Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720100002&lang=es vol. 75 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redaksioneel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Do values contain directional-normative value?</b> <b>A review of the value project of the North-West University</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Soos die titel aandui, wil hierdie artikel die waarde (indien enige) van waardes ondersoek, veral soos uitgedruk in 'n waardegedrewe instelling. Om nie abstrak te wees nie, fokus die artikel op 'n spesifieke instelling, naamlik 'n universiteit (vgl. die subtitel). Om die ondersoek meer konkreet te maak, word die Noordwes-Universiteit (wat in 2004 tot stand gekom het) as 'n gevallestudie gebruik. Die ondersoek verloop soos volg: ter inleiding word eers op die hedendaagse populariteit van waardedenke gewys, gevolg deur die probleemstelling of waardes werklik daartoe in staat is om normatiewe rigting aan te dui. Tweedens word die oorskakeling van 'n universiteit met 'n beginselgrondslag (die eertydse Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys) na 'n waardegedrewe universiteit (die nuwe Noordwes-Universiteit) geskets. In die derde plek word die nuwe waardegedrewe NWU van nader bekyk. Vierdens volg 'n besinning oor veral die praktiese probleme rondom die implementering van hierdie waardeprojek. Vyfdens word ses filosofies-teoretiese probleme in verband met die waardestelsel na vore gebring. Die volgende hoofafdeling bestaan uit 'n kort beskrywing vanuit 'n reformatoriese perspektief (van struktuur, rigting en relevansie), van wat 'n akademiese instelling behoort in te hou. Daarna volg 'n voorlopige gevolgtrekking waarin twyfel uitgespreek word oor die werklike waarde van waardes om 'n vaste basis en duidelike rigting aan 'n universiteit of ander samelewingsverband te kan gee. Dit is egter 'n voorlopige gevolgtrekking, aangesien dit aan die einde van die ondersoek ook duidelik is dat verdere filosofiese besinning oor die aard, status en gesag van waardes noodsaaklik is.<hr/>As indicated in the title, the aim of this article is to determine the value (if any) of values, especially as expressed by a value-driven institution. To avoid abstract reflection, the article (cf. the subtitle) focuses on a specific institution, viz. a university. To concretesise the investigation even more, the North-West University (which came into existence in 2004) is taken as a case study. The investigation develops as follows: by way of introduction, attention is first given to the popularity of present value thinking, followed by the problem statement: Are such values really capable of indicating a normative direction? Secondly, the development of a university with a normative foundation (the erstwhile Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education) towards a value-driven one (the new North-West University) is briefly described. In the third place a brief description of the NWU as a value-driven institution is given. Fourthly, attention is given to some practical problems which surfaced during the implementation of the value project. Fifthly, six theoretical-philosophical problems regarding the NWU's value system are discussed. The next main point consists of a brief description from a reformational perspective (of structure, direction and relevance) of what an academic institution ought to be. Apart from expressing doubt about the real value of values to give a solid foundation and clear direction to a university, the preliminary conclusion also suggests further philosophical reflection on the real nature, status and authority of values. <![CDATA[<b>Institutional identity: A possible solution to the religion in/and education quandary</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The problem of religion in/and education is a worldwide one for education policy-makers - even in the most homogeneous populations. Several strategies have been developed for coping with this problem, but they tend to fall short in terms of finding equilibrium on the universal-particularity continuum. There is a way for attaining the desired equilibrium, namely to take account of the institutional identity of each individual school, and to allow each school community the freedom to choose the type of religion education that would be most suitable to its particular needs and circumstances.<hr/>Wêreldwyd het onderwysbeleidmakers te doen met die vraagstuk van godsdiens in/en die onderwys - selfs in die mees homogene samelewings. Verskeie strategieë is al in die verlede bedink om die probleem die hoof te bied, maar hulle skiet almal te kort in terme daarvan om 'n ewewig op die universeel-partikulier-kontinuum te vind. Daar is egter nog 'n manier om die gewenste balans op die kontinuum te vind, naamlik deur met die gedagte van die institusionele identiteit van elke skool te werk, en om op grond daarvan elke skoolgemeenskap die vryheid te gun om die soort godsdiensonderwys te kies wat die beste sal voldoen aan sy eie besondere behoeftes en omstandighede. <![CDATA[<b>A neglected facet of the legacy of D.F. Malherbe: <i>Art - independent and dependent</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Gedurende sy studie in Freiburg, Duitsland, moes Malherbe ook filosofie studeer. Sedert die laat sewentigerjare organiseer die Universiteit van die Vrystaat jaarliks 'n D.F. Malherbegedenklesing oor een of ander aspek van die nalatenskap van Malherbe - meestal gefokus op sy literêre werk, maar soms ook oor sy kompetensie as taalkundige. Aanvanklik het hy, in sy siening van kuns en die estetiese, die opvatting verdedig dat die kunstenaar "vry" is in die sin van nie-gebonde-wees aan estetiese norme en beginsels nie. Nogtans het gesprekke met sy skoonseun, Herman Strauss, ná sy aftrede hom in kontak gebring met die nuwe reformatoriese wysbegeerte aan die Vrye Universiteit van Amsterdam (Dooyeweerd en Vollenhoven). Dit het tot 'n radikale paradigmaskuif in sy teoretiese verstaan van die werklikheid en van kuns en die estetiese aanleiding gegee. In hierdie artikel word sy siening van die (on)afhanklikheid van kuns en die estetiese na vore gebring teen die agtergrond van beskouings waarin die sin van die estetiese versteur word, deur dit diensbaar te maak aan iets wat nie-esteties is en van 'n siening wat die estetiese tot 'n selfgenoegsame vesting verhef waar die "siel" rus en geluksaligheid kan beleef. Malherbe ontwikkel n analise van basiese estetiese beginsels soos dit gereflekteer word in die samehang tussen die estetiese en nie-estetiese aspekte van die werklikheid. Die breër konteks van sy denke is ingebed in die ideaal van Christelike wetenskap in alle dissiplines.<hr/>During his studies in Freiburg, Germany Malherbe also had to study philosophy and its history. Since the late seventies the University of the Free State organises an annual commemorative lecture on some or other aspect of the legacy of Malherbe - mostly focused on his literary work and sometimes also on his competence as a linguistic scholar. Initially he adhered, in his view of art and the aesthetic, to the idea that the artist is "free" in the sense of not being bound to aesthetic norms or principles. However, after his retirement discussions with his son-in-law, Herman Strauss, brought him into contact with the new reformational philosophy at the Free University of Amsterdam (Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven). This caused a radical paradigm-shift in his theoretical understanding of reality and in his view of art and the aesthetic. In this article his view of the (in)dependence of art and the aesthetic is presented against the background of views in which the meaning of the aesthetic is distorted by making it serviceable to something non-aesthetic and of a view which elevated the aesthetic into a self-contained haven where the "soul" can experience "rest and bliss". Malherbe provided an analysis of basic aesthetic principles as they reflect the coherence between the aesthetic and non-aesthetic aspects of reality. His broader orientation is embedded in the ideal of Christian scholarship within all the disciplines. <![CDATA[<b>The informatisation of our image of the human being</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Diepgaande refleksie is nodig om te bepaal waar ons vandag met ons voorgestelde beeld van die mens staan. Die beeld wat ons handhaaf, is van die uiterste belang. Dit bepaal tussenmenslike verhoudings en ook menslike handeling. Die tradisionele opvatting van die menslike subjek as absoluut, selfversekerd en outonoom is gedurende die afgelope dekades deeg-lik bevraagteken en kan as uitgedien beskou word. Hierdie herdinkproses het 'n lang geskiedenis en 'n verskeidenheid insigte is deur baie invloedryke denkers ontwikkel. Informatiserings-prosesse speel 'n betekenisvolle rol in die ontwikkeling van hierdie verskillende perspektiewe. Drie ontwikkelings blyk voorrang te geniet. Die eerste is die ontwikkeling van die nosie van die sogenaamde "gedesentreerde subjek". Die tweede ontwikkeling plaas meer klem op die meganiese - die meganisering van die gees, waarin afstand gedoen word van die menslike gees. Hierdie perspektief is die voorloper van die derde ontwikkeling wat 'n verdere degenerasie van die menslike subjektiwiteit behels. Die liggaam-lose bewussyn kan nou op rekenaars afgelaai word. Die posthumane figuur verskyn. Probleme van feilbaarheid, sterflikheid en veroudering gaan verdwyn. Hoewel so 'n apokaliptiese uitgangspunt besonder belowend klink, laat dit heelwat belangrike vrae onbeantwoord. Aan die ander kant kan hierdie herdinkproses sekere ryk en nuwe artikulasies na vore bring oor wat dit beteken om mens te wees. Dit kan ook van groot betekenis wees vir individualiteit en sosialiteit in die lig van die krisisse wat wêreldwyd dreig om hedendaagse samelewings op 'n fatale wyse te laat ontspoor. Dit is egter ook nie heeltemal onverwant aan die ander drie ontwikkelings nie en kry selfs inspirasie daaruit.<hr/>Serious reflection is required to determine our position regarding our image of the human being. The image we maintain is of critical importance. It determines interhuman relations and human action. The traditional notion of the human subject as absolute, self-certain and autonomous has been comprehensively questioned for some decades and can be considered outdated. This rethinking has a long history and a diversity of insights has been developed by many influential thinkers. Processes of informatisation play a significant role in the development of these different perspectives. Three developments seem prominent. The first is the development of the notion of the so-called "decentred subject". The second development puts more emphasis on the mechanical -more specifically the mechanisation of the mind, with the consequent renunciation of human spirituality. This perspective is a predecessor of the third development which entails a further degeneration of human subjectivity. Non-corporeal consciousness can now be downloaded onto computers. The figure of the posthuman emerges. Problems of fallibility, mortality and ageing will disappear. Although such an apocalyptic viewpoint may indeed sound tempting, it leaves many crucial questions unanswered. On the other hand, when dealt with differently, this process of rethinking brings forward some rich and new articulations of what it means to be human, which can be of great significance for individuality and sociality in the light of the crises that threaten to fatally derail contemporary societies worldwide. It is, moreover, not totally unrelated to the other three ways and receives its inspiration from them. <![CDATA[<b>The role of God in the father/son relationship during identity formation - a Gestalt theoretical perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article is based on research done within the Afrikaans-speaking community in the area of the Drakenstein Municipality, Western Cape province, South Africa. The focus falls specifically on one concept that was outlined during the research, namely the perceptions of fathers and adolescent sons on identity formation within their relationship as well as the role that God plays. Combined qualitative/quantitative research was conducted with emphasis on semi-structured interviews with fathers (n=4) and adolescent boys (n=4) and an auto-ethnography of the author as the dominant component. The less-dominant quantitative component consisted of questionnaires completed by fathers (n=42) and adolescent boys (n=180). Metatheoretical assumptions and theoretical assumptions as grounding for the male identity are discussed as part of the author's paradigmatic perspective. Furthermore, empirical findings are discussed and recommendations are made. From the discussions with fathers and their sons it was clear that both fathers and sons have a need to stand in close relationship to each other and to God. It is within this relationship where their identities are formed. However, fathers seemed to be resistant of transferring their beliefs to their sons. Adolescent boys also indicated no need to one day transfer learned behaviour from their fathers to their sons.<hr/>Hierdie artikel word gebaseer op navorsing wat gedoen is binne die Afrikaanssprekende gemeenskap in die area van die Drakenstein munisipaliteit, Wes-Kaap provinsie, Suid-Afrika. Die fokus val spesifiek op een konsep wat tydens die navorsing uitgelig is, naamlik die persepsies van vaders en adolessente seuns oor identiteitsvorming binne hulle verhouding, asook die rol wat God speel. Gekombineerde kwalitatiewe/kwantitatiewe navorsing is uitgevoer met die klem op semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude met vaders (n=4) en adolessente seuns (n=4) en 'n outobiografie van die outeur as die dominante komponent. Die minder dominante kwantitatiewe komponent het bestaan uit vraelyste wat voltooi is deur vaders (n=42) en adolessente seuns (n=180). Metateoretiese en teoretiese aannames vir die begronding van manlike identiteit word bespreek as deel van die skrywer se paradigmatiese perspektief. Verder word empiriese bevindings bespreek en aanbevelings gemaak. Vanuit die besprekings met vaders en seuns was dit duidelik dat albei partye 'n behoefte het aan 'n hegte verhouding met mekaar en met God. Dit is binne hierdie verhouding waar hulle identiteit gevorm word. Dit blyk egter dat vaders 'n weerstandigheid toon om hulle geloofsoortuigings aan hulle seuns oor te dra. Adolessente seuns het ook aangedui dat hulle geen behoefte het om gedrag wat hulle van hulle vaders geleer het eendag aan hulle seuns oor te dra nie. <![CDATA[<b>A consumer perspective on food labelling: Ethical or not?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article provides a review of ethical food labelling from a consumer perspective and makes recommendations to the food industry and regulators regarding ethical food labelling in order to satisfy consumers' food-labelling needs. Various studies have found that many consumers have negative perceptions regarding food labelling. However, research on consumers' perspectives regarding ethical food labelling has been accorded little attention. This article addresses this topic through a review of the relevant literature of mostly quantitative research, but also includes qualitative and mixed method studies. The article examines such aspects as the trustworthiness of claims on food labels, intelligibility of label information, listing of food additives on labels, and labelling of genetically modified foods. As negative perspectives on food labelling are likely to affect consumers' decision making regarding the purchasing of food products, the food industry must realise their responsibility to provide ethical food labels. The food industry and regulators should aim to provide risk communication and intelligible information through ethical food labels and consumer education programmes on food labelling. Consumers need to be aware of their right to know what they are purchasing through ethical food labels and take a stand in this regard.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bied 'n oorsig oor etiese voedseletikettering vanuit 'n verbruikersperspektief en maak aanbevelings aan die voedselindustrie en -reguleerders rakende etiese voedseletikettering om verbruikers se voedseletiketteringsbehoeftes te bevredig. Verskeie studies het bevind dat verbruikers meestal negatiewe persepsies ten opsigte van voedseletikettering het. Min aandag word egter geskenk aan navorsing aangaande verbruikers se perspektiewe oor etiese voedseletikettering. Hierdie onderwerp word in dié artikel aangesny deur middel van 'n oorsig van die betrokke literatuur van meestal kwantitatiewe navorsing, maar ook van kwalitatiewe en gemengde-metode studies. Aspekte soos die betroubaarheid van aansprake op voedseletikette, verstaanbaarheid van voedseletiketinligting, 'n lys van voedseladditiewe op etikette, en etikettering van geneties-gemodifiseerde voedsel word ondersoek. Aangesien negatiewe persepsies van voedseletikettering moontlik ook 'n impak op verbruikers se besluitneming ten opsigte van die aankoop van voedselprodukte mag hê, sal die voedselreguleerders en die voedselindustrie hulle verantwoordelikheid moet besef om etiese voedseletikette te voorsien. Die voedselindustrie en -reguleerders moet daarna streef om risikokommunikasie en verstaanbare inligting deur etiese voedseletikette asook verbruikersopleidingsprogramme oor voedseletikettering te voorsien. Verbruikers moet bewus wees van hulle reg om te weet wat hulle koop deur etiese voedseletikette en behoort standpunt in hierdie verband te kan inneem. <![CDATA[<b>Mentoring to develop research self-efficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.<hr/>Dit is noodsaaklik om onervare navorsers te help ontwikkel om produktief te wees. Baie voorheen-benadeelde individue toon 'n gebrek aan selfdoeltreffendheid ten opsigte van navorsing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe hulle gementor kan word om hulle navorsingselfdoeltreffendheid te verhoog. Die studie word begrond deur die teorie van selfdoeltreffendheid - 'n aspek van die sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie. Insigte wat uit n diepgaande studie van sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie verkry is, uit die selfdoeltreffendheidsteorie en mentorskap, asook uit 'n voltooide mentorprojek, het gelei tot die formulering van drie basiese beginsels. Eerstens behoort instellings 'n ondersteunende omgewing te skep wat selfdoeltreffendheid in navorsing bevorder. Dit impliseer 'n ondersteunende en effektiewe kollektiewe stelsel. Die moontlike effek van prestasie-evaluering- en beloningstelsels moet ook in ag geneem word. Tweedens behoort mentorprojekte geleenthede te skep vir jong navorsers om op grond van geskikte aksies suksesvol te leer. Protégés moet dus in werklike navorsingsprojekte in klein groepies betrek word. Terselfdertyd moet die mentor vaardigheidsontwikkeling fasiliteer deur afrigting ("coaching") en aanmoediging. Mentors moet protégés derdens ondersteun om te glo in hulle eie vermoëns dat hulle suksesvol navorsing kan doen. Dit impliseer die fasilitering van positiewe emosionele toestande, die stimulering van selfrefleksie en n vergelyking met ander in die groep, positiewe evaluerende terugvoer en om n intensionele rolmodel te wees. <![CDATA[<b>Sustainability science: A new challenge to the Southern African scientific community - or is it?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.<hr/>Dit is noodsaaklik om onervare navorsers te help ontwikkel om produktief te wees. Baie voorheen-benadeelde individue toon 'n gebrek aan selfdoeltreffendheid ten opsigte van navorsing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe hulle gementor kan word om hulle navorsingselfdoeltreffendheid te verhoog. Die studie word begrond deur die teorie van selfdoeltreffendheid - 'n aspek van die sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie. Insigte wat uit n diepgaande studie van sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie verkry is, uit die selfdoeltreffendheidsteorie en mentorskap, asook uit 'n voltooide mentorprojek, het gelei tot die formulering van drie basiese beginsels. Eerstens behoort instellings 'n ondersteunende omgewing te skep wat selfdoeltreffendheid in navorsing bevorder. Dit impliseer 'n ondersteunende en effektiewe kollektiewe stelsel. Die moontlike effek van prestasie-evaluering- en beloningstelsels moet ook in ag geneem word. Tweedens behoort mentorprojekte geleenthede te skep vir jong navorsers om op grond van geskikte aksies suksesvol te leer. Protégés moet dus in werklike navorsingsprojekte in klein groepies betrek word. Terselfdertyd moet die mentor vaardigheidsontwikkeling fasiliteer deur afrigting ("coaching") en aanmoediging. Mentors moet protégés derdens ondersteun om te glo in hulle eie vermoëns dat hulle suksesvol navorsing kan doen. Dit impliseer die fasilitering van positiewe emosionele toestande, die stimulering van selfrefleksie en n vergelyking met ander in die groep, positiewe evaluerende terugvoer en om n intensionele rolmodel te wees. <![CDATA[<b>Indeed a composer in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.<hr/>Dit is noodsaaklik om onervare navorsers te help ontwikkel om produktief te wees. Baie voorheen-benadeelde individue toon 'n gebrek aan selfdoeltreffendheid ten opsigte van navorsing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe hulle gementor kan word om hulle navorsingselfdoeltreffendheid te verhoog. Die studie word begrond deur die teorie van selfdoeltreffendheid - 'n aspek van die sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie. Insigte wat uit n diepgaande studie van sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie verkry is, uit die selfdoeltreffendheidsteorie en mentorskap, asook uit 'n voltooide mentorprojek, het gelei tot die formulering van drie basiese beginsels. Eerstens behoort instellings 'n ondersteunende omgewing te skep wat selfdoeltreffendheid in navorsing bevorder. Dit impliseer 'n ondersteunende en effektiewe kollektiewe stelsel. Die moontlike effek van prestasie-evaluering- en beloningstelsels moet ook in ag geneem word. Tweedens behoort mentorprojekte geleenthede te skep vir jong navorsers om op grond van geskikte aksies suksesvol te leer. Protégés moet dus in werklike navorsingsprojekte in klein groepies betrek word. Terselfdertyd moet die mentor vaardigheidsontwikkeling fasiliteer deur afrigting ("coaching") en aanmoediging. Mentors moet protégés derdens ondersteun om te glo in hulle eie vermoëns dat hulle suksesvol navorsing kan doen. Dit impliseer die fasilitering van positiewe emosionele toestande, die stimulering van selfrefleksie en n vergelyking met ander in die groep, positiewe evaluerende terugvoer en om n intensionele rolmodel te wees. <![CDATA[<b>A cool approach to a warm subject</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.<hr/>Dit is noodsaaklik om onervare navorsers te help ontwikkel om produktief te wees. Baie voorheen-benadeelde individue toon 'n gebrek aan selfdoeltreffendheid ten opsigte van navorsing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe hulle gementor kan word om hulle navorsingselfdoeltreffendheid te verhoog. Die studie word begrond deur die teorie van selfdoeltreffendheid - 'n aspek van die sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie. Insigte wat uit n diepgaande studie van sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie verkry is, uit die selfdoeltreffendheidsteorie en mentorskap, asook uit 'n voltooide mentorprojek, het gelei tot die formulering van drie basiese beginsels. Eerstens behoort instellings 'n ondersteunende omgewing te skep wat selfdoeltreffendheid in navorsing bevorder. Dit impliseer 'n ondersteunende en effektiewe kollektiewe stelsel. Die moontlike effek van prestasie-evaluering- en beloningstelsels moet ook in ag geneem word. Tweedens behoort mentorprojekte geleenthede te skep vir jong navorsers om op grond van geskikte aksies suksesvol te leer. Protégés moet dus in werklike navorsingsprojekte in klein groepies betrek word. Terselfdertyd moet die mentor vaardigheidsontwikkeling fasiliteer deur afrigting ("coaching") en aanmoediging. Mentors moet protégés derdens ondersteun om te glo in hulle eie vermoëns dat hulle suksesvol navorsing kan doen. Dit impliseer die fasilitering van positiewe emosionele toestande, die stimulering van selfrefleksie en n vergelyking met ander in die groep, positiewe evaluerende terugvoer en om n intensionele rolmodel te wees. <![CDATA[<b>Philosophical foundations of Statistics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.<hr/>Dit is noodsaaklik om onervare navorsers te help ontwikkel om produktief te wees. Baie voorheen-benadeelde individue toon 'n gebrek aan selfdoeltreffendheid ten opsigte van navorsing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe hulle gementor kan word om hulle navorsingselfdoeltreffendheid te verhoog. Die studie word begrond deur die teorie van selfdoeltreffendheid - 'n aspek van die sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie. Insigte wat uit n diepgaande studie van sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie verkry is, uit die selfdoeltreffendheidsteorie en mentorskap, asook uit 'n voltooide mentorprojek, het gelei tot die formulering van drie basiese beginsels. Eerstens behoort instellings 'n ondersteunende omgewing te skep wat selfdoeltreffendheid in navorsing bevorder. Dit impliseer 'n ondersteunende en effektiewe kollektiewe stelsel. Die moontlike effek van prestasie-evaluering- en beloningstelsels moet ook in ag geneem word. Tweedens behoort mentorprojekte geleenthede te skep vir jong navorsers om op grond van geskikte aksies suksesvol te leer. Protégés moet dus in werklike navorsingsprojekte in klein groepies betrek word. Terselfdertyd moet die mentor vaardigheidsontwikkeling fasiliteer deur afrigting ("coaching") en aanmoediging. Mentors moet protégés derdens ondersteun om te glo in hulle eie vermoëns dat hulle suksesvol navorsing kan doen. Dit impliseer die fasilitering van positiewe emosionele toestande, die stimulering van selfrefleksie en n vergelyking met ander in die groep, positiewe evaluerende terugvoer en om n intensionele rolmodel te wees. <![CDATA[<b>Martelaarsliteratuur uit die vroeë Christendom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.<hr/>Dit is noodsaaklik om onervare navorsers te help ontwikkel om produktief te wees. Baie voorheen-benadeelde individue toon 'n gebrek aan selfdoeltreffendheid ten opsigte van navorsing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe hulle gementor kan word om hulle navorsingselfdoeltreffendheid te verhoog. Die studie word begrond deur die teorie van selfdoeltreffendheid - 'n aspek van die sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie. Insigte wat uit n diepgaande studie van sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie verkry is, uit die selfdoeltreffendheidsteorie en mentorskap, asook uit 'n voltooide mentorprojek, het gelei tot die formulering van drie basiese beginsels. Eerstens behoort instellings 'n ondersteunende omgewing te skep wat selfdoeltreffendheid in navorsing bevorder. Dit impliseer 'n ondersteunende en effektiewe kollektiewe stelsel. Die moontlike effek van prestasie-evaluering- en beloningstelsels moet ook in ag geneem word. Tweedens behoort mentorprojekte geleenthede te skep vir jong navorsers om op grond van geskikte aksies suksesvol te leer. Protégés moet dus in werklike navorsingsprojekte in klein groepies betrek word. Terselfdertyd moet die mentor vaardigheidsontwikkeling fasiliteer deur afrigting ("coaching") en aanmoediging. Mentors moet protégés derdens ondersteun om te glo in hulle eie vermoëns dat hulle suksesvol navorsing kan doen. Dit impliseer die fasilitering van positiewe emosionele toestande, die stimulering van selfrefleksie en n vergelyking met ander in die groep, positiewe evaluerende terugvoer en om n intensionele rolmodel te wees. <![CDATA[<b>Postmillennial gendered discourses in South African musicology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) - an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research self-efficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.<hr/>Dit is noodsaaklik om onervare navorsers te help ontwikkel om produktief te wees. Baie voorheen-benadeelde individue toon 'n gebrek aan selfdoeltreffendheid ten opsigte van navorsing. Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe hulle gementor kan word om hulle navorsingselfdoeltreffendheid te verhoog. Die studie word begrond deur die teorie van selfdoeltreffendheid - 'n aspek van die sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie. Insigte wat uit n diepgaande studie van sosiaal-kognitiewe teorie verkry is, uit die selfdoeltreffendheidsteorie en mentorskap, asook uit 'n voltooide mentorprojek, het gelei tot die formulering van drie basiese beginsels. Eerstens behoort instellings 'n ondersteunende omgewing te skep wat selfdoeltreffendheid in navorsing bevorder. Dit impliseer 'n ondersteunende en effektiewe kollektiewe stelsel. Die moontlike effek van prestasie-evaluering- en beloningstelsels moet ook in ag geneem word. Tweedens behoort mentorprojekte geleenthede te skep vir jong navorsers om op grond van geskikte aksies suksesvol te leer. Protégés moet dus in werklike navorsingsprojekte in klein groepies betrek word. Terselfdertyd moet die mentor vaardigheidsontwikkeling fasiliteer deur afrigting ("coaching") en aanmoediging. Mentors moet protégés derdens ondersteun om te glo in hulle eie vermoëns dat hulle suksesvol navorsing kan doen. Dit impliseer die fasilitering van positiewe emosionele toestande, die stimulering van selfrefleksie en n vergelyking met ander in die groep, positiewe evaluerende terugvoer en om n intensionele rolmodel te wees.