Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720090001&lang=pt vol. 74 num. 1-2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Preface</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The desire for the ineffable: On the myth of music as absolute</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article proposes to establish and critique connections between religious and musico-aesthetic conceptions of in-effability by exploring the link between neoplatonic thought and romantic aesthetics. The central thesis is that recourse to the ineffable is often made by resorting to theological tenets and, consequently, that romantic aesthetics, although desperately trying to disengage itself from theological thinking, can in fact be interpreted as being inextricably bound up with it. Taking Plotinus' conception of the relationship between the "One" and "Intellect" as model, the romantic conception of the absolute is revealed to be a fallacy. It is shown that claims of the ineffability of music not only locate music as a false absolute, but also confer on music a quasi-religious authority. This results in an ungrounded secular faith in the power of music and the mastery of its composer-god to lead mankind to the truth. Untangling the myths of ineffability leads the way to a detranscendentalised conception of music with performance at its centre.<hr/>Hierdie artikel poog om konneksies tussen religieuse en musiek-estetiese beskouings oor die onsegbare uit te wys en te kritiseer, deur die gebruik van die term in onderskeidelik neo-platoniese en romantiese denke te ondersoek. Die sentrale hipotese is dat 'n diskoers rondom die onuitspreeklike dikwels op teologiese uitgangspunte moet steun en gevolglik, dat die romantiese estetika geïnterpreteer kan word in 'n nóú verbintenis met teologiese denke, ten spyte van 'n amper desperate poging tot die teendeel. Met Plotinus se beskouing oor die verhouding tussen die "Een" en die "Intellek" as model, word aangetoon dat die romantiese beskouing van die absolute 'n mistasting is. Daar word daarop gewys dat bewerings oor die onsegbaarheid van musiek nie alleen musiek as die absolute daarstel nie, maar dat 'n kwasi-religieuse gesag daardeur aan musiek verleen word. Gevolglik het 'n onbegronde sekulêre geloof in die krag van musiek ontstaan en in die vermoë van die komponis-god om die mensdom na die waarheid te lei. Deur die mites rondom die onsegbaarheid van musiek uit te wys, word die weg gebaan vir 'n gedetransendentaliseerde beskouing van musiek met uitvoering as die primêre fokus. <![CDATA[<b>Narrating <i>spiritual well-being</i> in relationship to positive psychology and religion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Constructed as new and located in the discourse of positive psychology, "spiritual well-being" is a signifier with a (his)story in which one possible reading is highlighted in this postmodern (de)constructive narrative. The construction of "spiritual + well-being" could be narrated as a secularisation of the religious by positivist psy-complex knowledges, where spiritual well-being is reconstructed as a measurable outcome. Or it could be narrated as a "spiritualisation" of the psy-complex by religious knowledges, with measurable well-being becoming dependent on the pursuit of the postmodern, multiple-storied spiritual/ religious features. As the psy-complex has followed medicine from a focus on pathology to a focus on holistic wellness, it has found itself in the religious realm which it has simultaneously centred and marginalised. Additionally, as the psy-complex has moved from measuring illness to measuring wellness, it could be described as having constructed new categories of non-well-being or ill-being.<hr/>Geestelike welsyn, as "nuwe" konsep en geplaas binne die kader van positiewe sielkunde, is 'n aanduider met 'n (geskied-kundige) storie. Een moontlike vertolking hiervan kan in hierdie postmodernistiese (de)konstruktiewe verhaal neerslag vind. Die konstruksie van "geestelike + welsyn" kan geï "vertel" word as 'n sekularisering van die godsdienstige dnterpreteer ofeur positivistiese, psi-komplekse vorme van kennis, met geestelike welsyn wat verklaar word as 'n meetbare uitkoms. Dit sou ook voorgestel kon word as 'n "vergeesteliking" van die psi-kompleks deur vorms van geestelike kennis, met meetbare welsyn wat afhanklik raak van die navolging van die postmoderne, veelvuldig-verhaalde geestelike/godsdienstige. Aangesien die psi-kompleks die klemverskuiwing in die mediese veld gevolg het van 'n fokus op patologie na 'n fokus op holistiese welsyn, het dit die terrein van die godsdienstige betree - en hierdie terrein die sentrale punt van belangstelling gemaak, terwyl dit terselfdertyd die terrein gemarginaliseer het. Met die wegbeweeg van die meting van siekte na die meting van welsyn, kan dit dus beskryf word dat nuwe kategorieë van nie-welsyn of "siekwees" hierdeur gekonstrueer is. <![CDATA[<b>Belief and legal philosophy: A conceptual framework for Christian scholarship in undergraduate legal education</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Legal education in South Africa has arrived at a discursive juncture that demands clarity on what the "purpose" of legal education should be. Debate on the purpose of legal education, more specifically for the Christian law student, becomes especially important in a society dominated by positivism, materialism and pragmatism. With specific reference to the undergraduate Christian law student, this article firstly explains that the purpose of legal education should include the nurturing of the student's belief - a belief encompassing his/her foundational perspective(s) on reality. Secondly, in order to achieve the proper nurturing and development of the Christian law student's belief, the importance of the teaching of legal philosophy is explained. In this regard, proposals are postulated pertaining to specific means by which such nurturing and development of the undergraduate Christian law student's foundational belief can be attained.<hr/>Regsopleiding in Suid-Afrika het by 'n diskursiewe tydstip gekom wat duidelikheid vereis oor wat die "doel" van regsopleiding behoort te wees. Debat oor die doel van regsopleiding, meer spesifiek vir die Christen-regstudent, word veral belangrik in 'n nuwe samelewing wat oorheers word deur positivisme, materialisme en pragmatisme. Met spesifieke verwysing na die voorgraadse Christen-regstudent, maak hierdie artikel dit eerstens duidelik dat die doel van regsopleiding die koestering van die student se geloof behoort in te sluit - geloof wat sy/haar grondliggende perspektief(we) oor die werklikheid omvat. Tweedens, ten einde die behoorlike koestering en ontwikkeling van die Christen-regstudent se geloof moontlik te maak, word die belangrikheid van die onderrig van regsfilosofie duidelik gemaak. In hierdie verband word voorstelle wat spesifiek verband hou met maniere waarop sodanige koestering en ontwikkeling van die voorgraadse Christen-regstudent se grondliggende geloof bereik kan word, gepostuleer. <![CDATA[<b>Education and the role of the church in Africa: Three relevant aspects</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article an attempt is made to provide a grounded basis for expanded church involvement in the provision of formal education, HIV and AIDS education and leadership education in Africa. This is done on the basis of a fundamental reflection on the role of the church in education, as well as a brief analysis of the formal education challenge, the HIV and AIDS challenge and the leadership challenge in Africa.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word gepoog om 'n begronde regverdiging vir groter kerklike betrokkenheid in die voorsiening van formele onderwys, HIV- en VIGS-opvoeding en leierskapsopleiding in Afrika te gee. Dit word gedoen aan die hand van 'n fundamentele refleksie oor die rol van die kerk in opvoeding/ onderwys, asook 'n kort uiteensetting van die uitdagings met betrekking tot formele onderwys, HIV en VIGS en leierskap in Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>Teacher education in South Africa: Noteworthy aspects from other systems</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Onderwysersopleiding in Suid-Afrika, as 'n onderdeel van die land se onderwysstelsel, is sedert 1994 onderworpe aan radikale hervorming, as deel van die algehele rekonstruksie van die samelewing. Beraadslaging oor hierdie faset van die stelsel het uitgeloop op 'n aantal betekenisvolle publikasies sowel as veranderings in die praktyk daarvan. Die vraag ontstaan egter of die Suid-Afrikaanse teorie en praktyk met betrekking tot onderwysersopleiding enigiets kan leer uit die stelsels en praktyke van ander lande. Om hierdie vraag te beantwoord, is 'n vergelykende ondersoek van stapel gestuur wat die onder-wysersopleidingstelsels van tien ander lande of deelstate behels het, insluitend dié van twee ontwikkelende lande. Die vergelyking is gebaseer op 'n filosofies-teoretiese raamwerk. Die vergelyking toon dat die Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysersoplei-dingstelsel ten opsigte van teorie en praktyk inderdaad goed met dié van ander vergelyk, maar ook dat daar enkele leemtes in die teorie en praktyk van die Suid-Afrikaanse sowel as ander stelsels bestaan.<hr/>Teacher education in South Africa, as part of the educational system, has been subjected to radical reform since 1994, as part of the reconstruction of society and of the education system. Deliberations about this aspect of the system have resulted in a number of significant policy documents and practical changes. The question arose whether South African theory and practice, with specific reference to teacher education, could learn in any way from the systems and practices of other countries. To find an answer to this question, a comparison of the teacher education systems of ten other countries and federal states including two developing countries and federal states, was made. The comparison, based on a particular philosophical-theoretical framework, revealed that the South African teacher education system compared well in theory and practice with the other systems. The study also revealed a few lacunae in both South African and foreign theory and practice. <![CDATA[<b>Mentoring novice researchers in higher education: A "communities of practice" perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article reports on the mentoring of novice researchers, in particular of women and black academics, at a South African higher education institution. The model used for mentoring was informed by a "communities of practice" perspective which used situated and constructivist learning theories as a conceptual framework. One mentor and eleven protégés were involved. The protégés were divided into three groups of two, four and five participants each. Each group functioned as a community of practice (CoP) and embarked on a research project of its own choice. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the mentoring model, and therefore it explains the participants' views of their learning and development from a CoP perspective. Data were collected by means of interviews and observation. The findings indicate how the development of the protégés from legitimate peripheral to more central participation was influenced by the university context, activities and relationships in each CoP, and participants' individual dispositions. Recommendations to improve the model and for further study are made.<hr/>Hierdie artikel doen verslag oor die mentorskap van ontwikkelende navorsers, wat veral vroue en swart akademici insluit, by 'n Suid-Afrikaans hoëronderwysinstansie. Die mentormodel wat gebruik is, is deur 'n "gemeenskap van praktisyns" (GvP)-perspektief beïnvloed wat gesitueerde en konstruktiwistiese leerteorieë as konseptuele raamwerk gebruik het. Een mentor en elf protégés is betrek. Laasgenoemde is verdeel in drie groepe van twee, vier, en vyf deelnemers elk. Elke groep het gefunksioneer as 'n GvP met 'n navorsingsprojek van hulle eie keuse. Die studie het ten doel om die mentormodel te evalueer. Dit verduidelik dus die deelnemers se sienings van hulle leer en ontwikkeling vanuit 'n GvP-perspektief. Data-in-sameling is deur middel van onderhoude en observasie ge-doen. Bevindings toon aan hoe hulle ontwikkeling van wettige, periferale deelname na meer sentrale deelname beïnvloed is deur die universiteitskonteks, aktiwiteite en verhoudings in die GvP en hulle eie gesindhede. Aanbevelings om die model te verbeter asook vir verdere navorsing word ook aangetoon. <![CDATA[<b>Modern (financial) slavery</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Daar is waarskynlik nie een persoon wat deur die huidige internasionale finansiële krisis onaangeraak is nie. Om die onlangse gebeure te verstaan, word die onderliggende redes vir die krediet- en uitgebreide finansiële krisis ontleed en in verband met slawerny gebring. Die artikel skets hierdie aspekte in 'n internationale lig, maar toon ook telkens die Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede. Uit die artikel blyk dit dat dieselfde dryfveer wat mense gemotiveer het om slawerny toe te pas, ook vandag nog groot korporasies en selfs individue motiveer om 'n groot deel van die bevolking vasgevang te hou in 'n spiraal van toenemende verbruikersbesteding. Die verbruikersbesteding word gefinansier deur persone wat meer van hulle vrye tyd vir betaling aanbied of meer krediet opneem. Uit die roekelose wyse waarop krediet geadverteer word, blyk dit dat daar min respek of bekommernis oor die welstand van diegene is wat in die skuldweb vasgevang word. Vooruitsigte word geskep rondom die afskaffing van finansiële slawerny en enkele aanbevelings vir die hantering van skuld word aangesny. Die navorsing sluit af met 'n oproep aan die kerk om ernstig tot die debat toe te tree.<hr/>There is probably no single person who has not been affected by the current international financial crisis. In order to understand what has happened, the reasons for the credit -and extended financial crisis are analysed and related to slavery. This article provides an international perspective, but also gives the South African perspective. From the article, it seems that the same factors that motivated people to apply slavery, today also motivate large corporations and individuals to keep hostage a large number of people in a spiral of increased consumerism. The consumer spending is financed by paying people more for their spare time and people taking up more credit. From the relentless way in which credit is being advertised, it seems that there is very little respect or care for the well-being of those trapped in debt. The prospects of ending the financial slavery are discussed and some recommendations are made regarding dealing with debt. The article closes with a call on the church to enter into the debate. <![CDATA[<b>Preface</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Daar is waarskynlik nie een persoon wat deur die huidige internasionale finansiële krisis onaangeraak is nie. Om die onlangse gebeure te verstaan, word die onderliggende redes vir die krediet- en uitgebreide finansiële krisis ontleed en in verband met slawerny gebring. Die artikel skets hierdie aspekte in 'n internationale lig, maar toon ook telkens die Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede. Uit die artikel blyk dit dat dieselfde dryfveer wat mense gemotiveer het om slawerny toe te pas, ook vandag nog groot korporasies en selfs individue motiveer om 'n groot deel van die bevolking vasgevang te hou in 'n spiraal van toenemende verbruikersbesteding. Die verbruikersbesteding word gefinansier deur persone wat meer van hulle vrye tyd vir betaling aanbied of meer krediet opneem. Uit die roekelose wyse waarop krediet geadverteer word, blyk dit dat daar min respek of bekommernis oor die welstand van diegene is wat in die skuldweb vasgevang word. Vooruitsigte word geskep rondom die afskaffing van finansiële slawerny en enkele aanbevelings vir die hantering van skuld word aangesny. Die navorsing sluit af met 'n oproep aan die kerk om ernstig tot die debat toe te tree.<hr/>There is probably no single person who has not been affected by the current international financial crisis. In order to understand what has happened, the reasons for the credit -and extended financial crisis are analysed and related to slavery. This article provides an international perspective, but also gives the South African perspective. From the article, it seems that the same factors that motivated people to apply slavery, today also motivate large corporations and individuals to keep hostage a large number of people in a spiral of increased consumerism. The consumer spending is financed by paying people more for their spare time and people taking up more credit. From the relentless way in which credit is being advertised, it seems that there is very little respect or care for the well-being of those trapped in debt. The prospects of ending the financial slavery are discussed and some recommendations are made regarding dealing with debt. The article closes with a call on the church to enter into the debate. <![CDATA[<b>Communication science in South Africa: The beginnings, the present and challenges for the future</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel is gebaseer op die Gert Pienaar-gedenklesing wat op 27 Augustus 2009 deur die outeur van hierdie artikel in die Skool vir Kommunikasiestudies van die Noordwes-Universiteit gelewer is. Wyle professor Gert Pienaar was vyftig jaar gelede die stigter van Kommunikasiewetenskap (toe Perswetenskap) in Suid-Afrika. Behalwe om hulde aan professor Pienaar te bring, was die doel van die lesing en die doel van hierdie artikel om die hoofstroomnavorsingsparadigmas wat kommunikasienavorsing die afgelope vyftig jaar in Suid-Afrika gerig het, kortliks weer te gee. Dit is naamlik, die positivistiese paradigma (of die bestuursparadigma) en die kritiese paradigma. In hierdie artikel word aangevoer dat normatiewe vrae oor die rol en funksies van die media in die samelewing hierdie paradigmas onderlê. Teen die agtergrond van nuwer paradigmas, soos die postmoderne en die postkoloniale paradigmas, word die toepasbaarheid en die relevansie van ou normatiewe mediateorieë in 'n nuwe samelewing en in 'n nuwe medialandskap bevraagteken en die Westerse bevooroordeeldheid daarvan beklemtoon. Teen hierdie agtergrond word vier navorsingsgebiede vir toekomstige Suid-Afrikaanse kommunikasienavorsing belig: fundamentele navorsing oor nuwe media, ontwikke-lingskommunikasienavorsing vanuit 'n Afrikaperspektief, kommunikasiebeleidsnavorsing, en navorsing oor die verinheem-sing van massakommunikasieteorie.<hr/>This article is based on the Gert Pienaar Commemorative Lecture given by the author of this article on 27 August 2009 at the North-West University, Potchefstroom. The late Professor Gert Pienaar founded communication science (then Press Science) in South Africa, fifty years ago. Apart from acknowledging his contribution, the purpose of the lecture and of this article is to briefly outline the main research paradigms which have guided South African mass communication research the past fifty years, namely the positivist (or managerial) paradigm and the critical paradigm. It is argued that normative questions about the role and functions of the media in society underlie these paradigms. Against the background of new paradigms such as the postmodern and postcolonial paradigms (of which the basic tenets are also outlined) the applicability and relevance of old normative media theory in a new society and in a new media landscape (briefly described) are questioned and the Western prejudice of "old" normative theory is highlighted. With this in mind, four research areas for future South African mass communication research are emphasised, namely fundamental new media research, development communication research from an African perspective, communications policy research, and the indigenisation of mass communication theory. <![CDATA[<b>A changing approach to social responsibility: A historic-normative case study of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die voormalige Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys (PU vir CHO) het oor etlike dekades heen korporatiewe sosiale verantwoordelikheidsprogramme (KSV) in sy omgewing as 'n regstreekse uitvloeisel van sy Christelike karakter bedryf. Met die PU vir CHO se samesmelting in 2003 om die Noordwes-Universiteit (NWU) te word in 2004, (waarby die PU vir CHO ingelyf is), het die programme op die Potchefstroomkampus van die NWU voortgegaan, maar nou nie meer gegrond op sy Christelike karakter nie. Die nuwe universiteit het wel 'n "waardegedrewe" benadering aanvaar. Hierdie normatiewe verandering asook die veranderende posisionering van sosiale verantwoordelikheid deur die Universiteit word in hierdie artikel nagespeur. Daar is bevind dat die normatiewe uitgangspunte van die NWU nog glashelder aan sy gemeenskapsaktiwiteite gekoppel moet word. Verder word geargumenteer dat die formele KSV-aktiwiteite duidelik van normale kerntake en studente-aktiwiteite onderskei moet word, én dat die hoogs problematiese ineenvloeiing van winsgenererende aktiwiteite en gemeenskaps-projekte ontrafel moet word. Die bydrae van borge moet te alle tye duidelik gestel word. Gelukkig blyk dit uit ontwikkelings laat in 2008 dat sommige van die belangrikste probleemareas wel aandag geniet en 'n nuwe benadering tot gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid sy beslag kry. Daardeur sal die NWU potensieel reg laat geskied aan sowel die regering se beskouing van KSV asook die NWU se sogenaamde doenwaardes én sy steeds ontwikkelende filosofie van "gemeenskapsverbintenis".<hr/>As a direct consequence of its Christian character, the former Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education (PU for CHE) engaged in local corporate responsibility programmes for a number of decades. When the PU for CHE was merged at the end of 2003 to become the North-West University (NWU) (including the PU for CHE) which emerged in 2004, these programmes continued at the Potchefstroom Campus, but were stripped of their Christian grounding. Now the University has a "value-driven" approach. This article tracks the changes to the normative character as well as the continued changes to the university's position on social responsibility. It was found that the North-West University's normative points of departure have yet to be linked clearly to its community activities, and that formal corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities must be clearly differentiated from normal university business as well as student activities such as rag. It is argued that the problematic overlapping of profit-generating activities should be distinguished from all CSR programmes and the contribution of sponsors disclosed at all times. Developments late in 2008 seemed to indicate that some of the most important problem areas be addressed when a new approach to "community engagement" is fleshed out. This could result in the NWU achieving the CSR goals set by both government and the University itself regarding its so-called do-values and developing a guiding philosophy on "community engagement". <![CDATA[<b>Communicative action: The <i>Habermasian</i> and <i>Freirean</i> dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of participatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995). What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian "ideal speech situation" in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989). Consistent with the Freirean "liberal pedagogy", the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the "participative" quality of participatory communication (cf. Freire, 1970). For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos), rightfulness (ethos) and truthfulness (pathos) are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, instrumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communicative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic), rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.<hr/>Na bykans vier dekades is daar nog steeds nie eenstemmigheid in die deelnemende kommunikasieveld vir sosiale verandering oor presies wat deelname behels of hoe dit prakties toegepas behoort te word nie (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964 Servaes, 1995). Die gevolg is dat daar nog baie min geteoretiseer is binne die veld van deelnemende kommunikasie vir sosiale verandering. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die moontlikheid dat deelnemende kommunikasie in die vorm van Habermas se "ideale spraaksituasie" as uitgangspunte vir die definiëring van deelname gebruik kan word. In hierdie "ideale spraaksituasie" word persone as kommunikeerders waardevol geag en nie slegs as objekte beskou nie (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989). Ooreenstemmend met Freire se liberale pedagogie van ontwikkelings-kommunikasie, word die praktyk van dialogiese kommunikasie of intersubjektiewe kommunikasie as die regstelling van die deelnemende karakter van deelnemende kommunikasie geag (cf. Freire, 1970). Vir albei teoretici kan transformatiewe aksie slegs in reflektiewe en kollektiewe linguistiese kontekste plaasvind. Hier moet die normatiewe dimensies van waarheid (logos), geregtigheid (ethos) en opregtheid/empatie (pathos) tydens die ontwikkelingsdiskoers gestel, getoets en eindelik aanvaar word. Veral in 'n geglobaliseerde wêreld en in 'n gefragmenteerde, post-bourgeoisie publieke sfeer waar debat tussen ontwikkelingsrolspelers toenemend gemarginaliseerd en instrumenteel word, asook progressief minder toeganklik en deelnemend vir die samelewing is, is geleenthede vir toe-ganklike en onbelemmerde debat des te meer nodig. Gebaseer op die beskikbare analises van die ontwikkelingskommunikasie-literatuur, stel hierdie artikel voor dat die gekose dialogiese benaderings dieselfde kommunikasiegedrag veronderstel - dit wil sê wat aksie-teoreties van aard is eerder as wat dit 'n spesifieke paradigma of denkskool verteenwoordig. Hiervolgens kan die definisie van deelnemende ontwikkelingskommunikasie vir doeltreffende sosiale verandering in 'n post-1994 Suid Afrika verfyn word. <![CDATA[<b>A critique of social marketing in the non-profit development sector</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In its struggle to find funding, non-profit organisations world-wide are increasingly using social marketing strategies. This approach potentially influences non governmental organisations (NGOs) and community based organisations (CBOs) in their communication with their "clients", i.e. those persons and communities in need of development. Marketing strategies consequently become instruments in achieving social development, with as main premise that behaviour could be changed by means of persuasive, top-down communication. Social marketing, with its roots in marketing, has a strong focus on persuasion and favours top-down communication rather than dialogical communication strategies suggested by the participatory development communication approach. It is also questionable whether social marketing can be equated with the principles of a Biblically informed approach to communication. With these questions in mind, this article discusses Biblical views on communication and the participatory development communication approach. A critique of the social marketing approach is then offered. It is argued here that there is no clear-cut answer as to whether social marketing could be described as participatory. What is clear is that there are many different views on social marketing, as is the case with participatory approaches. It would thus seem more correct to place social marketing on a participation continuum, rather than to define it as being participatory and thus per definition ethical or not. Finally, a number of suggestions are made which could bring it more in line with the participatory communication approach as well as Biblical principles on communication.<hr/>Nie-winsgewende organisasies (NWOs) gebruik toenemend sosiale bemarkingstrategieë in hulle soeke na fondse. Hierdie benadering kan potensieel ook nie-regeringsorganisasies (NROs) se gemeenskapsgebaseerde organisasies (GBOs) se kommunikasie met hulle "kliënte" (persone en gemeenskappe wat ontwikkeling nodig het) beïnvloed. Die gevolg is dat be-markingstrategieë 'n instrument vir sosiale verandering word. Die hoofaanname wat gemaak word, is dat gedrag verander kan word deur middel van oorredende eenrigtingkommunikasie. Sosiale bemarking, met sy wortels in bemarking, het 'n sterk fokus op oorreding en gee voorkeur aan eenrigtingkom-munikasie, eerder as dialogiese kommunikasiestrategieë soos deur die deelnemende benadering tot ontwikkelingskom-munikasie voorgestaan word. Dit kan ook bevraagteken word of sosiale bemarking voldoen aan die riglyne van Bybels-gefundeerde kommunikasie. Teen die agtergrond van hierdie vrae word Bybelse perspektiewe op kommunikasie en die deelnemende benadering tot ontwikkelingskommunikasie in hierdie artikel bespreek. Daarna word kritiek gelewer op sosiale bemarking as kommunikasiebenadering. Daar word geargumenteer dat 'n klinkklare antwoord op die vraag of sosiale bemarking as deelnemend beskryf kan word, nie gegee kan word nie. Wat egter duidelik is, is dat daar 'n verskeidenheid standpunte is oor wat sosiale bemarking presies is, soos ook in die geval van die deelnemende benadering. Dit blyk dus meer korrek te wees om sosiale bemarking op 'n kontinuum van deelname te plaas, eerder as om dit te probeer definieer as deelnemend (en eties) al dan nie. In die laaste instansie word voorstelle gemaak wat sosiale bemarking meer deelnemend sal maak en derhalwe ook meer in ooreenstemming met Bybelse riglyne vir kommunikasie. <![CDATA[<b>Teaching journalism prior to and after the demise of Christian higher education at Potchefstroom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article explores how the step-by-step changes to the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education (resulting in the merger with the University of the North-West to form the North-West University [NWU]) impacted on the teaching of journalism at the Potchefstroom Campus. It was particularly relevant in 2009, as 50 years of teaching journalism and other communication subjects were celebrated by the School of Communication Studies on the Potchefstroom Campus of the NWU. The article thus also has a definite historiographical intention - more specifically as an attempt at writing micro-historiography. It aims to illustrate how a definite Christian perspective on journalism was substituted for a slimmer "value-driven" approach sans an explisit religious dimension. Although it has been suggested by the vice-chancellor that lecturers had the right to express their views in class (including views based on Christian principles), it is argued here that the termination of the formal Christian approach made it very difficult, if not impossible, for lecturers to continue as in the past. As a result of the value-driven approach professional and institutional ethical codes are now used as a basic point of departure. This, however, does not satisfy those who prefer a more fundamental Christian approach to journalism. It is suggested that if this reading of the situation was erroneous, perhaps those Christians with a more positive view of the "name change" could give clearer leadership on how Christian perspectives on science (and journalism) can realistically be accommodated in the curriculum.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe die stap-vir-stapveranderings by die Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys (wat uitgeloop het op die samesmelting met die Universiteit van Noordwes om die Noordwes-Universiteit [NWU] te vorm) 'n invloed gehad het op joernalistiekopleiding op die Potchef-stroomkampus. Dit is besonder relevant in die konteks van die 50-jarige viering in 2009 van joernalistiek- en kommunikasie-opleiding deurdie Skool virKommunikasiestudies op die Potchefstroomkampus. Die artikel het dus 'n pertinent historiografiese bedoeling - meer spesifiek is dit 'n poging tot mikro-historiografie. Dit streef daarna om aan te toon hoe 'n definitiewe Christelike perspektief op die joernalistiek plek gemaak het vir 'n verskraalde, religielose "waardegedrewe" benadering. Alhoewel die visekanselier van die NWU meen dat dosente die reg het om hulle standpunte in die klas te stel (insluitend standpunte gegrond op Christelike beginsels), word hier aange-voer dat die beëindiging van 'n formele Christelike benadering dit baie moeilik, indien nie onmoontlik nie, gemaak het om voort te gaan soos in die verlede. As 'n uitvloeisel van die waardegedrewe benadering word professionele en institusionele etiese kodes nou as vertrekpunte gebruik. Maar dit bevredig nie diegene wat verbind is tot 'n meer fundamenteel-Christelike benadering tot die joernalistiek nie. Daarom word gesuggereer dat indien hierdie siening van sake foutief is, diegene met 'n meer positiewe kyk op die "naamsverandering" duideliker leiding kan gee oor hoe Christelike perpektiewe op die wetenskap (en joernalistiek) realisties gesproke binne die leerplan geakkommodeer kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Why the fuss over Brown's</b> <b><i>The Da Vinci code?</i></b> <b>The dynamism of "icons" and the in/stability of meaning</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis. <![CDATA[<b>Corporate social responsibility: A personal reflection on Clover Mama Afrika</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis. <![CDATA[<b>Nabootsers van God?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis. <![CDATA[<b>Interdisciplinary research in water resources</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis. <![CDATA[<b>Etiese leierskap in Suid-Afrika onder die soeklig</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis. <![CDATA[<b>Hulde aan 'n merkwaardige leier</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis. <![CDATA[<b>Die vrygewige vuur en sy skadu</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis. <![CDATA[<b>Securing the regional maritime landscape</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572009000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dan Brown's book, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) and the subsequent motion picture by the same title (2006), have created a considerable stir within, but not limited to, Christian circles. The cause of the controversy is that, despite Brown's overt presentation of this work as fiction, it draws on figures, events and themes regarded in religious circles as sacred - most particularly in Christian circles. Holy figures, events and themes are sensitive matters to believers: the meanings attached to them are regarded as essentially fixed, with connotations of permanence and eternity. Literature of many kinds, however, reinterpret set meanings, loosening their perceived inflexibility, thus opening up a dynamism quite foreign to popular notions of definite meaning.<hr/>Dan Brown se boek, "The Da Vinci code" (2003) en die daaropvolgende rolprent met dieselfde naam (2006), het redelik woelinge binne Christelike kringe, maar ook daarbuite veroorsaak. Die oorsaak van die geskilgesprekke is dat, ten spyte daarvan dat Brown sy werk duidelik as fiksie aanbied, hy persone, gebeure en temas aanwend wat in godsdienstige kringe, en veral in Christelike kringe, as heilig beskou word. Sodanige heilige persone, gebeure en temas dra 'n hoë sensitiwiteitswaarde vir gelowiges: die betekenisse daaraan geheg word as inherent standhoudend beskou, met daaraan gekoppelde konnotasies van permanensie en ewigheid. Verskillende soorte letterkunde herinterpreteer egter vaste betekenisinhoude wat die waargenome stabiliteit ontanker, sodat 'n nuwe betekenisdinamiek moontlik word - iets wat vreemd is aan algemene idees rondom 'n vasgestelde betekenis.