Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720090002&lang=pt vol. 74 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>A perspective on (neo-)Darwinism (2010)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A perspective on (neo-)Darwinism first of all has to account for those assumptions derived from the humanities, causing neo-Darwinism not to be a purely special scientific or natural scientific theory. A discussion of the many-sidedness of living entities highlights the difficulties surrounding a definition of biology. Attention is briefly given to the physicalism of Darwin's 1859 work before the quest for origins is discussed. These considerations pave the way for an assessment of striking shortcomings in the thought of Darwin and his followers. In particular, modern nominalism is identified as an important source for neo-Darwinism, especially manifest in the idea that organisms are not types and do not have types (Simpson). Darwin's idea of incremental (continuous) change both in respect of the genesis of a complex organ (or the origination of the first living entity) and of successive fossil forms contradict the current state of affairs - and the same applies to his own radical idea that "injurious" variations will be eliminated immediately by natural selection, for it cannot be reconciled to the role of mutations in neo-Darwinian theory. In addition neo-Darwinian paleontologists pointed out that evolution requires intermediate forms and paleontology does not provide them (Kitts) and explicitly confessed that they have paid lip-service to the idea of change while they knew all the time that it was not true (Eldredge): the dominant theme of the paleontological record is stasis, constancy - a type appears and remains constant for millions of years before it disappears (Gould). The supposition of incremental continuity received a further blow from the "Cambrian explosion", the "nasty fact" that most "major animal groups appeared simultaneously" about 530 million years ago. A few aspects of the uniqueness of humankind are treated as well as the confused picture found in an attempt to synthesise neo-Darwinism and Christianity. In an appendix a brief assessment is added concerning the pretentions of neo-Darwinism.<hr/>'n Perspektief op die neo-Darwinisme moet allereers rekenskap gee van daardie geesteswetenskaplike aannames wat daartoe gelei het dat die neo-Darwinisme nie 'n suiwer vakweten-skaplike teorie en ook nie 'n suiwer natuurwetenskaplike teorie is nie. 'n Bespreking van die veelsydigheid van lewende dinge belig die probleme verbonde aan 'n definisie van die biologie. Aandag is vlugtig gegee aan die fisikalisme van Darwin se 1859-werk alvorens die sug na oorspronge bespreek is. Hierdie oorwegings het die weg gebaan vir 'n beoordeling van die treffende tekortkomings in die denke van Darwin en sy volgelinge. In die besonder is die moderne nominalisme geïdentifiseer as 'n belangrike bron vir die neo-Darwinisme, veral gemanifesteer in die idee dat organismes nie tipes is of tipes kan hê nie (Simpson). Darwin se idee van geleidelik (kontinue) verandering ten opsigte van die ontstaan van 'n komplekse orgaan (of die ontstaan van die eerste lewende entiteit) asook van opeenvolgende fossielvorms is in stryd met die huidige stand van sake - en dieselfde geld vir sy eie radikale siening dat "nadelige" variasies onmiddellik deur natuurlike seleksie geëlimineer sal word, want dit kan nie versoen word met die rol van mutasies in die neo-Darwinistiese teorie nie. Bykomend het neo-Darwinistiese paleontoloë daarop gewys dat evolusie tussenvorms vereis en dat die paleontologie dit nie lewer nie (Kitts). Hulle het openlik bely dat hulle lippediens gelewer het aan die vermeende verandering in the paleontologie terwyl hulle al die tyd geweet het dit is nie waar nie (Eldredge): die dominante tema van die paleontologie is stasis, konstantheid - 'n tipe verskyn en bly konstant vir miljoene jare alvorens dit verdwyn (Gould). Die aanname van geleidelik-kontinue verandering het 'n verdere terugslag ontvang van die "Cambrian explosion", die "nasty fact" dat die meeste "major animal groups appeared simultaneously" omtrent 530 miljoen jaar gelede. Enkele fasette van die uniekheid van die mens is aan die orde gestel asook die verwarde prentjie wat aangetref word in 'n poging om die neo-Darwinisme met die Christendom te versoen. In 'n aanhangsel word 'n oorsigtelike beoordeling van die pretensies van die neo-Darwinisme behandel. <![CDATA[<b>Wolterstorff's critique of the reformational view of scholarship in his essay <i>On Christian learning</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article I analyse Wolterstorff's criticism of aspects of the reformational approach to science and scholarship as expressed in his essay "On Christian learning" (Wolterstorff, 1989). I argue that those allegations by Wolterstorff are not always well-founded, fully justified or supported by rigorous arguments. In particular, I examine Wolterstorff's complaints concerning the "connection between religion and scholarship", religious "totalism", expressivism and the issue of a "unidirectional" view of science and religion. The purpose of this article is to remove obstacles that would hamper dialogue and cooperation between scholars in the traditions of reformational philosophy (Dooyeweerd et al.) and reformed epistemology (Wolterstorff et al.).<hr/>Ek analiseer Wolterstorff se kritiek op aspekte van die reformatoriese benadering tot wetenskap soos uiteengesit in sy opstel "On Christian Learning" (Wolterstorff, 1989). Ek argumenteer dat Wolterstorff se bewerings nie altyd goed begrond is, ten volle geregverdig is, of deur stewige argumente ondersteun word nie. Meer spesifiek: ek ondersoek Wolterstorff se besware teen die "konneksie tussen religie en wetenskap", religieuse "totalisme", ekspressiwisme en die probleem rondom 'n eenrigtingsiening van wetenskap en religie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die struikelblokke in die pad van dialoog en samewerking tussen wetenskaplikes in die tradisies van reformatoriese filosofie (Dooyeweerd et al.) en reformatoriese epistemologie (Wolterstorff et al.) te verwyder. <![CDATA[<b>Academe in South Africa: A fulfilling profession?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Suid-Afrikaanse akademici huldig 'n kollektiewe waardestelsel. Ander waardestelsels beïnvloed egter hulle waardestelsel sowel as hulle akademiese werk. Hulle werk tipies in 'n institusionele, nasionale en internasionale konteks, elkeen met 'n eie waardehiërargie. 'n Teoretiese bespreking van (die rol van) waardes in die akademiese werksomgewing word opgevolg met 'n oorsig van die professionele waardes van Suid-Afrikaanse akademici soos gemeet met behulp van die Changing Academic Profession (CAP)-opname wat in 2008 uitgevoer is. Hierdie opname het aan die lig gebring dat daar byvoorbeeld 'n gaping bestaan tussen die institusionele waardehiërargie en dié van die akademiese professie. Die gevolgtrekking kan derhalwe gemaak word dat baie Suid-Afrikaanse akademici relatief onvervulde professionele lewens lei, onder meer omdat hulle in 'n omgewing (verskeie kontekste) moet werk wat vol teenstrydighede is. Hierdie probleme moet aandag geniet ter wille van die welsyn van sowel die akademiese professie as die hoëronderwyssektor.<hr/>South African academics possess a collective value system. However, other value systems impact not only on their value system but also on their academic work. They typically find themselves working in an institutional, a national and an international context, each with its own hierarchy of values. A theoretical discussion of (the role of) values in the academic workplace is followed by an overview of the professional values held by South African academics as measured by means of the Changing Academic Profession (CAP) Survey, which was carried out in 2008. The survey revealed, for instance, a rift between the institutional value hierarchy and that of the academic profession. It can therefore be concluded that many South African academics seem to lead relatively unfulfilled professional lives, among others, because they find themselves working in an environment (various contexts) with many contradictions. These problems should be addressed for the sake of the well-being of both the academic profession and of the higher education sector. <![CDATA[<b>Using reflexive photography to study a principal's experiences of the impact of professional development on a school:</b> <b> A case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The changing social and economic environment has a direct impact on schools and theireffective management. School principals have to deal with issues hitherto unknown to them in historical school cultures. This article attempts to describe a South African principal's experience of the way in which professional development (PD) impacted on the development of the school and the way in which his PD - and that of his staff -manifests itself in the functioning of the school. An exploratory qualitative study employing visual ethnography was deemed appropriate for the study. Convenient and selective sampling was used in the study, identifying a school principal who proved to be an exemplar of a principal placing a high premium on his own continuing professional development and that of others. Data were collected by means of reflexive photography, the principal's writings and a photo-elicitation interview. The following categories emerged from the data: the commitment and attitude of the principal to professional development; the head start: receiving the inviting school award; be positive (B+); a focus on client service (doing more than is expected; the blue and orange card system for learners; and inculcating a value system); and what do we do differently?<hr/>Die veranderde sosiale en ekonomiese omgewing het 'n direkte impak op skole en die effektiewe bestuur daarvan. Vir skoolhoofde is dit nodig om onbekende kwessies te hanteer. Hierdie artikel poog om 'n Suid-Afrikaanse skoolhoof se ervarings van die wyse waarop professionele ontwikkeling die ontwikkeling van die skool en dié van personeel in die funksionering van die skool beïnvloed het, te bestudeer. 'n Verkennende, kwalitatiewe studie deur middel van visuele etnografie is vir die studie geskik gevind. Gerieflike en selektiewe steekproefneming is gedoen om 'n skoolhoof te identifiseer wat as voorbeeld kon dien van 'n skoolhoof wat 'n hoë premie plaas op sy/haar eie en ander se voortgesette professionele ontwikkeling. Data is deur middel van refleksiewe fotografie, die skoolhoof se skrywes, sowel as 'n foto-verduidelikende onderhoud ingesamel. Die volgende kategorieë het uit die data na vore gekom: 'n toegewyde en positiewe gesindheid van die skoolhoof teenoor professionele ontwikkeling; die voorsprong: ontvangs van die uitnodigende skooltoekenning; wees positief (B+); 'n fokus op kliëntediens (doen meer as wat verlang word; die blou-en-oranjekaartstelsel vir leerders; die vaslegging van waardes); en wat doen ons anders? <![CDATA[<b>The necessity of an integral Christian worldview: Reconnoitring the challenges for influencing the unbelieving world</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Christians often conclude from the apostle Paul's warning: "Do not be yoked together with unbelievers" (2 Cor. 6:14), that he condemns all contact with non-Christians and advocates total withdrawal from the world. However, Christians are called to "influence the world". They need to find the fine balance between an exclusive and an accommodating Christianity. Being continously aware of and grounded in the Christian worldview will guide Christians to realise their calling to be "reformers" in all spheres of life. Christians are called to contribute to society's transformation by means of a comprehensive view of full-time service to God in every area of life. Christianity can only influence the world effectively if it is grounded in an integral Christian worldview and continually addresses the economy, politics, society, culture, religion, education and society as a whole. Flowing from the discussion, proposed guidelines for influencing the unbelieving world will be given at the end of the article.<hr/>Christene dink dikwels dat die apostel Paulus met sy waar-skuwing: "Moenie met ongelowiges in dieselfde juk trek nie" (2 Kor. 6:14), alle kontak met nie-Christene veroordeel en dat hy totale onttrekking aan die wêreld voorstaan. Christene word egter geroep om die "wereld te beïnvloed". Hulle moet die fyn balans tussen 'n eksklusiewe en 'n akkommoderende Christenskap vind. 'n Voortdurende bewuswees van en gegrondwees in die Christelike lewensbeskouing, sal Christene laat besef dat hulle 'n roeping het om "hervormers" op alle terreine van die lewe te wees. Christene is geroep tot transformasie van die gemeenskap deur middel van 'n omvattende beeld van voltydse diens aan God op elke terrein van die lewe. Die Christendom kan alleen die wêreld effektief beïnvloed indien dit in 'n integrale Christelike wêreldbeskouing gegrond is en voortdurend betrokke is by die eise van die ekonomie, politiek, gemeenskap, kultuur, godsdiens, opvoedkunde en die gemeenskap in sy totaliteit. Voortspruitende uit die artikel, word ten slotte riglyne voorgestel vir die beïnvloeding van die ongelowige wêreld. <![CDATA[<b>Reflections on the value concept in accounting</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The recent meltdown in global finances and the reasons for it may make people doubtful about the stewardship function of accounting. In the global financial markets, there is a great fascination with the reality that accounting values intend to reflect. However, what many people considered valuable is now suddenly of no value. The question can therefore be asked what is meant by the value concept as a foundation to modern-day accountancy. "Value" is a concept that is open to different interpretations, based on the needs, perspectives and personal values of the interpreter. This article aims to reflect on the value concept from an accounting perspective in analysing the fundamental qualitative perspectives and how these perspectives might affect the quantitative value measurements, as reported in the financial statements. From a quantitative perspective, accounttancy aims to measure and report the monetary values of items. However, there is a move towards a mixed valuation model with many financial statements, including both historical cost and value-based accounting information. The article concludes that this questionable development opens up many additional and subjective interpretations of accounting value measurement and reporting. Both valuation measurement methods have merit when considered in the overall purpose of accounting information. However, subjective value-based measurements may cast a shadow of doubt on the reliability and comparability requirements of accounting value information.<hr/>Die onlangse ineenstorting van wêreldfinansies en die redes daarvoor mag veroorsaak dat baie mense die rentmeester-skapsfunksie van rekeningkunde bevraagteken. In die globale finansiële markte is daar 'n groot bekoring ten opsigte van die realiteit wat rekeningkundige waardes poog om te reflekteer. Wat baie mense egter voorheen as waardevol beskou het, het nou skielik geen waarde meer nie. Die vraag kan tereg gevra word wat met die konsep van waarde as 'n grondslag tot moderne rekeningkunde bedoel word. "Waarde" is 'n konsep wat vir verskillende interpretasies oop is, gebaseer op die behoeftes, perspektiewe en persoonlike waardes van die individu. Hierdie artikel poog om op die waardekonsep vanuit 'n rekenmeesterskapsperspektief te reflekteer deur die kwalitatiewe aspekte te analiseer en die impak hiervan op die kwantitatiewe aspekte van waardebepaling en die verslagdoening daarvan, te evalueer. Vanuit 'n kwantitatiewe perspektief poog rekeningkunde om die monetêre waardes van items te meet en te rapporteer. Daar is egter 'n beweging na 'n gemengde waardasiemodel met baie finansiële state wat sowel historiese koste as waarde-gebaseerde rekeningkundige inligting bevat. Die artikel bevind dat hierdie twyfelagtige ontwikkeling die deur oopmaak vir heelwat addisionele en subjektiewe interpretasies van rekeningkundige waardebepaling en verslagdoening. Albei waardasiemetodes het meriete, gesien in die lig van die oor-koepelende doel van rekeningkundige inligting. Nogtans mag subjektiewe billike-waarde-gebaseerde inligting 'n skadu van onsekerheid werp op die betroubaarheids- en vergelykbaar-heidsdoelstellings van rekeningkundige waarde-inligting. <![CDATA[<b>A practical theological investigation into the effect of absent fathers: An exploratory qualitative investigation in the Promosa community</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>South Africa and higher education</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>Die neukery met verval en herstel in Versfeld se storie van die appelboom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>Afrikaners in Angola</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>Radelose opstandelinge wat nie redeloos was nie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>Explanations for the 1914 Rebellion - a "midsummer madness" and "vague malaise"?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>On evolution, sciences, anaesthetics ...</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>Geloof en openbare lewe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>Gelowiges se verlossing - vas en seker</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved. <![CDATA[<b>Geloof en kerk in 'n veranderende wêreldkonteks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000200016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In hierdie artikel word aangetoon dat empiriese navorsing gebruik kan word om literatuurstudies oor die afwesige vader en die gevolge soos sosiale, sosio-ekonomiese en psigologiese probleme te bevestig. Daar is eers 'n literatuurstudie gedoen oor die rol van die vader waar die relevante aspekte in 'n breër konteks ondersoek word. Die bevindings van 'n kwalitatiewe ondersoek deur agt vroue van Promosa (Potchefstroom) as fokusgroep te gebruik, het die voorlopige resultate van die literatuurondersoek bevestig. Die uitkomste mag belangrike implikasies in die veld van praktiese teologie en pastorale begeleiding vir hierdie vroue en kinders van afwesige vaders inhou. Daar word ook riglyne voorgestel vir pogings om vaders meer betrokke te kry.<hr/>In this article it is shown that empirical research can be used to confirm important findings in literature studies about the understanding of absent fathers and the devastating consequences such as social problems, socio-economic problems and psychological problems. A literature study was done on the role of the father and all the relevant aspects are viewed in a broader context. The results obtained through a qualitative investigation of eight women from Promosa (Potchefstroom) as a focus group confirmed the trends found in the preliminary literary research. The outcomes may have important implications in the field of practical theology and pastoral guidance for absent fathers, the women involved with those fathers and fatherless children. Some guidelines are proposed towards an effort to help fathers to become more involved.