Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720090003&lang=pt vol. 74 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Calvyn as kategeet</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Luther as protestant Catechist</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Luthers katechetischen Bemühungen ruhen auf den katechetischen Traditionen seit der alten Kirche. Er knüpft an diese und insbesondere an den mittelalterlichen Katechismusunterricht an. Im zeitgenössischen römischen Katholizismus diagnostiziert Luther schwere Defizite und Vernachlässigungen hinsichtlich des Katechismusunterrichtes. Der Katechismus ist für Luther kurze Zusammenfassung der Heiligen Schrift. Kom-primiert wird hier ausgesagt, was christliche Lehre ist. Von seinen Schriften achtete Luther die beiden Katechismen neben seiner Abhandlung zum Unfreien Willen („De servo arbitrio") am meisten. Seine Katechismen erwachsen Luther aus seiner diesbezüglichen Predigttätigkeit. Sehr verbreitet war Luthers „Kleiner Katechismus", der bis zu seinem Tod über 60 Aus-gaben hatte und in verschiedene andere Sprachen übersetzt wurde. Der Katechismusunterricht ist ein Unterricht („instructio"), der darauf aus ist, dass der Katechismus gelernt werden muss. Entscheidend ist, dass er im Herzen verwurzelt wird. Der Katechismus vermittelt nicht „wissenschaftlichen Glauben", son-dern gibt Kunde von dem lebendigen, den Einzelnen treffenden Glauben als Vertrauen auf Gott. Alle Christen, auch Erwach-sene, müssen den Katechismus kennen und sich einprägen. Notwendig ist der Besuch der Katechismuspredigten. Beim Lesen, Reden und Gedenken des Katechismus ist der Heilige Geist gegenwärtig, stellt sich also pneumatologischer Ertrag ein. Alles, was dem Christen zum Heil notwendig ist zu wissen, ist gründlich und reichlich im Katechismus zu finden. Als solcher ist der Katechismus trinitarisch und eschatologisch grundorientiert. Aus authentischem Glauben - so lehrt der Katechismus - folgt das Tun der Zehn Gebote, das Tun des Guten. Wer den Katechismus nicht kennt, ist nicht zum Sakrament zugelassen.<hr/>Luther's catechetical activity is based on the catechetic tradition already extant in the Early Church. He reverts to this tradition, and more especially to the catechetical instruction of the Middle Ages. Luther observed great negligence and deficiency with regard to the catechesis in the Roman Catholicism of his time. In Luther's view, a catechism is a short summary of Holy Scripture; it is a condensed and succinct expression of the teachings of the Christian faith. Along with his study on the unfree will ("De servo arbitrio") Lutherconsidered his two catechisms, which developed out of his preaching activity, as his most important written work. His "Small catechism", which was very well received, was reissued more than 60 times - and translated into a variety of languages - up until the time of his death. According to Luther, catechesis (catechetical instruction) is the means by which the catechism is to be learned. A vital part of this process is that the catechism must take root in the heart. The catechism is not a vehicle for objective, scientific faith, but ratherdefines a living, personal faith as trust in God. All Christians, including adults, must therefore know the catechism in such a way that it is engraved on their consciousness. This necessitates the attendance of catechetical sermons. There is much pneumatological profit to be had in the reading and discussion of the catechism, and in meditating on it, because the Holy Spirit is present in all these activities. All that is necessary for the Christian to know about his salvation is richly and thoroughly present in the catechism. In the light of this, the catechism is profoundly trinitarian and eschatological in orientation. The catechism teaches that the fulfilment of the Ten Commandments, the realisation of the good, is born out of true faith. Those who do not know the catechism are not allowed to partake in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.<hr/>Luther se kategetiese werksaamheid is gebaseer op die kategetiese tradisie wat reeds sedert die Vroeë Kerk bestaan het. Hy val daarop terug en veral op die middeleeuse kategismusonderrig. In die Roomse katolisisme van sy tyd het Luther groot gebreke en nalatigheid ten opsigte van kategismusonderrig waargeneem. Vir Luther is die kategismus 'n kort samevatting van die Heilige Skrif. Op 'n beknopte wyse word Christelike leer hierin tot uitdrukking gebring. Naas sy studie oor die onvrye wil ("De servo arbitrio") het Luther sy twee kategismusse, wat uit preekwerksaamhede gegroei het, as die belangrikste van sy geskrifte geag. Sy "Klein kategismus" wat geweldige aanklank gevind het, is tot en met sy dood meer as 60 keer opnuut heruitgegee en ook in verskeie ander tale vertaal. Volgens Luther is kategismusonderrig toerusting ("instructio") wat daarop gemik is, dat die kategismus geleer moet word. Deurslaggewend daarvoor is dat dit in die hart moet wortel skiet. Die kategismus dra nie wetenskaplike geloof oor nie, maar sit die lewende persoonlike geloof uiteen as vertroue in God. Alle Christene, ook volwassenes, moet die kategismus ken en dit in hulle bewussyn inprent. Om die kategismuspreke by te woon, is noodsaaklik. By die lees, praat en denke oor die kategismus is die Heilige Gees teenwoordig. Dit bring dus pneumatologiese gewin. Alles wat vir 'n Christen noodsaaklik is om vir sy heil te weet, is deeglik en baie volledig in die kategismus saamgevat. Die kategismus is as sodanig trinitaries en eskatologies gerig. Uit ware geloof volg die nakoming van die Tien Gebooie, die nakoming van die goeie - so leer die kategismus. Wie die kategismus nie ken nie, word nie tot gebruik van die sakramente toegelaat nie. <![CDATA[<b>Calvin between <i>facliis brevitas, confessio,</i> and <i>institutio:</i> Instruction of faith in Geneva</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on catechetical instruction in Geneva under Calvin, taking the 1537 "Instruction" and the 1545 "Catechism" as objects of study. The relationship among three key notions -Calvin's own ideal of striving for brevity and simplicity on the one hand, the notions of "confessio" and "institutio" on the other hand - serves as catalyst to approach the nature of this catechetical instruction. After a historical overview of the circumstances amidst which the above-mentioned writings were produced, a comparative study of their internal organisation leads to the assessment of Calvin's method of theological exposition when dealing with the law and the Apostle's Creed.<hr/>Die fokus van hierdie artikel val op kategetiese onderrig in Genève onder Calvyn en neem die 1537-"Instruksie" asook die 1545-"Kategismus" as studieobjekte. Die verband tussen drie sleutelbegrippe - Calvyn se eie ideaal van beknoptheid en eenvoud aan die een kant, die begrippe "confessio" en "institutio" aan die ander kant - dien as katalisators om die aard van hierdie kategetiese onderrig te benader. Na 'n historiese oorsig oor die omstandighede waarin bogenoemde geskrifte die lig gesien het, lei 'n vergelykende studie van die interne struktuur tot 'n evaluering van Calvyn se metode van teologiese uitleg ten opsigte van die wet en die Twaalf artikels. <![CDATA[<b>The didactic nature of Calvin's <i>De Scandalis</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article the author explores the didactic nature and value of Calvin's "De Scandalis" (1550). The reformer's clear intention was to provide guidelines for strengthening those believers grappling with all kinds of stumbling blocks on the Christian's path towards sanctification. Moreover, the questions that he attempted to answer are questions of faith even in the 21st century. It is argued that sound didactic principles are found throughout this publication of Calvin's. For that reason it was -and still is - a powerful aid to those belonging to the church of Christ in dealing with the obstacles and temptations that they may experience in their spiritual lives: Biblical truths that the world may regard as foolishness; offensive and scandalous conduct by people within the church; and calumnies brought forward by adversaries of the gospel. In this context Calvin proves himself to be the catechist par excellence and an enduring example of the conscientious teacher living by the principles of Holy Scripture.<hr/>Die artikel behels 'n ondersoek na die didaktiese aard en waarde van Calvyn se publikasie "De Scandalis" (1550). Sy klaarblyklike oogmerk was om riglyne daar te stel tot geloofsversterking van Christene wat met allerlei struikelblokke op die weg van heiliging worstel. Die outeur toon aan hoe die kwessies waarop Calvyn antwoorde wou bied, selfs nog vir die gelowige van die 21e eeu relevant is, en dat gesonde opvoedkundige beginsels hierdie geskrif van Calvyn deurgaans kenmerk. Presies daarom was dit - en is dit nog steeds - 'n uitstekende hulpmiddel vir mense wat aan die kerk van Christus behoort en in hulle geestelike lewe te staan kom voor allerlei struikelblokke en versoekings: Bybelse waarhede wat deur die wêreld as dwaasheid afgemaak word; aanstootlike en skandalige gedrag van mense binne die kerk; asook lasterlikhede of beswaddering van die kant van teenstanders van die evangelie. Binne hierdie konteks bewys Calvyn homself as eksegeet by uitnemendheid en as blywende voorbeeld van die betroubare leermeester wat self deur die beginsels van die Heilige Skrif gelei word. <![CDATA[<b>The importance of education in the early stages of the church: John Calvin as catechist in his commentary on the Acts of the apostles</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Deel van Calvyn se ontwikkeling as kategeet is sy stryd teen die Roomse sakrament van die vormsel (confirmatio; "Inst." 4.19.4-13). Laasgenoemde word deur Rome as noodsaaklike aanvulling by die doop beskou. Vir Calvyn is hierdie sakrament egter 'n mensgemaakte ritueel wat nie as die Skriftuurlike Complement tot die doop kan funksioneer nie. Vir Calvyn is kategese die mees Skriftuurlike komplement tot die doop. In die doop ontvang die dopeling immers Christus en al sy beloftes. Hierop is geen aanvulling nodig nie en die dopeling is daarom ook nie 'n halwe Christen sonder die vormsel nie ("Inst." 4.19.8). Wat wel nodig is, is dat die dopeling Christus en sy beloftes sal leer ken en glo. Daarvoor is kategese (Christelike onderwys) nodig waardeur kinders en jongelinge tot rekenskap van hulle geloof voor die kerk kan kom ("Inst." 4.19.13). Sowel Calvyn se stryd teen die Roomse vormsel, as sy gepaardgaande beklemtoning van die Christelike onderwys word op verskeie plekke in sy kommentaar op die Handelinge van die apostels breedvoerig bespreek. Veral op twee plekke (Hand. 8:15-17 en 19:6) kritiseer hy die Roomse vormsel as 'n versinsel van mense. Daarteenoor beklemtoon Calvyn op verskeie plekke in sy kommentaar die belang van die kategese - enersyds as taak van die ampsdraers, andersyds as opdrag vir individuele gelowiges en hulle gesinne.<hr/>Part of Calvin's development as a catechist is his struggle against the Roman Catholic sacrament of confirmation ("Inst." 4.19.4-13). Confirmation is seen by Rome as the necessary addition to baptism. For Calvin, however, this sacrament is a man-made ritual that can not function as the Scriptural complement to baptism. According to him, catechesis is the most Scriptural complement to baptism. Indeed, in baptism one receives Christ and all his promises. No addition is needed, and therefore one is not half a Christian without the confirmation ("Inst." 4.19.8). What is needed, is that a person will get to know Christ and his promises. For that purpose catechesis (Christian education) is necessary, whereby children and young people are brought to confession of faith before the church ("Inst." 4.19.13). Both Calvin's struggle against the Roman Catholic confirmation, and his accompanying emphasis on Christian education are discussed in several places in his commentary on the Acts of the apostles. Especially in two places (Acts 8:15-17 and 19:6) Calvin criticises the Roman Catholic confirmation as an invention of men. Against this he emphasises in his commentary the importance of catechesis - on the one hand as the task of the officebearers, on the other hand as the task of individual believers and their families. <![CDATA[<b>The translation of the Genevan Catechism (1542/1545) into German by Zacharias Ursinus in 1563</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Der erstaunte Leser findet in den „Opera Selecta Calvini" Band 2 unter den Nachdrucken des Genfer Katechismus von 1542/ 1545 eine deutsche Übersetzung, die in Heidelberg im Jahr 1563 erschienen ist. Noch mehr erstaunt den Leser, daß Zacharias Ursin, derHauptverfasserdes Heidelberger Katechismus 1563 der Übersetzer ist. Es hat den Anschein, als ob der Katechismus Calvins anfänglich dessen Stelle einnehmen sollte. Die Übersetzung erscheint allerdings unterdem Titel „Katechismus der evangelischen Kirchen in Frankreich". Olevian entschuldigte diese Angabe Calvin gegenüber damit, daß die Deutschen sonst die Lektüre verweigern würden. Ursin hat offensichtlich die französische Vorlage von 1542 sowie die lateinische von 1545 benutzt. Er übersetzt wörtlich, doch erscheinen erwartungsgemäß einige Abänderungen mit entscheidenden theologischen Korrekturen. Nun ist ein Vergleich mit dem Heidelberg Katechismus schwierig, weil Ursin nur einer der Verfasser ist. Die theologischen Korrekturen zeigen, daß seine Übersetzung hin zu einer soteriologischen Sinngebung tendieren. Beza wird Calvins Theologie zur Orthodoxie umgestalten.<hr/>It is with considerable surprise that one finds in the "Opera Selecta Calvini" vol. 2 a German translation of Calvin's Geneva Catechism (1542/1545). The translation dates from 1563, and originated in Heidelberg. Even more surprising is the translator - none other than Zacharias Ursinus, one of the chief composers of the Heidelberg Catechism, which was also penned in 1563. The impression could be created that Calvin's Catechism was intended at the outset to achieve the position later attained by the Heidelberg Catechism. The title of the German translation of Calvin's Catechism is also interesting: "Catechism of the protestant churches in France". Olevianus explained in a letter to Calvin that the translation was titled thus for fear that the Germans would otherwise not read the catechism. Comparing the German translation with the Geneva Catechism, it is evident that Ursinus made use of the French edition of 1542 as well as the Latin edition of 1545 as the source text. While his translation is literal, a few alterations in meaning occur, giving rise to decisive theological adjustments. A comparison with the Heidelberg Catechism is complicated by the fact that Ursinus was only one of a committee of composers who worked on the latter document. The theological corrections made to Calvin's Catechism in the German edition reveal Ursinus' tendency to emphasise the soteriological meaning in his translation. Beza would eventually be the one who would irreversibly modify Calvin's theology in the direction of the reformed orthodoxy.<hr/>Dit is met verbasing dat 'n mens in die "Opera Selecta Calvini" vol. 2 vind dat daar onder die latere uitgawes van die Geneefse Kategismus van Calvyn (1542/1545) ook 'n Duitse vertaling vanuit Heidelberg uit die jaar 1563 is. Nog groter is die verbasing om te lees dat niemand minder nie as Sagarias Ursinus, een van die hoofsamestellers van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (ook uit 1563), die vertaler is. Die indruk sou kon ontstaan dat die Kategismus van Calvyn aanvanklik die plek sou moes inneem wat later die Heidelbergse Kategismus toegekom het. Die titel van die Duitse vertaling van Calvyn se Kategismus is ook interessant: "Kategismus van die protestantse kerke in Frankryk". In 'n brief aan Calvyn het Olevianus op sy beurt verduidelik dat hierdie titel vir die vertaling gekies is omdat daar gevrees is dat die Duitsers andersins nie die kategismus sou lees nie. Uit 'n vergelyking van die tekste is dit duidelik dat Ursinus sowel die Franse weergawe van 1542 as die Latynse weergawe van 1545 as grondteks vir sy Duitse vertaling gebruik het. Hy vertaal letterlik, maar nogtans tree daar, soos verwag kan word, enkele veranderings in die betekenis van deurslaggewende teologiese wysigings na vore. 'n Vergelyking met die Heidelbergse Kategismus is egter moeilik, omdat Ursinus net een van die lede van die kommissie van samestellers van hierdie dokument is. Die teologiese korreksies wat hy in sy Duitse weergawe van Calvyn se Kategismus aanbring, wys dat sy vertaling daartoe neig om die soteriologiese sin te benadruk. Beza sou die een wees wat uiteindelik Calvyn se teologie onomkeerbaar in die rigting van die gereformeerde ortodoksie sou ombuig. <![CDATA[<b>The Catechisms of Calvin (1545) and of Perkins (1590) - some comparisons</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt 'n Vergelyking van Calvyn se Geneefse Kategismus (1545) met die Kategismus van Perkins, "The foundation of Christian religion" (1590), toon opvallende verskille. Die verskille kan nie uit 'n anti-Calvynse vertrekpunt van Perkins verklaar word nie. Inteendeel, Perkins het homself as navolger van Calvyn gesien. Dit hou in dat daar teen die einde van die sestiende eeu 'n verskuiwing binne die leer van die Calvinistiese tradisie plaasgevind het. 'n Vergelyking van die twee kategismusse word hier gebruik om die verskil aan te toon. By wyse van inleiding word eers vergelykenderwys gekyk na die teikenlesers en vervolgens na die inhoud van elke werk. Met die Reformasie se swaar aksent op die "sola fide" in gedagte word op 'n vergelyking van geloof in elke kategismus gekonsentreer.<hr/>A comparison between Calvin's Geneva Catechism (1545) and the Catechism of William Perkins, "The foundation of Christian religion" (1590), shows striking differences. These cannot be explained by means of an "anti-Calvinist" stance on the part of Perkins. On the contrary, Perkins regarded himself as a follower of Calvin, which means that a subtle shift occurred within the doctrine of the Calvinist tradition towards the end of the sixteenth century. A comparison of the two catechisms is used here to illustrate the change. By way of introduction comparisons are made about the addressees and the content of each catechism. With the importance of the Reformation's "sola fide" in mind, the central issue in this article concerns a closer look at the concept of faith in both catechisms. <![CDATA[<b>A comparison between Calvin's Catechism of 1545 and the Heidelberg Catechism on their exposition of the Lord's Prayer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Daar het reeds 'n hele aantal studies oor die verhouding tussen Calvyn se Kategismus (1545) en die Heidelbergse Kategismus die lig gesien. Die behoefte aan 'n vergelyking tussen hierdie Kategismus en die Heidelbergse Kategismus wat die verklaring van die Onse Vadergebed betref, is reeds by die Suid-Afrikaanse Calvynnavorsingskongres in 2004 uitgespreek. In die sestiende-eeuse Reformasie het die verklaring van die Onse Vadergebed 'n baie belangrike plek ingeneem. Uit die pen van Calvyn het daar agt verklarings verskyn in sy kommentare, kategismusse van 1538, 1545 en die verskillende uitgawes van die "Institusie". In sowel die Geneefse Kategismus van 1542/1545 as die Heidelbergse Kategismus vorm die verklaring van die Onse Vadergebed 'n belangrike deel. 'n Vergelyking van hierdie verklarings, toon aan dat die teologiese insigte van Calvyn 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die formulering van die Heidelberger. Die Heidelbergse Kategismus is deel van ons Calvinistiese erfenis en steeds die lewende belydenis van die ware geloof van baie kerkgemeenskappe en behoort steeds gebruik te word in die kategetiese onderrig.<hr/>Several studies on the relationship between Calvin's Catechism (1545) and the Heidelberg Catechism have already been conducted. However, the need for a study of a comparison between the two catechisms on the Lord's Prayer was emphasised at the South African Calvin Research Conference in 2004. In the sixteenth century Reformation the Lord's Prayer was a subject of considerable importance. Calvin wrote no less than eight different expositions of the Lord's Prayer in his commentaries, catechisms of 1538 and 1545 and the different editions of his "Institutes". In both the Geneva Catechism of 1542/1545 and the Heidelberg Catechism the exposition of the Lord's Prayer forms an important part. A comparison of these expositions leads to the conclusion that the theological insights of John Calvin played a major role in the formulation of the Heidelberg Catechism. The Heidelberg Catechism is part of our Calvinist heritage and should still be used in the instruction of our children and confessed as our true and living faith. <![CDATA[<b><i>Sacrum suum verbum -</i></b><b> aspects of Calvin's view of Scripture in his 1545 Catechism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die opvolging van geestestrominge ná die Reformasie het grondverskuiwings in Skrifbeskouing tot gevolg gehad wat tot in ons tyd van deurslaggewende betekenis in die teologie is -uiteraard met noodwendige konsekwensies vir prediking en kategese. Hierin het Semler se boek "Abhandlung von freier Untersuchung des Canon" (1771-1775) met sy aandrang op 'n skeiding tussen Skrif en Woord 'n verreikende rol gespeel. Teen hierdie agtergrond en terwyl die Skrifleer in Calvyn se Kategismus (1545) - in teenstelling met byvoorbeeld sy "Institusie" - nog nie ondersoek is nie, gaan hierdie artikel in op die vraag oor gesag in die kategese. Spesifiek vir die tema "Calvyn as kategeet" is hierdie vraag belangrik in die lig van die sentrale plek wat katkisasie in Calvyn se dienswerk en sy beklemtoning van die Woordbediening ingeneem het. Die ondersoek het besondere resultate opgelewer. Calvyn gaan dinamies met die Skrif om. Wanneer hy 'n gesagsaanspraak maak, verwys hy met die begrip "Woord" implisiet na die Skrif, en terselfdertyd verbind hy dit direk met die openbaring in Christus. Deur te verwys na dit wat "vasstaan uit die Woord", lig hy die Skrif se primaat in die gesagsvraag uit. Die hele Skrif word as die Woord van God geag en geld vir die (hele) kerk as sodanig. "Sola Scriptura" kan dus nie van "tota Scriptura" of "una Scriptura" losgemaak word nie. Die Skrif geld volgens Calvyn in sy Kategismus as voldoende gesaghebbende begronding vir teologiese en belydenisuitsprake. Veral die binding tussen die Woord en die Gees het hier prinsipiële betekenis. Dit bring mee dat die Skrifleer nie slegs van bibliologiese belang nie, maar dat dit benewens ander teologiese ook christologiese, pneumatologiese en soteriologiese implikasies het.<hr/>The succession of spiritual streams that followed in the wake of the Reformation gave rise to seismic shifts in the way Scripture was viewed, the consequences of which still have decisive significance in theology today - most inevitably for preaching and catechism. Semler's book "Abhandlung von freier Untersuchung des Canon" (1771-1775), with its insistance on a separation between Scripture and Word, played a far-reaching role in this regard. Against this backdrop, and with the doctrine of Scripture in Calvin's Catechism (1545) yet to be examined (in contrast with his "Institutes", for example), this article focuses on the issue of authority in catechesis. Given the central place that catechism occupied in Calvin's ministry and in his emphasis on Word ministry, this issue lies at the heart of the subject of "Calvin as catechist". The investigation has delivered exceptional results. Calvin's handling of Scripture is quite dynamic. In a discussion on authority, he uses the concept of "Word" to refer implicitly to Scripture, while simultaneously binding it directly to the revelation in Christ. By referring to that which "is established from the Word", he indicates the primacy of Scripture in the issue of authority. Scripture in its entirety is revered to as the Word of God, and is valid as such for the (whole) church. It is therefore not possibe to detach "sola Scriptura" from either "tota Scriptura" or "una Scriptura". According to Calvin in his Catechism, Scripture is valid as the sufficient authoritative foundation for theological and confessional pronouncements. In this regard, it is especially the connection between Word and Spirit that is of fundamental significance. The effect of this is that the doctrine of Scripture is not only of bibliological importance, but it also has other theological implications - most notably for christology, pneumatology and soteriology. <![CDATA[<b>Language and church unity: Calvin's 1545 Catechism in Latin</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In 1545 het Calvyn 'n kategismus geskryf. Hy verdedig die feit dat hy dit in Latyn gedoen het soos volg: "Ek is van oordeel dat dit nuttig is dat 'n openlike getuienis na vore kom, waardeur die kerke wat andersins oor lang afstande van mekaar geskei is en tog in Christus 'n eenstemmige leer het, mekaar kan herken." Hoewel hy gedurig uit Rooms-Katolieke oord van kerkskeuring beskuldig is, was sy ekumeniese ingesteldheid bo verdenking. Hy het elke geleentheid aangegryp om die sondigheid van afskeiding van 'n kerk wat die merktekens van 'n ware kerk vertoon, te beklemtoon. Teen die tyd van die Reformasie is Latyn nie meer as 'n "heilige taal" beskou nie, maar eerder as 'n rolmodel vir ander tale. Hoewel die hervormers in toenemende mate die gebruik van die moedertaal vir godsdiensoefening aangemoedig het, het hulle steeds Latyn in hulle korrespondensie met mekaar en in ander geskrifte gebruik. Dit word ook weerspieël in die boekdrukkuns: werke in die verskeie moedertale én in Latyn is gedruk en versprei. Calvyn se "Kategismus" van 1545 in Latyn is spoedig in verskeie tale vertaal - ook in Grieks en Hebreeus. Daarmee het hy sy doel bereik om die eenheid van geloof tussen die reformatoriese kerke te bevorder. Hierdie kerkhistoriese dokument in Latyn verkry sodoende 'n besondere status: 'n simbool van Calvyn se hoop op kerkeenheid.<hr/>In 1545 Calvin wrote a catechism. He defended the fact that he had done it in Latin, saying: "I judge it useful that there should be public testimonies, whereby churches which, though widely separated by space, agree in the doctrine of Christ, may mutually recognize each other." Although he was constantly being accused by the Roman Catholic Church of being a schismatic, Calvin's ecumenical intentions were above reproach. At every opportunity he stressed the sinfulness of schism from a church that bears the marks of the true church. By the time of the Reformation Latin wasn't regarded any more as a "holy" language, but as a role model for other languages. Although the reformers increasingly propagated the use of the vernacular in religious service, they still maintained correspondence with each other in Latin and wrote many of their treatises in this language. The art of printing presented the same phenomenon: both vernacular and Latin (especially academic works), were produced and distributed. Calvin's "Catechism" of 1545, written in Latin, was soon translated into many languages, even into Greek and Hebrew. Thereby Calvin reached his goal of promoting unity of faith between the different reformation churches. The fact that the catechism was written in Latin gave it a special status as church-historical document: a symbol of Calvin's hope for church unity. <![CDATA[<b>Can Calvin provide a golden thread in the labyrinth of catechisms available in the church today?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A congregation can easily get lost in the labyrinth of catechism syllabi available for an educational ministry today. Calvin's wish was that the church would have one catechism common to all churches. However, he consented to different churches developing different catechisms. He also warned about the power of catechesis, as it has the potential to influence the church for decades to come, and as the body of Christ can be strengthened or wounded through catechesis. Can Calvin provide a golden thread to navigate the labyrinth of catechisms available in the church today? Different models of catechesis are discussed briefly. The similarities and differences with Calvin's approach to catechism are highlighted, and the article concludes with guidelines for contemporary catechesis.<hr/>'n Gemeente kan maklik verdwaal in die doolhof van kategesesillabusse wat vandag vir opvoedkundige bediening beskikbaar is. Dit was Calvyn se wens dat kerke een gemeenskaplike kategismus gebruik. Hy het egter toegegee dat verskillende kerke tog verskillende kategismusse kon ontwikkel. Hy het ook gewaarsku dat die krag van kategese oor die potensiaal beskik om die kerk in die volgende dekades te beïnvloed. Die liggaam van Christus kan versterk of gewond word deur kategese. Kan 'n goue draad vanuit Calvyn se kategismus afgelei word waarmee die doolhof van kategesemateriaal vandag genavigeer word? Verskillende kategesemodelle wat tans beskikbaar is, word kortliks bespreek. Die ooreenkomste en verskille met Calvyn se benadering tot kategese word uitgelig. Ten slotte word riglyne vir huidige kategese gestel. <![CDATA[<b>Johannes Calvyn aan die woord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A congregation can easily get lost in the labyrinth of catechism syllabi available for an educational ministry today. Calvin's wish was that the church would have one catechism common to all churches. However, he consented to different churches developing different catechisms. He also warned about the power of catechesis, as it has the potential to influence the church for decades to come, and as the body of Christ can be strengthened or wounded through catechesis. Can Calvin provide a golden thread to navigate the labyrinth of catechisms available in the church today? Different models of catechesis are discussed briefly. The similarities and differences with Calvin's approach to catechism are highlighted, and the article concludes with guidelines for contemporary catechesis.<hr/>'n Gemeente kan maklik verdwaal in die doolhof van kategesesillabusse wat vandag vir opvoedkundige bediening beskikbaar is. Dit was Calvyn se wens dat kerke een gemeenskaplike kategismus gebruik. Hy het egter toegegee dat verskillende kerke tog verskillende kategismusse kon ontwikkel. Hy het ook gewaarsku dat die krag van kategese oor die potensiaal beskik om die kerk in die volgende dekades te beïnvloed. Die liggaam van Christus kan versterk of gewond word deur kategese. Kan 'n goue draad vanuit Calvyn se kategismus afgelei word waarmee die doolhof van kategesemateriaal vandag genavigeer word? Verskillende kategesemodelle wat tans beskikbaar is, word kortliks bespreek. Die ooreenkomste en verskille met Calvyn se benadering tot kategese word uitgelig. Ten slotte word riglyne vir huidige kategese gestel. <![CDATA[<b>'n Gebeurtenis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A congregation can easily get lost in the labyrinth of catechism syllabi available for an educational ministry today. Calvin's wish was that the church would have one catechism common to all churches. However, he consented to different churches developing different catechisms. He also warned about the power of catechesis, as it has the potential to influence the church for decades to come, and as the body of Christ can be strengthened or wounded through catechesis. Can Calvin provide a golden thread to navigate the labyrinth of catechisms available in the church today? Different models of catechesis are discussed briefly. The similarities and differences with Calvin's approach to catechism are highlighted, and the article concludes with guidelines for contemporary catechesis.<hr/>'n Gemeente kan maklik verdwaal in die doolhof van kategesesillabusse wat vandag vir opvoedkundige bediening beskikbaar is. Dit was Calvyn se wens dat kerke een gemeenskaplike kategismus gebruik. Hy het egter toegegee dat verskillende kerke tog verskillende kategismusse kon ontwikkel. Hy het ook gewaarsku dat die krag van kategese oor die potensiaal beskik om die kerk in die volgende dekades te beïnvloed. Die liggaam van Christus kan versterk of gewond word deur kategese. Kan 'n goue draad vanuit Calvyn se kategismus afgelei word waarmee die doolhof van kategesemateriaal vandag genavigeer word? Verskillende kategesemodelle wat tans beskikbaar is, word kortliks bespreek. Die ooreenkomste en verskille met Calvyn se benadering tot kategese word uitgelig. Ten slotte word riglyne vir huidige kategese gestel. <![CDATA[<b>Calvyn: Bereidwillig en opreg</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000300014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A congregation can easily get lost in the labyrinth of catechism syllabi available for an educational ministry today. Calvin's wish was that the church would have one catechism common to all churches. However, he consented to different churches developing different catechisms. He also warned about the power of catechesis, as it has the potential to influence the church for decades to come, and as the body of Christ can be strengthened or wounded through catechesis. Can Calvin provide a golden thread to navigate the labyrinth of catechisms available in the church today? Different models of catechesis are discussed briefly. The similarities and differences with Calvin's approach to catechism are highlighted, and the article concludes with guidelines for contemporary catechesis.<hr/>'n Gemeente kan maklik verdwaal in die doolhof van kategesesillabusse wat vandag vir opvoedkundige bediening beskikbaar is. Dit was Calvyn se wens dat kerke een gemeenskaplike kategismus gebruik. Hy het egter toegegee dat verskillende kerke tog verskillende kategismusse kon ontwikkel. Hy het ook gewaarsku dat die krag van kategese oor die potensiaal beskik om die kerk in die volgende dekades te beïnvloed. Die liggaam van Christus kan versterk of gewond word deur kategese. Kan 'n goue draad vanuit Calvyn se kategismus afgelei word waarmee die doolhof van kategesemateriaal vandag genavigeer word? Verskillende kategesemodelle wat tans beskikbaar is, word kortliks bespreek. Die ooreenkomste en verskille met Calvyn se benadering tot kategese word uitgelig. Ten slotte word riglyne vir huidige kategese gestel.