Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720100001&lang=es vol. 75 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Preamble</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Bennie and IAPCHE</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Professor B.J. van der Walt: A very complex and dynamic configuration of a variety of functions centrally religiously directed in all his actions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Interview with Bennie van der Walt</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>B.J. van der Walt's concentration problem</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Deze bijdrage onderzoekt een dubbele veronderstelling van de benadering van secularisatie en secularisme in B.J. van der Walt's "Transforming power" (2007). De eerste veronderstelling is dat de menselijke natuur intrinsiek religieus is, in de zin dat niemand kan leven zonder zich aan iemand of iets toe te vertrouwen. De tweede aanname, door mij aangeduid als de "concentratie these", is dat de religieuze impuls normaliter zich in geconcentreerde vorm uit, in plaats van zich over meerdere objecten te verdelen. Op grond van beide vooronderstellingen herleidt Van der Walt atheïsme en zelfs godsdienstige onverschilligheid tot overtuigingen die qua intensiteit met geloofsovertuigingen overeenstemmen en evenals de laatste naar hegemonie streven op het publieke terrein. Na het analytische deel volgt een eigen stellingname. De schrijver van deze bijdrage staat sympathiek tegenover de eerste aanname, maar verwerpt de tweede. Het voornaamste argument is dat de concentratie these geen recht doet aan het verschijnsel van wereld- en levensbeschouwingen die het leven van aanhangers niet volledig in beslag nemen. Deze stelling wordt uitgewerkt in een beschouwingen over het hedendaagse humanisme en het verschijnsel van "multiple religious participation".<hr/>This contribution probes the concept of secularism, a key notion of B.J. van der Walt's "Transforming power" (2007). It is found that Van der Walt's interpretation of secularism rests on a double assumption. The first assumption is that human nature is intrinsically religious. Humans cannot live without putting their trust in something. The second is that this religious nature manifests itself in "concentrated" ways, rather than dispersing itself over a plurality of objects. These assumptions in tandem explain why Van der Walt holds the view that atheism, agnosticism and even overt indifference in matters of faith are at heart propelled by convictions that share the main features of positive religions. It also explains why he assumes that all these convictions tend towards one and the same goal: to gain dominance in the public realm. This article is sympathetic towards the first assumption, and skeptical towards the second. It is argued that the "concentration-thesis" fails to do justice to world and life-views that obviously do not claim total allegiance. To illustrate this point it turns to the phenomenon of "multiple religious participation", as well as to different strands within contemporary humanism. It concludes that the main problem may well be that secular culture has little to offer to satisfy the innate religious drive in humankind. Finally, an attempt is made to amend the notion of secularism in such a way as to steer clear from "Konsequenzmacherei". <![CDATA[<b>Reflecting on our past: Reconciling a divided nation through listening</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The miracle of a relatively peaceful transition from apartheid to a non-racial democratic rule in South Africa stunned political pundits and observers. After decades of dehumanising laws which led to unbelievable racial conflict and the killing of many people, the country witnessed the birth of a new dispensation. This article briefly recounts the tragic history of South Africa, the current challenges the country faces for sustainable peaceful coexistence between the various racial groups, and the role that listening played and should continue to play in the process of national reconciliation.<hr/>Die wonderwerk van 'n relatief vreedsame oorgang vanaf apartheid tot 'n nie-rassige demokratiese regering in Suid-Afrika het politieke waarnemers en kenners verstom. Na dekades van dehumaniserende wette wat gelei het tot geweldige rassekonflik en die dood van baie mense, is die geboorte van 'n nuwe bedeling waargeneem. Hierdie artikel bied 'n kort oorsig oor Suid-Afrika se tragiese geskiedenis, die uitdagings wat die land tans in die gesig staar ten opsigte van die volhoubare en vreedsame naasbestaan van die verskillende rassegroepe, sowel as die rol wat luister speel, asook die voortgesette rol wat dit behoort te speel in die proses van nasionale rekonsiliasie. <![CDATA[<b>Professor Bennie van der Walt: A bridge between white Afrikaners and black Africans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article honours Professor Bennie van der Walt as a bridge builder between white Afrikaners and black Africans as well as a renowned Christian scholar. Historical Western colonialism in South Africa divided its citizens against each other by means of white racism and apartheid. The whites in general were pitched against the blacks on the basis of white racism and its doctrine of apartheid. This doctrine of separation of races kept the white Afrikaners from the Bantu Africans. However, apartheid as a form of political, social, cultural and religious racism is now history in South Africa. The role which Professor Van der Walt played in bridging the gap between this racial divide is highly commendable and needs to be acknowledged and appreciated, hence the primary objective of this article in honour of his 71st birthday. Furthermore, the article discusses the immense contributions of Professor Bennie van der Walt to Christian scholarship in Africa.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bring eer aan professor Bennie van der Walt as brugbouer tussen wit Afrikaners en swart Afrikane, en as gerespekteerde Christelike akademikus. Die geskiedenis van Westerse kolonialisme het Suid-Afrika se burgers verdeel en teen mekaar gedraai deur middel van wit rassisme en die leerstelling van apartheid. Hierdie leerstelling van rasseverdeling het wit Afrikaners weggehou van swart Afrikane. Apartheid as vorm van politieke, sosiale, kulturele en religieuse rassisme is egter nou deel van Suid-Afrika se geskiedenis. Die rol wat professor Van der Walt gespeel het om die gaping tussen die rasgebaseerde verdeeldheid te oorbrug, is hoogs prysenswaardig en behoort erken en waardeer te word - vandaar die primêre doelwit van hierdie artikel terere van sy 71e verjaardag. Die artikel bespreek ook professor Bennie van der Walt se ontsaglike bydrae tot Christelike wetenskap in Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>The central place of a life - and worldview</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Met inagneming van die verskil tussen 'n wereldbeeld en 'n lewens- en wêreldbeskouing, fokus hierdie artikel op die belangrike funderende rol van 'n lewens- en wêreldbeskouing -juis aangesien professor Bennie van der Walt soveel aandag gegee het in sy publikokasies aan die implikasies van die Christelike lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. In laasgenoemde vind ons 'n belangrike steunpilaar waardeur ons gevrywaar word van 'n biblisistiese (of fundamentalistiese) misverstaan van die appèl van die Skrifboodskap. God se wet-Woord vir skepselwees moet onderskei word van die Skrif-Woord wat ons na eersgenoemde verwys. 'n Belangrike vrug van die Christelike lewens- en wêreldbeskouing vind ons juis in die ideaal van Christelike wetenskap - 'n tema waarmee professor Bennie van der Walt hom deurlopend besig gehou het. Omdat die nalewende Roomse tweedeling van die werklikheid - in n gewyde bonatuurlike en 'n natuurlik-"sekulêre" sfeer - met die daarmee gepaardgaande teenstellings (soos kerk en wêreld, geloof en rede, sakraal en sekulêr, siel en liggaam, e.s.m.) - steeds in ons protestantse erfenis aanwesig is, fokus die res van hierdie artikel op 'n perspektief waarin hierdie tweedeling te bowe gekom kan word. Die grondgedagte is dat die rigting-teenstelling tussen goed en kwaad (verlossing en sonde) nie verdraai moet word tot 'n struktuur-teenstelling binne die goedgeskape orde van God se skepping nie.<hr/>While taking into account the difference between a worldview and a lifeview this article focuses on the important foundational role of a life- and worldview - precisely because Professor Bennie van der Walt dedicated so much of his scholarly output to the implications of the Christian world- and lifeview. Within the latter context we find an important pillar safeguarding us against a biblicistic (or fundamentalist) misapprehension of the scope of the biblical message. God's law-Word for being a creature must be distinguished from the written Word which refers us to the former. An important outcome of the Christian life- and worldview is particularly found in the ideal of Christian scholarship - a theme with which Professor Bennie van der Walt continuously occupied himself. Because the after-effect of the Roman Catholic split of reality - in a sacred supernatural and a natural "secular" sphere - with the accompanying oppositions (such as church and world, faith and reason, sacred and secular, soul and body, and so on) - is still found within our protestant legacy, the rest of this article focuses on a perspective that can help us to transcend this dichotomy. The basic conception is that the directional antithesis between good and evil (redemption and sin) ought not to be twisted into a structural opposition within the good creational order of God for creatures. <![CDATA[<b>Religion in education: Is there yet another solution?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es As colleague and co-worker of Professor Bennie van der Walt, the author has been in a position for several decades now to apply some of Bennie van der Walt's philosophical and theological insights in the field of education. Professor Van der Walt's recent discussion and critique of secularism and of religious tolerance enables the author to analyse the educational situation in South Africa and elsewhere with particular emphasis on policies about religion in/and education. These investigations lead him to conclude that most education systems seem to resort to secular public-private and worldly-sacral dualistic policies for addressing the problem of potential religious conflict in schools. After considering the Dutch policy of (increasing) pillarisation and the South African policy of banning confessional aspects of religious education to the private spheres of citizens' lives, he proposes a solution based on the concept of institutional religious and life-conceptual identity. This approach can also lead to religious tolerance among learners in schools (as mooted by Bennie van der Walt and others) while circumventing the pitfalls of secularism.<hr/>As kollega en medewerker van professor Bennie van der Walt was dit vir die outeur verskeie dekades lank moontlik om sommige van Bennie van der Walt se filosofiese en teologiese insigte op die terrein van die onderwys toe te pas. Professor van der Walt se onlangse bespreking en ontleding van sekularisme en godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid stel die outeur in staat om die onderwyssituasie in Suid-Afrika en elders te ontleed, met besondere nadruk op beleid rakende godsdiens in die onderwys/die skole. Hierdie ondersoek lei hom tot die gevolgtrekking dat die meeste onderwysstelsels terugval op sekularistiese openbaar-privaat en wêreldse-heilige (sakrale) dualistiese beleide om die probleem van potensiële religieuse konflik in skole te voorkom. Na 'n oorweging van die Nederlandse beleid van (toenemende) versuiling en van die Suid-Afrikaanse beleid om die konfessionele aspekte van godsdiensonderwys na die private sfere van mense se lewens te verban, doen hy aan die hand dat 'n nuwe beleid geskep moet word wat op die idee van institusionele godsdienstige en lewens-beskoulike identiteit gebaseer is. Hierdie oplossing kan ook tot godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid onder leerders in skole lei (soos deur Bennie van der Walt en andere in die vooruitsig gestel), terwyl dit die voetangels van die sekularisme ontduik. <![CDATA[<b>The struggle around the direction of Western culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Herbert Marcuse is de belangrijkste vertegenwoordiger van de culturele revolutie van de twintigste eeuw. Hij vertegenwoordigt de weerstand in de Westerse cultuur tegen het wetenschappelijk-technisch ideaal van de Verlichting. Zijn vrijheidsideaal heeft niettemin dezelfde wortels. Sinds de Verlichting wordt de Westerse cultuur beheerst door de strijd tussen deze twee idealen. Om de strijd te verminderen en de spanning in de cultuur te laten afnemen, is een transformatie van de cultuur noodzakelijk. Daarvoor hebben we een verlichting van de Verlichting nodig. In het oude cultuurparadigma wordt de natuur als levenloos gezien en, gezien dat ethisch kader, uitgebuit door grenzenloze manipulatie. Vandaag zien we hoe de technisch-economische ontwikkeling op grote schaal het "leven" bedreigt en vaak al vernietigt. Een verantwoorde cultuurontwikkeling vertegenwoordigt een cultuurparadigma dat de aarde in ontwikkeling ziet naar een grote tuinstad in het perspectief van gerechtigheid en liefde. In die toekomstige cultuurontwikkeling moeten economie en technologie het leven dienen. In dat perspectief de cultuur ontwikkelen, betekent een geestelijke en filosofische strijd in de richting van een transformatie van de materialistische Westerse cultuur.<hr/>Herbert Marcuse is the most important representative of the cultural revolution of the sixties of the twentieth century. He represents resistance against the scientific-technological ideal of the Enlightenment. His ideal of freedom has, nevertheless, the same roots. Since the Enlightenment Western culture has been characterised by a struggle between the freedom ideal and the scientific-technological control ideal. To lessen the tension we need a cultural transformation. Therefore we need an enlightenment of the Enlightenment. In the old cultural paradigm, nature is seen as lifeless and, given that framework, is exploited by unbridled manipulation. Today we see how the technological-economic development threatens "life" itself, to the point of destroying it. A responsible cultural development summons a representation of culture that depicts earth as a garden tended by humans. The garden has to be developed in the perspective of a city garden, where righteousness, love and therefore protecting life are the main principles. To follow such guidelines implies a spiritual and philosophical struggle in the direction of a transformation of Western culture. <![CDATA[<b>A Christian mission of glocal culture within riven societies in God's world</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Globalisation today seems to be an implacable force at work trying to homogenise world cultures into the same format. Huntington's well-known thesis sees a clash coming between Christian Western civilisation and the rest of the world. This article argues against Huntington that civilised cultures with different identities have comparable structural features. Because contrary cultures are all human constructs with good and bad mixed in, they can, like human relatives, learn from and correct one another rather than demonise others. It is posited that the deepest antagonism disturbing the world is not a Christian West versus the rest, but is largely the struggle between two tyrannical ideologies: a post-Christian capitalistic secularism and a theocratic fundamentalism. A biblical Christian mission of glocal culture formation (global awareness and local action) is offered as an alternative vision for our worsening dilemma. This biblically-rooted diaconal way to be redemptively busy in salvaging cultural activity proffers concrete hope. The life work of Bennie van der Walt is cited as an example, and a few illustrations of glocal artistry provide evidence that such a Christian mission can be deed as well as talk.<hr/>Globalisering blyk 'n onverbiddelike krag te wees wat wêreldkulture homogeniseer tot dieselfde formaat. Huntington se welbekende hipotese voorspel 'n botsing tussen die Westerse Christelike beskawing en die res van die wêreld. Hierdie artikel argumenteer teen die siening van Huntington dat beskaafde kulture met verskillende identiteite vergelykbare strukturele eienskappe besit. Omdat teenoorstaande kulture menslike samestellings is, met goeie en slegte eienskappe, kan hulle, soos 'n familie, by mekaar leer en mekaar reghelp, eerder as om mekaar te benadeel. Dit word hier gestel dat die diepste vyandigheid wat die wêreld bedreig nie dié van die Christelike Weste teen die res is nie, maar grootliks die stryd tussen twee tiranniese ideologieë is, naamlik post-Christelike kapitalistiese sekularisme en 'n teokratiese fundamentalisme. 'n Bybels-Christelike missie van glokale kultuurvorming (globale bewustheid en lokale aksie) word aangebied as 'n alternatiewe visie vir hierdie verslegtende dilemma. Die Bybels-gefundeerde diakonale manier om bevrydend besig te wees met die bewaring van kuturele aktiwiteite, bied konkrete hoop. Die lewenstaak van Bennie van der Walt word as voorbeeld hiervan voorgehou en 'n paar voorbeelde van glokale kuns voorsien die bewyse dat sodanige Christelike missie woorde sowel as dade kan wees. <![CDATA[<b>Towards authentic development</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article explores the basis of the current definition of social development and deficiencies in this definition. In this context the power of today's global commercial empire is explored with well-documented evidence of the damage being done to human well-being in the interest of profit. An alternative definition of development is proposed concluding with a profile of a developed society. It is suggested that, on the basis of the current definition, there is little hope of African countries ever becoming "developed". On the other hand, while there are still challenges to be faced, the proposed alternative profile offers a realistic possibility of being achieved.<hr/>Hierdie artikel verken die onderbou van, sowel as die leemtes in 'n (tans) algemeen-aanvaarde definisie van sosiale ontwikkeling. Die mag van die hedendaagse kommersiële heerskappy word binne hierdie konteks opgevolg met goed-gedokumenteerde bewyse van die skade wat menslike welsyn berokken word in die belang van winsgewendheid. 'n Alternatiewe definisie van ontwikkeling word voorgestel met die profiel van 'n ontwikkelde gemeenskap as die slotsom. Die stelling word gemaak dat die huidige definisie van sosiale ontwikkeling min hoop bied vir Afrikalande om ooit "ontwikkeld" te wees. Terwyl daar nog uitdagings is om te oorkom, bied die voorgestelde alternatief 'n realistiese moontlikheid waarna gestreef kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Traces of neo-Calvinism in France and Italy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article deals with the history of the neo-Calvinist movement in France and Italy. The efforts of the Dutch Reformational movement to communicate with French (mainly reformed) Christians are highlighted. A brief overview of the achievements of the few French scholars involved in this development is sketched and their publications are mentioned, together with a few conferences and organisations. Neo-Calvinism reached Italy as well, via the input of French lecturers and publications. The few developments of neo-Calvinism in Italy are recorded as well. Also, the gradual drift towards vantilian and reconstructionist positions (in both countries) is detected and discussed. An evaluation of these developments is provided, together with a few final considerations and questions which should help learning lessons from the past and preparing better strategies for the future.<hr/>Hierdie artikel handel oor die geskiedenis van die neo-Calvinistiese beweging in Frankryk en Italië. Die pogings van die Nederlandse Reformatoriese beweging om met Franse (hoofsaaklik reformatoriese) Christene te kommunikeer, word belig. 'n Kort oorsig van dit wat enkele Franse geleerdes in hierdie ontwikkeling bereik het, word geskets en hulle publikasies word genoem, asook enkele konferensies en organisasies. Die neo-Calvinisme het Italië bereik as gevolg van die pogings van Franse dosente en publikasies. Die enkele ontwikkelings van neo-Calvinisme in Italië word ook weergegee. Die geleidelike beweging na Van Tiliaanse en rekonstruksionistiese posisies (in albei lande) word ook uitgewys en bespreek. 'n Evaluering van hierdie ontwikkeling word gegee, asook enkele finale oorwegings en vrae wat behoort te help wanneer lesse uit die verlede geleer moet word en beter strategië vir die toekoms voorberei word. <![CDATA[<b>Reflections on a Christian view of human communication</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article defines human communication as community building and describes the various functions of communication in life. It argues that a number of other human activities are presupposed in communication without which communication would not be possible. These activities are its inherent functions. Community building is described as the authentic function of communication. Without it communication would not be what it is. Lastly, there are several social activities that depend on communication for their existence. These are what communication is for. Such functions form the adherent functions of communication. Next the article describes a set of norms or criteria for distinguishing good communication from bad. Then follows a description of some models of communication found in the literature. These are seen as less than full descriptions of actual human communication. A few of these models reduce communication to one or more of its inherent functions. One honours the authentic function but none of them do justice to the adherent functions of communication. In addition, the article briefly describes and evaluates mass media communication. Because of its monological nature this communication can only produce one-way messages from sender to receiver. It thus gives the sender an unfair advantage of influence over the receiver. Dialogical communication remedies that problem and is to be preferred because in it the influence is mutual between the sender and the receiver of a message. However, it fails to account for the influence of such communication on third parties not involved in the dialogical relationship. The article, therefore, favours what it calls a triological form of communicating. In closing the article briefly describes social networking as the latest form of human communication.<hr/>Hierdie artikel definieer menslike kommunikasie as gemeenskapsopbouing en beskryf verskeie funksies van kommunikasie. Daar word geargumenteer dat 'n aantal ander menslike aktiwiteite in kommunikasie vooronderstel word waarsonder kommunikasie nie moontlik sou wees nie. Hierdie aktiwiteite is inherente funksies. Gemeenskapsopbouing word beskryf as die outentieke funksie van kommunikasie. Daarsonder sou kommunikasie nie kon wees wat dit is nie. Laastens is daar ook verskeie sosiale aktiwiteite wat van kommunikasie afhanklik is vir hulle voortbestaan. Dit is waarvoor kommunikasie daar is. Sodanige funksies vorm die adherente funksies van kommunikasie. Vervolgens beskryf die artikel 'n stel norme of kriteria om goeie kommunikasie van slegte kommunikasie te onderskei. Daarna volg 'n verduideliking van sommige van die kommunikasiemodelle wat in die literatuur gevind kan word. Dit is egter nie volledige beskrywings van werklike menslike kommunikasie nie. 'n Paar van hierdie modelle reduseer kommunikasie tot een of meer van die inherente funksies van kommunikasie. Een erken die outentieke funksie, maar geeneen laat reg geskied aan die adherente funksies van kommunikasie nie. Verder beskryf en evalueer die artikel kortliks massamediakommunikasie. As gevolg van die monologiese aard van hierdie kommunikasie kan slegs eenrigtingboodskappe vanaf die sender na die ontvanger gestuur word. Dus word 'n onregverdige voordeel aan die sender verleen ten opsigte van die beïnvloeding van die ontvanger. Dialogiese kommunikasie dien as oplossing vir die genoemde probleem en word daarom verkies, omdat hiermee die invloed tussen sender en ontvanger wedersyds gelyk is. Hierdie model hou egter nie rekening met die invloed daarvan op' n derde party wat nie direk by die dialogiese verhouding betrokke is nie. Hierdie artikel verkies dus wat genoem word 'n triologiese vorm van kommunikasie. Ten slotte beskryf die artikel kortliks sosiale netwerking as die mees onlangste vorm van menslike kommunikasie. <![CDATA[<b><i>Hermeneia:</i></b><b> A theological discourse on hermeneutical issues with three South African theologians</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Onder die Afrikaanse kerke bestaan n Tussenkerklike Raad wat van tyd tot tyd ontmoet om oor aktuele onderwerpe n gesprek te voer. Hierdie artikel bevat n verwerking van n voordrag oor hermeneutiek wat tydens so n ontmoeting in 2009 gelewer is. In die artikel word enkele inleidende opmerkings oor hermeneutiek gemaak, waarna die outeur - ter wille van die debat - die hermeneutiese modelle van drie teoloë uit drie kerke krities ondersoek. Deurgaans blyk watter groot rol her-meneutiek by Skrifinterpretasie speel - en behoort te speel. Vanweë die besondere aktualiteit en belangrikheid daarvan, is een tema uit die teologie, naamlik Christologie, aan n dieper ondersoek onderwerp. Ten slotte doen die skrywer enkele riglyne aan die hand wat syns insiens tot n beter Skrifverstaan kan bydra. Die polemiese aanslag van die artikel moet teen die agtergrond van die ontstaansgeskiedenis daarvan verstaan word.<hr/>There is an interdenominational Council among the Afrikaans churches that meets from time to time to discuss topical matters. This article contains a revision of a presentation on hermeneutics given during such a meeting in 2009. In the article some introductory remarks are made on hermeneutics and subsequently the author critically investigates - for the sake of discussion - the hermeneutical models set up by three theologians from three churches. Right through it is apparent what a great role hermeneutics plays in the interpretation of Scripture - and should play. Since it is particularly topical and significant one theme from theology, namely Christology, is subjected to a more thorough investigation. Finally the author proposes some guidelines which in his opinion could contribute to a better understanding of Scripture. The polemic nature of the article has to be understood against the background of the history of its origin. <![CDATA[<b>Morality, the obtrusive and the conditional</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die sekularistiese (immanentistiese), historistiese en pluralistiese aard van huidige denke bemoeilik die artikulering van transendentale voorwaardes virmoraliteit. Oënskynlik is dit veral die konstantheid van 'n struktuur vir moraliteit wat as transendentale voorwaarde vir moraliteit in die spervuur is. Maar 'n aggressiewe immanentisme wat veroorsaak dat 'n transendente oorsprong vir moraliteit glad nie eers op die agenda van laat-moderne denkers mag verskyn nie, is waarskynlik net so 'n akute uitsluit van transendentale oorwegings. In hierdie artikel word gewys op die (soms onbewustelike) ervaring van sommige filosowe dat 'n konstante struktuur vir moraliteit ditself wel aan ons opdring. 'n Verdere aanspraak is dat 'n soortgelyke opdringerigheid bemerk kan word ten opsigte van 'n samehangende verskeidenheid morele bronne (d.w.s. bronne wat hulle transendentaal t.o.v. mekaar bevind). Die "gewaagdste" argument is vir 'n transendentale transendente oorsprong vir moraliteit.<hr/>The secularist (immanentist), historicist and pluralistic nature of current thinking disables the articulation of transcendental conditions for morality. It is ostensibly especially the constancy of a structure for morality, as transcendental condition, for morality that is disputable. However, an aggressive immanen-tism sees to it that a transcendent origin for morality does not even appear on the agenda of late modern thinkers, which makes the latter probably an equally serious marginalisation of transcendental considerations. In this article the (sometimes unconscious) experience of some philosophers that a constant structure for morality obtrudes itself upon us, is highlighted. A further claim is that a similar obtrusion can be observed about a coherent diversity of moral sources (i.e. sources which find themselves in a transcendental position with regard to each other). The "most daring" argument is for a transcendental transcendent origin for morality. <![CDATA[<b>A reading of T.S. Eliot's <i>Ash-Wednesday</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die sekularistiese (immanentistiese), historistiese en pluralistiese aard van huidige denke bemoeilik die artikulering van transendentale voorwaardes virmoraliteit. Oënskynlik is dit veral die konstantheid van 'n struktuur vir moraliteit wat as transendentale voorwaarde vir moraliteit in die spervuur is. Maar 'n aggressiewe immanentisme wat veroorsaak dat 'n transendente oorsprong vir moraliteit glad nie eers op die agenda van laat-moderne denkers mag verskyn nie, is waarskynlik net so 'n akute uitsluit van transendentale oorwegings. In hierdie artikel word gewys op die (soms onbewustelike) ervaring van sommige filosowe dat 'n konstante struktuur vir moraliteit ditself wel aan ons opdring. 'n Verdere aanspraak is dat 'n soortgelyke opdringerigheid bemerk kan word ten opsigte van 'n samehangende verskeidenheid morele bronne (d.w.s. bronne wat hulle transendentaal t.o.v. mekaar bevind). Die "gewaagdste" argument is vir 'n transendentale transendente oorsprong vir moraliteit.<hr/>The secularist (immanentist), historicist and pluralistic nature of current thinking disables the articulation of transcendental conditions for morality. It is ostensibly especially the constancy of a structure for morality, as transcendental condition, for morality that is disputable. However, an aggressive immanen-tism sees to it that a transcendent origin for morality does not even appear on the agenda of late modern thinkers, which makes the latter probably an equally serious marginalisation of transcendental considerations. In this article the (sometimes unconscious) experience of some philosophers that a constant structure for morality obtrudes itself upon us, is highlighted. A further claim is that a similar obtrusion can be observed about a coherent diversity of moral sources (i.e. sources which find themselves in a transcendental position with regard to each other). The "most daring" argument is for a transcendental transcendent origin for morality. <![CDATA[<b>Geskrifte van B.J. van der Walt / Publications of B.J. van der Walt 1960-2010</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572010000100018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die sekularistiese (immanentistiese), historistiese en pluralistiese aard van huidige denke bemoeilik die artikulering van transendentale voorwaardes virmoraliteit. Oënskynlik is dit veral die konstantheid van 'n struktuur vir moraliteit wat as transendentale voorwaarde vir moraliteit in die spervuur is. Maar 'n aggressiewe immanentisme wat veroorsaak dat 'n transendente oorsprong vir moraliteit glad nie eers op die agenda van laat-moderne denkers mag verskyn nie, is waarskynlik net so 'n akute uitsluit van transendentale oorwegings. In hierdie artikel word gewys op die (soms onbewustelike) ervaring van sommige filosowe dat 'n konstante struktuur vir moraliteit ditself wel aan ons opdring. 'n Verdere aanspraak is dat 'n soortgelyke opdringerigheid bemerk kan word ten opsigte van 'n samehangende verskeidenheid morele bronne (d.w.s. bronne wat hulle transendentaal t.o.v. mekaar bevind). Die "gewaagdste" argument is vir 'n transendentale transendente oorsprong vir moraliteit.<hr/>The secularist (immanentist), historicist and pluralistic nature of current thinking disables the articulation of transcendental conditions for morality. It is ostensibly especially the constancy of a structure for morality, as transcendental condition, for morality that is disputable. However, an aggressive immanen-tism sees to it that a transcendent origin for morality does not even appear on the agenda of late modern thinkers, which makes the latter probably an equally serious marginalisation of transcendental considerations. In this article the (sometimes unconscious) experience of some philosophers that a constant structure for morality obtrudes itself upon us, is highlighted. A further claim is that a similar obtrusion can be observed about a coherent diversity of moral sources (i.e. sources which find themselves in a transcendental position with regard to each other). The "most daring" argument is for a transcendental transcendent origin for morality.