerigte kennis te differensieer. Dit was egter die sogenaamde linguistieke ommeswaai wat her-nude belangstelling in taal en in die sentrale plek van meta-foriese taalgebruik geïnspireer het. Deur te let op die verband tussen analogie en metafoor word 'n nuwe benadering tot die onderskeid tussen modale analogieë en metafore voorgestel -een wat gerig is op die verbindingslyne tussen die verskillende dimensies van die werklikheid. Die laaste gedeelte word gewy aan Lakoff en Johnson (1999) wat 'n besondere siening van die "embodied mind", "conceptual metaphor", en "cross-domain mappings" ontwikkel het, terwyl afgesluit word met 'n argument insake die grense van substitusie en die verdiskontering van meer uitgebreide kondisies. <![CDATA[<b>Embodied freedom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article I explore the relationship between freedom and embodiment. Firstly I argue that freedom is an essential part of our being human, whatever science might say, and should be understood as the possibility to be ourselves. I propose an understanding that starts from the perspective of the second person. In the second part I analyse the writing of a scientific article as a case study of the experience of freedom in a concrete practice. I show how normative elements are a necessary part of such a practice. In the third part I argue that the "free agent" is in fact the concrete person who acts and thinks. I also discuss the place of causation. In the final part I elaborate on the view of the person, as understood from a second person perspective, and on the meaning of freedom, taking my starting point in the biblical understanding.<hr/>In dit artikel onderzoek ik de relatie tussen vrijheid en lichamelijkheid. In de eerste plaats probeer ik te laten zien dat vrijheid essentieel tot ons menszijn behoort, wat er ook door de wetenschap wordt beweerd, en moet worden opgevat als de mogelijkheid ons zelf te zijn. Ik stel voor vrijheid te verstaan vanuit het perspectief van de tweede persoon. In het tweede deel analyseer ik het schrijven van een wetenschappelijk artikel als een "case study" van de ervaring van vrijheid in een concrete praktijk. Ik laat zien hoe normatieve elementen een noodzakelijk onderdeel vormen van zo'n praktijk. In het derde deel probeer ik te laten zien dat het de concrete persoon is die handelt en denkt. Ik bespreek ook de plaats van causale relaties. In het laatste deel ga ik uitvoeriger in op de opvatting van "person" vanuit het perspectief van de tweede persoon en op de betekenis van vrijheid, waarbij ik mijn uitgangspunt neem in het bijbelse verstaan. <![CDATA[<b>Education for women: A consideration of the philosophical issues in dialogue with Martha Nussbaum</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In some countries in the world, education for women is considered to be unnecessary, undesirable or in conflict with religious principles. Contrary to these points of view, Martha Nussbaum argues that education is important and good. It is one of the capabilities which women need to live a flourishing life. According to Nussbaum, education is a universal value. Pluralists, however, are of the opinion that considering education to be a universal value, in fact, constitutes the imposition of a western value on other cultures. They consider this to be wrong. Nussbaum agrees with this, arguing that we should respect other cultures and that it is not her aim to impose values on them. In this article, I will investigate how Nussbaum seeks to reconcile her universalism (education as universal value) with the pluralist respect for the choices made in other cultures. I begin by describing Nussbaum's view of education as a capability. I then discuss three examples of arguments through which Nussbaum attempts to close the gap between universalism and pluralism as well as her notions of context and practical judgement. In conclusion, I argue that although Nussbaum has made a significant contribution to the universalism-pluralism debate, these two positions have not been completely reconciled.<hr/>Die opvoeding van vroue word in sommige lande as onnodig beskou, onwenslik of in stryd met godsdienstige beginsels. Hierteenoor argumenteer Martha Nussbaum dat opvoeding 'n belangrike en goeie waarde op sigself is. Dit is een van die bekwaamhede wat vroue benodig om 'n vervulde lewe te lei. Volgens Nussbaum is opvoeding 'n universele waarde. Daar-teenoor betoog sommige pluraliste dat die beskouing van opvoeding as universele waarde in werklikheid neerkom op die afdwinging van 'n westerse kulturele waarde op ander kulture. Volgens hulle mag dit nie gebeur nie. Nussbaum is dit hiermee eens en betoog dat ander kulture gerespekteer behoort te word en dat dit nie haar bedoeling is om waardes op hulle af te dwing nie. In hierdie artikel toon ek aan hoe Nussbaum probeer om haar universalisme (opvoeding as universele waarde) te versoen met die pluralistiese respek vir die keuses wat in ander kulture gemaak word. Eers word Nussbaum se siening van opvoeding as bekwaamheid ("capability") beskryf. Daarna kom drie argumente aan die beurt aan die hand waarvan Nussbaum die kloof tussen universalisme en pluralisme, sowel as haar opvattings oor konteks en praktiese oordeel, probeer oorbrug. Ten slotte word argumenteer dat Nussbaum 'n betekenisvolle bydrae tot die universalisme-pluralisme debat gelewer het, maar dat hierdie twee posisies nogtans nie heeltemal versoen is nie. <![CDATA[<b>The return of religion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Religion is back in Philosophy as a respectable subject. Part 1 first charts what MacIntyre, Taylor and Derrida have meant in this regard. Subsequently, it turns to the Enlightenment to determine what constituted the breakthrough. It is found that even where the Enlightenment gave maximum room to religion (i.e. as a civic religion and as "religion of the heart") it still excluded a constitutive relation to a transcendent revelation. Part 2 centres on the religion-faith distinction in reformational philosophy. Similar to the Enlightenment, religion is understood as part of human nature. However, human nature itself is conceived as intrinsically religious and depending for its light on revelation. Secondly, "religion" in this context also encompasses idols and religious substitutes. Thus, it directs attention to shopping malls, football stadiums, health policy, et cetera, as possible contexts of a return of religion. Examples show that this has become a popular approach. However, most of the publications surveyed fail to distinguish between an "analogical" and a "pistically qualified" use of religion, and are open to exaggerations (the shopping mall and football stadiums as temples, etc.). At this junction, the relevance is shown of the religion-faith distinction as well as of Elaine Botha's theory of metaphors. The epilogue offers an integration of parts one and two.<hr/>Religie is terug in die Filosofie as 'n waardige onderwerp. In Deel 1 word eerstens uitgestip wat MacIntyre, Taylor en Derrida in hierdie verband bedoel. Daarna word na die Verligting gekyk om te bepaal wat die deurbraak moontlik gemaak het. Die bevinding is dat, selfs waar die Verligting heeltemal plek gemaak het vir religie (as 'n siviele religie en as religie van die hart), dit steeds 'n wesenlike verband met 'n transendentele openbaring uitgesluit het. Deel 2 sentreer rondom die religie-geloofsonderskeid in reformatoriese filosofie. Ooreenkomstig met die Verligting, word religie as deel van die menslike natuur verstaan. Menslike natuur word egter op sigself verstaan as wesenlik religieus en afhanklik van openbaring vir sy lig. Tweedens omvat "religie" in hierdie konteks ook afgode en religieuse plaasvervangers. Dit vestig dus die aandag op winkelarkades, voetbalstadions, gesondheidsbeleid, ensovoorts as moontlike kontekste van 'n terugkeer van religie. Uit voorbeelde kan gesien word dat hierdie 'n populêre benadering geword het. Die meeste van die publikasies wat ondersoek is, versuim egter om tussen 'n "analogiese" en 'n "pisties-gekwalifiseerde" gebruik van religie te onderskei en is oop vir oordrywing (bv. die winkelarkade en voetbalstadions as tempels). By hierdie kruispunt word op die relevansie van die religie-geloofsonderskeid gewys, sowel as op Elaine Botha se metafoorteorie. Die epiloog bied 'n integrasie van dele een en twee. <![CDATA[<b>Towards a theory of presuppositions: Kuyperian contributions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt One of the most important themes of contemporary philosophy of science was the discovery of presuppositional beliefs and frameworks as factors influencing scientific research. This article explores the development of a theory of presuppositions within Kuyperian philosophy. The authors discussed in this study represent a few Kuyperian families: Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven (briefly), Wolterstorff, Klapwijk, Duvenage and Botha. The perspective is both historical and systematic. Historically, it refers to the main authors who contributed to establishing the basic features of such a theory. Systematically, the article tries to evaluate the proposals of each contributor by assessing their value and limits. In doing so, the author often defends his own preferences and indicates the directions to be followed.<hr/>Een van die belangrikste temas van die huidige wetenskapsfilosofie is die ontdekking van vooronderstellings, aannames en raamwerke as faktore wat wetenskaplike navorsing kan beïnvloed. Hierdie artikel verken die ontwikkeling van 'n teorie van vooronderstellings binne die Kuyperiaanse filosofie. Die outeurs wat in hierdie studie bespreek word, verteenwoordig enkele Kuyperiaanse families: Dooyeweerd, Vollenhoven (kortliks), Wolterstorff, Klapwijk, Duvenage en Botha. Die perspektief is sowel histories as sistematies. Histories word na die belang-rikste outeurs verwys wat 'n bydrae gelewer het om die basiese kenmerke van so 'n teorie te vestig. Sistematies probeer die artikel om die voorstelle van elke bydraer te evalueer deur hulle waarde en grense te meet. In die proses verdedig die outeur in baie gevalle sy eie voorkeure en dui die rigting aan wat gevolg behoort te word. <![CDATA[<b>God is: Children's Bibles and Bible storybooks' presentation of religious values</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article considers children's Bibles and Bible storybooks as vehicles for the transfer of God concepts from one generation to the next - as God is considered central to the portrayal of the confessional attributes of the religious collective. It identifies both the commercial and religious imperatives controlling the prevailing attributes assigned as characteristic of the divine. The presentation of the nature of God is found to align with the commercial target audience for children's Bibles: mothers and female caregivers who purchase the books on behalf of their charges and read and interpret the Bibles to the child. But it also coincides with the preferred attributes associated with a supernatural being by young children. Ultimately, God is found to be consistently portrayed by means of maternal attributes of love, protection and care in contrast to the more ambivalent portrayal of God in the adult biblical text.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Kinderbybels en Bybelstorieboeke as 'n manier waarop begrippe van God van een geslag na die volgende oorgedra word, aangesien God as sentraal in die uitbeelding van die godsdienstige waardes van die religieuse kollektief beskou kan word. Dit identifiseer sowel die kommersiële as die godsdienstige imperatiewe wat beheer uitoefen oor die bestaande kenmerke wat as tipiese karakteristieke eienskappe van die goddelike uitgebeeld word. Die bevinding is dat hierdie eienskappe goed in pas is met die kommersiële teikengehoor vir Kinderbybels: moeders en vroulike versorgers wat hierdie boeke namens kinders koop en dit vir die kind lees en interpreteer. Hierdie eienskappe kom egter ook ooreen met die voorkeureienskappe wat jong kinders met 'n bonatuurlike wese assosieer. Ten slotte word bevind dat God konsekwent uitgebeeld word in terme van moederlike eienskappe soos liefde, beskerming en sorg. Dit strook nie noodwendig met die ambivalente uitbeelding van God in die volwasse teks nie. <![CDATA[<b>Head as metaphor in Paul</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Since the 1980s there has been a debate among New Testament scholars about the meaning of the Greek word "kephalē" ("head") in the Pauline epistles. Some scholars defend the traditional view that it means "leader", while others argue that it should be understood to mean "source". One result of this debate is that it is now clear that both the traditional and the new interpretation of kephalē have very little support in general Greek usage before the New Testament. This article seeks to advance the debate by showing that the phenomenon of "semantic borrowing" can explain why the meaning "source" is effectively limited to one passage in Herodotus, and the meaning "leader" is only found in Greek works written by bilingual Jews. The passage in Herodotus probably reflects a semantic loan from Old Persian *sar while various places in the Septuagint, Philo, Josephus and Paul reflect a semantic loan from Hebrew "ro'sh" (or Aramaic "re'sh"). Because the latter semantic loan ("head" meaning "leader") is embedded in the Greek Bible (both in the Septuagint and Paul), the authority and prestige of the latter can account for the fact that the new meaning of kephalē, though unknown in previous pagan Greek writings, gradually became widespread in post-biblical Greek as Christianity spread.<hr/>Sedert die 1980s het daar onder Nuwe Testament-wetenskap-likes n debat gewoed oor die betekenis van die Griekse woord "kephalë" ("hoof") in die sendbriewe van Paulus. Sommige we-tenskaplikes verdedig die tradisionele siening dat dit "leier" beteken, terwyl ander argumenteer dat dit verstaan moet word as dat dit "bron" beteken. Een resultaat van hierdie debat is dat dit nou duidelik is dat daar vir sowel die tradisionele as die nuwe interpretasie van "kephalē" weinig ondersteuning te vind is in die algemene Griekse gebruik vóór die Nuwe Testament. Hierdie artikel poog om die debat verder te voer deur aan te toon dat die fenomeen van "semantiese lening" kan verduidelik waarom die betekenis van "bron" effektief beperk is tot een passasie in Herodotus en die betekenis van "leier" slegs gevind word in Griekse werke wat geskryf is deur tweetalige Jode. Die passasie in Herodotus reflekteer waarskynlik 'n semantiese lening van die Oud-Persiese *sar, terwyl verskeie plekke in die Septuagint, Philo, Josephus en Paulus 'n semantiese lening van die Hebreeuse "ro'sh" (of Aramese "re'sh") reflekteer. Aan-gesien laasgenoemde semantiese lening ("hoof", wat "leier" beteken) in die Griekse Bybel ingebed is (sowel in die Septuagint as in Paulus), kan laasgenoemde se outoriteit en prestige verklaar word deur die feit dat die nuwe betekenis van "kephalē", alhoewel onbekend in voorafgaande heidense Griekse geskrifte, geleidelik wydverspreid geraak het in die post-Bybelse Grieks, soos wat die Christendom versprei het. <![CDATA[<b>The mythic foundation of National Socialism and the contemporary claim that the Nazis were Christians</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article examines the ideas of Alfred Rosenberg, the "chief ideologue" of German National Socialism. Its aim is to show that, contrary to the claims of a growing number of people encouraged by the so-called "new atheism", the Nazis held a coherent worldview that was vehemently anti-Christian. To deal with criticism of Christianity by these writers and speakers, it is necessary for Christians to become aware of the Nazi world-view and how deeply it was rooted in modern paganism.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek die idees van Alfred Rosenberg, die "hoof-ideoloog" van die Duitse Nasionale Sosialisme. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te toon dat, in teenstelling met die bewerings van 'n groeiende aantal persone aangemoedig deur die sogenaamde "nuwe ateïsme", die Nazi's 'n samehangende wêreldbeskouing gehuldig het wat radikaal anti-Christelik was. Hierdie standpunt word verdedig. Ten einde hierdie skrywers en sprekers se kritiek teenoor die Christendom verantwoordelik te hanteer, moet Christene bewus wees van die Nazi-wêreld-beskouing en die diep verworteling daarvan in die moderne paganisme. <![CDATA[<b>"Go out and gather each day...": Implications of the ethics of Exodus 16 for modern consumerism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on the implied ethical principles of the history of the manna in Exodus 16 and the relevance of these ethical principles for the contemporary culture of consumerism. The principles that can be derived from this history are the principle of labour and rest, of sharing, the ethical principles of responsible consumption, the protection of creation and of remembrance of God's concern for humankind and creation. Modern consumerism with its underlying neo-liberal economic philosophy appears to violate these principles in many ways. The implied ethical principles of the manna history is thus highly relevant in the ethical discourse about economic planning, labour and rest, the environment and God's involvement in the modern world.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die etiese beginsels wat uit die geskiedenis van die manna in Eksodus 16 voortspruit en die betekenis van hierdie beginsels vir die groeiende verbruikerskultuur van ons tyd. Die beginsels wat hier ter sprake is, is dié van arbeid en rus, verantwoordelike verbruik, mededeelsaamheid, die beskerming van die omgewing en die herinnering aan God se besorgdheid oor die mens en die skepping. Die moderne verbruikerskultuur met sy onderliggende neo-liberalistiese filosofie druis skynbaar teen hierdie beginsels in op veelvuldige wyses. Die etiese beginsels van die mannageskiedenis is dus besonder relevant in die huidige etiese diskoers oor ekonomiese beplanning, arbeid en rus, die omgewing en die vraag oor God se betrokkenheid in die huidige wêreld. <![CDATA[<b>Philosophy and religion: A historical dialogue</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on the implied ethical principles of the history of the manna in Exodus 16 and the relevance of these ethical principles for the contemporary culture of consumerism. The principles that can be derived from this history are the principle of labour and rest, of sharing, the ethical principles of responsible consumption, the protection of creation and of remembrance of God's concern for humankind and creation. Modern consumerism with its underlying neo-liberal economic philosophy appears to violate these principles in many ways. The implied ethical principles of the manna history is thus highly relevant in the ethical discourse about economic planning, labour and rest, the environment and God's involvement in the modern world.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die etiese beginsels wat uit die geskiedenis van die manna in Eksodus 16 voortspruit en die betekenis van hierdie beginsels vir die groeiende verbruikerskultuur van ons tyd. Die beginsels wat hier ter sprake is, is dié van arbeid en rus, verantwoordelike verbruik, mededeelsaamheid, die beskerming van die omgewing en die herinnering aan God se besorgdheid oor die mens en die skepping. Die moderne verbruikerskultuur met sy onderliggende neo-liberalistiese filosofie druis skynbaar teen hierdie beginsels in op veelvuldige wyses. Die etiese beginsels van die mannageskiedenis is dus besonder relevant in die huidige etiese diskoers oor ekonomiese beplanning, arbeid en rus, die omgewing en die vraag oor God se betrokkenheid in die huidige wêreld. <![CDATA[<b>Tweespalt en tweestryd in die modernisme</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on the implied ethical principles of the history of the manna in Exodus 16 and the relevance of these ethical principles for the contemporary culture of consumerism. The principles that can be derived from this history are the principle of labour and rest, of sharing, the ethical principles of responsible consumption, the protection of creation and of remembrance of God's concern for humankind and creation. Modern consumerism with its underlying neo-liberal economic philosophy appears to violate these principles in many ways. The implied ethical principles of the manna history is thus highly relevant in the ethical discourse about economic planning, labour and rest, the environment and God's involvement in the modern world.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die etiese beginsels wat uit die geskiedenis van die manna in Eksodus 16 voortspruit en die betekenis van hierdie beginsels vir die groeiende verbruikerskultuur van ons tyd. Die beginsels wat hier ter sprake is, is dié van arbeid en rus, verantwoordelike verbruik, mededeelsaamheid, die beskerming van die omgewing en die herinnering aan God se besorgdheid oor die mens en die skepping. Die moderne verbruikerskultuur met sy onderliggende neo-liberalistiese filosofie druis skynbaar teen hierdie beginsels in op veelvuldige wyses. Die etiese beginsels van die mannageskiedenis is dus besonder relevant in die huidige etiese diskoers oor ekonomiese beplanning, arbeid en rus, die omgewing en die vraag oor God se betrokkenheid in die huidige wêreld. <![CDATA[<b>Die Afrikaanse kerklied</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on the implied ethical principles of the history of the manna in Exodus 16 and the relevance of these ethical principles for the contemporary culture of consumerism. The principles that can be derived from this history are the principle of labour and rest, of sharing, the ethical principles of responsible consumption, the protection of creation and of remembrance of God's concern for humankind and creation. Modern consumerism with its underlying neo-liberal economic philosophy appears to violate these principles in many ways. The implied ethical principles of the manna history is thus highly relevant in the ethical discourse about economic planning, labour and rest, the environment and God's involvement in the modern world.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die etiese beginsels wat uit die geskiedenis van die manna in Eksodus 16 voortspruit en die betekenis van hierdie beginsels vir die groeiende verbruikerskultuur van ons tyd. Die beginsels wat hier ter sprake is, is dié van arbeid en rus, verantwoordelike verbruik, mededeelsaamheid, die beskerming van die omgewing en die herinnering aan God se besorgdheid oor die mens en die skepping. Die moderne verbruikerskultuur met sy onderliggende neo-liberalistiese filosofie druis skynbaar teen hierdie beginsels in op veelvuldige wyses. Die etiese beginsels van die mannageskiedenis is dus besonder relevant in die huidige etiese diskoers oor ekonomiese beplanning, arbeid en rus, die omgewing en die vraag oor God se betrokkenheid in die huidige wêreld. <![CDATA[<b>Different kinds of modelling - illustrated</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on the implied ethical principles of the history of the manna in Exodus 16 and the relevance of these ethical principles for the contemporary culture of consumerism. The principles that can be derived from this history are the principle of labour and rest, of sharing, the ethical principles of responsible consumption, the protection of creation and of remembrance of God's concern for humankind and creation. Modern consumerism with its underlying neo-liberal economic philosophy appears to violate these principles in many ways. The implied ethical principles of the manna history is thus highly relevant in the ethical discourse about economic planning, labour and rest, the environment and God's involvement in the modern world.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die etiese beginsels wat uit die geskiedenis van die manna in Eksodus 16 voortspruit en die betekenis van hierdie beginsels vir die groeiende verbruikerskultuur van ons tyd. Die beginsels wat hier ter sprake is, is dié van arbeid en rus, verantwoordelike verbruik, mededeelsaamheid, die beskerming van die omgewing en die herinnering aan God se besorgdheid oor die mens en die skepping. Die moderne verbruikerskultuur met sy onderliggende neo-liberalistiese filosofie druis skynbaar teen hierdie beginsels in op veelvuldige wyses. Die etiese beginsels van die mannageskiedenis is dus besonder relevant in die huidige etiese diskoers oor ekonomiese beplanning, arbeid en rus, die omgewing en die vraag oor God se betrokkenheid in die huidige wêreld. <![CDATA[<b>Vroeë Kaapse geskiedenis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572011000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on the implied ethical principles of the history of the manna in Exodus 16 and the relevance of these ethical principles for the contemporary culture of consumerism. The principles that can be derived from this history are the principle of labour and rest, of sharing, the ethical principles of responsible consumption, the protection of creation and of remembrance of God's concern for humankind and creation. Modern consumerism with its underlying neo-liberal economic philosophy appears to violate these principles in many ways. The implied ethical principles of the manna history is thus highly relevant in the ethical discourse about economic planning, labour and rest, the environment and God's involvement in the modern world.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die etiese beginsels wat uit die geskiedenis van die manna in Eksodus 16 voortspruit en die betekenis van hierdie beginsels vir die groeiende verbruikerskultuur van ons tyd. Die beginsels wat hier ter sprake is, is dié van arbeid en rus, verantwoordelike verbruik, mededeelsaamheid, die beskerming van die omgewing en die herinnering aan God se besorgdheid oor die mens en die skepping. Die moderne verbruikerskultuur met sy onderliggende neo-liberalistiese filosofie druis skynbaar teen hierdie beginsels in op veelvuldige wyses. Die etiese beginsels van die mannageskiedenis is dus besonder relevant in die huidige etiese diskoers oor ekonomiese beplanning, arbeid en rus, die omgewing en die vraag oor God se betrokkenheid in die huidige wêreld.