Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720080004&lang=es vol. 73 num. 4 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Voorwoord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Preface</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>The Polokwane conference and South Africa's second political transition: Tentative conclusions on future perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this phase of South Africa's second political transition (manifesting characteristics of political decay) it looks as if the ANC is becoming more dominant, hegemonic and ideological, with added neo-patrimonial tendencies that are becoming more overt in an oligarchic manner. This article analyses the ANC's Polokwane conference (qualitatively and deductively) as part of South Africa's second political transition since 1994 and postulates potential outcomes (scenario perspectives).<hr/>In die fase wat as Suid-Afrika se tweede transisie voorgehou kan word (met kenmerke van institusionele verval), kom dit voor asof die ANC polities meer dominant word, sterker hegemonies en ideologies handel, met neo-patrimoniale eienskappe wat sterker na die oppervlak kom en oligargies manifesteer. Hierdie artikel analiseer die ANC se Polokwane-konferensie (kwalitatief en deduktief) as onderdeel van Suid-Afrika se tweede politieke transisie sedert 1994 en beredeneer potensiële uitkomstes (scenario perspektiewe) in hierdie verband. <![CDATA[<b>Perspectives for a normative politics: The message of the Institute for Reformational Studies (IRS) during a turbulent constitutional period (1976-1996) in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel het 'n tweevoudige doel. In die eerste plek ondersoek dit die politieke boodskap van die IRS gedurende die periode van ongeveer 1976 tot 1996 asook die betekenis daarvan vir die huidige politieke bestel in Suid-Afrika. In die tweede plek voorsien dit die resultate van 'n bibliografiese ondersoek na IRS-publikasies oor politiek en aanverwante sake. Die eerste (sistematiese) gedeelte begin met die lewensbeskoulike grondslae van 'n Christelike perspektief op politiek. Daarna word die waarde van 'n struktuuranalise van die staat in detail verduidelik. Dié gedeelte sluit af met enkele riglyne oor hoe dié visie deur politieke aksie verwesenlik kan word. In die tweede (bibliografiese) afdeling is die materiaal (om die historiese lyn te kan aantoon) kronologies weergegee en die verskillende IRS-reekse word (met die oog op verdere navorsing) ook afsonderlik weergegee.<hr/>This essay has a two-fold aim. It firstly investigates the political message of the IRS during the period of approximately 1976 to 1996 as well as its relevance for the contemporary political dispensation in South Africa. Secondly, for the purpose of future research, it provides the results of bibliographical research about IRS publications on politics and related issues. The first (systematic) part starts with the worldviewish foundations for a Christian perspective on politics. Then the value of a structural analysis of the state is explained in detail. Finally a few guidelines for political action are given. In the second (bibliographical) section the material is arranged (in order to follow the historical development) in a chronological order and the different IRS series are given (in view of further research) in separate bibliographies. <![CDATA[<b>Africa: Signs of hope?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa's most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa - for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.<hr/>Die aanbreek van die 21e eeu het nuwe hoop en vooruitsigte vir Afrika se leiers en sy mense gebring. Die eerste tekens van 'n verandering het na vore begin tree teen die einde van die laaste dekade van die 20e eeu. Dit het gemanifesteer in beter ekonomiese groeikoerse in talle Afrikastate, in pro-demokrasiebewegings wat in een na die ander staat daarin geslaag het om outoritêre bewinde te vervang, en deur die feit dat talle van Afrika se ergste oorloë begin taan het en selfs stopgesit is. Die resultate van hierdie studie bevestig dat bogenoemde positiewe politieke, ekonomiese en konfliktendense inderdaad besig is om plaas te vind. Dit verteenwoordig 'n belangrike en betekenisvolle verloop van gebeure, veral gegewe die bekende politieke en ontwikkelingsdilemma waarin Afrika hom sedert sy toetrede tot die internasionale politiek bevind. Die groter doelgerigtheid wat tans onder Afrikaleiers heers, asook 'n duideliker behoefte by gewone Afrikane om groter beheer oor hulle lewe en omstandighede te probeer verkry, is bemoedigend. Hierdie veranderde gesindheid het onder andere uitdrukking gevind in die Nuwe Bondgenoodskap vir Afrika se Ontwikkeling (NEPAD). Dit is betekenisvol en voorspel goeie dinge vir die toekoms. Met Afrika moet egter versigtig omgegaan word en daar moet gewaak word teen ooroptimisme en die oordrewe verwagting dat Afrika nou op 'n trajek van volgehoue vooruitgang en vrede is. Oor Afrika kan daar nie veralgemeen word nie - daarvoor is die kontinent uit 'n geografiese, kulturele, ekonomiese en politieke oogpunt net té groot en divers. <![CDATA[<b>Deepening democracy and enhancing multi-level governance: Deficiencies of and prospects for local government ward committees in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The South African local government system has a number of shortcomings, two of which relate to the role of local government in the deepening of participatory democracy and the position of local government in a system of multi-level governance. In this article, it will be posited that a lack of depth and quality in local democracy compromises the system of intergovernmental relations. Against this background, views on participatory democracy as a theoretical background will be investigated and the development and deficiencies of the ward committee system considered. ln order to contextualise the mechanism of local participation, selected international examples of public participation will be considered and an indication of the negative and positive aspects of these cases given. The South African system of intergovernmental relations will be investigated in order to show the importance of local government and public participation therein. Thereafter, suggestions will be made regarding the improvement of public participation in local government in order to adhere to the requirements of democracy and, as a result, to enhance and legitimise the system of intergovernmental relations.<hr/>Die Suid-Afrikaanse plaaslike regeringstelsel openbaar verskeie tekortkomings. Twee spesifieke aspekte is plaaslike regering se rol in die verdieping van deelnemende demokrasie en plaaslike regering se posisie in 'n stelsel van multivlak regering. In hierdie artikel word van die standpunt uitgegaan dat 'n gebrek aan diepte en gehalte in plaaslike demokrasie gevolglik ook die stelsel van interowerheidsverhoudings kompromitteer. Teen hierdie agtergrond word ondersoek ingestel na beskouings van deelnemende demokrasie as teoretiese agtergrond waarna aandag geskenk word aan die ontwikkeling van die wykskomiteestelsel en die tekortkomings word ook aangedui. Ten einde die meganisme van plaaslike deelname te kontekstualiseer, word enkele internasionale voorbeelde van plaaslike deelname oorweeg en ook aangedui wat die tekortkomings en positiewe aspekte in daardie gevalle is. Die Suid-Afrikaanse stelsel van interowerheidsverhoudings word ondersoek om die belang van plaaslike regering en openbare deelname daarin aan te dui, waarna voorstelle aan die hand gedoen word om openbare deelname in plaaslike regering te verbeter ten einde aan die vereistes van demokrasie te voldoen en ook om sodoende die stelsel van interowerheidsverhoudings te versterk en te legitimeer. <![CDATA[<b>Project governance: Selected South African government experiments</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the "governance" structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision-making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept "project governance", and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.<hr/>'n Bepaalde vorm van aanspreeklikheid en bevoegdheid bind alle organisasies. Daar word tipies na hierdie vorm as die "regering"- of "besluitnemingstruktuur" van die organisasie verwys. In organisasies wat relatief gevestigde projektoepassings en projekmetodologieë in plek het, word regeerkundige meganismes op 'n meer permanente basis gevestig. Met die fokus op prestasie, resultate en uitkomste, vestig "project governance"-meganismes besluitnemingstrukture sowel as aanspreeklikheiden verantwoordingdoeningsmeganismes in openbare instellings om projekte te moniteer. Namate regeringsinstellings klem plaas op projektoepassings vir beleidsimplementering en diensleweringsinisiatiewe, behoort meganismes en strukture gevestig te word om duidelike koppelvlakke tussen die permanente organisasie en die tydelike projekorganisasie te bewerkstellig. Sodanige meganismes en strukture behoort die regeerbaarheid van projekte te verbeter, verwysend na die strategiese belyning van projekte, die desentralisasie van besluitnemingsbevoegdheid, snelle hulpbrontoedeling, en die deelname van eksterne aandeelhouers. Die doel van die artikel is om die konsep "project governance" te verken en om voorbeelde van geselekteerde toepassings daarvan in openbare instellings op provinsiale en nasionale sfere uit te lig. Sodoende kan die beste praktykvoorbeelde ontleed word om die ontwikkeling van maatstawwe vir effektiewe projektoepassings vir diensleweringsverbetering te bevorder. <![CDATA[<b>The dilemma of the failed state thesis in post-9/11 world affairs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The 9/11 terrorist attacks shifted the emphasis of failed states as just a regional humanitarian problem to one that could present a global security threat. In this regard US policymakers, especially, identified failed states as possible terrorist threats. However, this renewed attention to the study of state failure has exposed a number of theoretical weaknesses in this body of literature. The latter could mainly be ascribed to the way in which US policy makers have often used generalised definitions of failed states and then applied it to states that are perceived as threats. Another problem is the fact that government sponsored research institutes and think tanks are operating independently from university academics. This situation has caused theoretical confusion as conditions in failed states are often interpreted differently resulting in the development of a number of opposing theories, definitions and confusing classification models. The body of literature is further accused of endorsing a "Weberian" definition (ideal type) of the state against which degrees of "failure" in non-complying states are measured. This article will investigate the extent of these theoretical weaknesses and expose the dangers of following an approach that seem to misinterpret the political realities of developing states (often regarded as failed) - this despite having an extensive popular following. It will further focus on possible alternative approaches - or the formulation of ideas that are better suited and relevant to the often unique internal political, social and economic dynamics of unstable states.<hr/>Die 9/11-terroriste aanvalle het die fokus van mislukte state as bloot streeksgebonde humanitêre probleme verskuif na een wat 'n globale sekuriteitsrisiko kan inhou. Veral Amerikaanse beleidmakers het mislukte state ná hierdie insident as potensiële terroristebedreigings begin identifiseer. Die hernude belangstelling in die studie van mislukte state het egter ook 'n aantal teoretiese tekortkomings binne hierdie studieterrein blootgelê. Laasgenoemde kan toegeskryf word aan die wyse waarop veral Amerikaanse beleidmakers dikwels veralgemeende definisies van mislukte state gebruik en dit dan toepas op state wat as "misluk" beskou word. 'n Verdere probleem is die feit dat regeringsgefinansierde navorsingsinstitute en dinkskrums dikwels onafhanklik van akademici by universiteite funksioneer. Hierdie stand van sake lei tot teoretiese verwardheid, aangesien toestande in mislukte state dikwels verskillend geïnterpreteer word. Die gevolg hiervan is dat teenstrydige teorieë, definisies en klassifikasiemodelle dikwels ontwikkel word. Die studieterrein word verder daarvan beskuldig dat dit 'n "Weberiaanse" (ideaaltipiese) definisie van die staat onderskryf om verskillende grade van mislukking by nie-toegeeflike state te bepaal. Hierdie artikel sal poog om die omvang van hierdie teoretiese tekortkomings te ondersoek en te fokus op die gevare van 'n benadering wat oënskynlik die politieke realiteite binne ontwikkelende state (wat dikwels as misluk beskou word) misinterpreteer. Ten slotte sal aandag geskenk word aan moontlike alternatiewe benaderings, of die formulering van idees wat meer relevant en toepaslik is vir die dikwels unieke interne politieke, sosiale en ekonomiese dinamika van onstabiele state. <![CDATA[<b>Institutional statism: An overview of the formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article provides an overview of the government's formulation of the taxi recapitalisation policy which is aimed at regulating the minibus taxi industry. Coupled with a brief social and politico-historical context of the policy, the aim is to highlight the government's statist conduct in the formulation of the recapitalisation policy. The minibus taxi industry started to fulfil a prominent role in the 1970s as a result of a loophole in the legislation of the former apartheid government. It is currently the most accessible mode of public transport and conveys 65 per cent of the country's commuters daily. Consequently, the Industry is an imperative force to be considered by the government in its formulation of transport policies. However, the industry is characterised by numerous problems, including a high rate of minibus taxis involved in accidents, unroadworthy vehicles and violence. It is in this context that the government formulated both the original and revised versions of the recapitalisation policy. However, the formulation of the policy has been problematic. The government followed a statist approach during the formulation process when it directed the course of the process according to its interests and without adequate consultation with relevant role players.<hr/>Hierdie artikel verskaf 'n oorsig hoe die Suid-Afrikaanse regering die taxiherkapitaliseringsbeleid geformuleer het. Die regering beoog om met behulp van die herkapitaliseringsbeleid die land se minibus taxibedryf te reguleer. Die doel van die artikel is om, tesame met 'n kort oorsig van die sosiale en polities-historiese konteks van die beleid, te beklemtoon hoe die regering 'n sogenaamde benadering van institusialisme tydens die formulering van die herkapitaliseringsbeleid gevolg het. Die minibus taxibedryf vervul sedert die sewentigerjare 'n belangrike rol as gevolg van 'n skuiwergat in die wetgewing van die voormalige apartheidsregering. Dit is tans die toeganklikste vorm van openbare vervoer met 65 persent van die land se pendelaars wat verkies om met minibus taxi's te pendel. Dit is dus belangrik dat die regering die bedryf in ag neem indien beleide gerig op die openbare vervoerstelsel geformuleer word. Die bedryf word egter deur verskeie probleme in die gesig gestaar. Probleme sluit onder andere 'n hoë ongeluksyfer, onpadwaardige voertuie en geweld in. Die regering het, in 'n poging om hierdie probleme in die bedryf te hanteer, sowel die oorspronklike en hersiene weergawes van die herkapitaliseringsbeleid geformuleer. Hierdie formuleringsproses het egter nie sonder probleme verloop nie aangesien die regering 'n tipiese benadering van institutialisme gevolg het. Die regering het byvoorbeeld sy eie belange voorop gestel en versuim om die relevante rolspelers by die proses te betrek of voldoende te raadpleeg. <![CDATA[<b>Appraising the e-readiness of online learning facilitators: Key human factors</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Higher education institutions in South Africa have undergone a number of changes over the past few years. These changes brought about inter alia changed work environments and job demands. One of the new job demands is the need to incorporate technology in teaching and learning, viz. e-learning. Not all job incumbents, however, adapted successfully to these changes, particularly with regard to e-readiness. Such a lack in e-readiness is likely to influence the effectiveness with which an academic employee will fulfil his/her online learning duties. Therefore, it is important to find solutions to overcome the lack of e-readiness. This article will focus on the role of human resource appraisal, in order to assess the e-readiness of online learning facilitators with a view to improving their online skills and capacity. A number of human factors that can play a role in employee performance and motivation, namely learning styles, personal profile patterns, and pace and style of technology adoption will be briefly outlined, in order to determine the role that these factors could play in assessing the e-readiness of online learning facilitators.<hr/>Hoëronderwysinstellings in Suid-Afrika het die afgelope paar jaar verskeie veranderings ondergaan. Hierdie veranderings het onder andere veranderde werksomgewings en veranderde werksvereistes teweeg gebring. Een van hierdie veranderde werksvereistes is die gebruik van tegnologie in leer en onderrig, naamlik e-leer. Alle posbekleërs het egter nie noodwendig saam met die pos verander nie. Waar daar 'n tekort aan e-gereedheid ervaar word, sal die effektiwiteit waarmee die aka-demiese personeellid sy/haar aanlyntake vervul, beïnvloed word en daarom is dit belangrik om oplossings vir die gebrek aan e-gereedheid te vind. Hierdie artikel fokus op die rol van prestasie-evaluering met die doel om die e-gereedheid van 'n aanlyn-leerfasiliteerderte evalueer ten einde sy/haar vaardighede en kapasiteit te verbeter. 'n Aantal menslike faktore wat 'n rol kan speel in 'n werk-nemer se prestasie-evaluering en -motivering, naamlik leerstyle, persoonlike werksprofiele en die pas en styl waarmee 'n werknemer aanpas by die gebruik van tegnologie, sal kortliks uiteengesit word met die doel om die rol wat hierdie faktore in die evaluering van e-gereedheid van 'n web-gerugsteunde leerfasiliteerder speel, te bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Spirituality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572008000400011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Higher education institutions in South Africa have undergone a number of changes over the past few years. These changes brought about inter alia changed work environments and job demands. One of the new job demands is the need to incorporate technology in teaching and learning, viz. e-learning. Not all job incumbents, however, adapted successfully to these changes, particularly with regard to e-readiness. Such a lack in e-readiness is likely to influence the effectiveness with which an academic employee will fulfil his/her online learning duties. Therefore, it is important to find solutions to overcome the lack of e-readiness. This article will focus on the role of human resource appraisal, in order to assess the e-readiness of online learning facilitators with a view to improving their online skills and capacity. A number of human factors that can play a role in employee performance and motivation, namely learning styles, personal profile patterns, and pace and style of technology adoption will be briefly outlined, in order to determine the role that these factors could play in assessing the e-readiness of online learning facilitators.<hr/>Hoëronderwysinstellings in Suid-Afrika het die afgelope paar jaar verskeie veranderings ondergaan. Hierdie veranderings het onder andere veranderde werksomgewings en veranderde werksvereistes teweeg gebring. Een van hierdie veranderde werksvereistes is die gebruik van tegnologie in leer en onderrig, naamlik e-leer. Alle posbekleërs het egter nie noodwendig saam met die pos verander nie. Waar daar 'n tekort aan e-gereedheid ervaar word, sal die effektiwiteit waarmee die aka-demiese personeellid sy/haar aanlyntake vervul, beïnvloed word en daarom is dit belangrik om oplossings vir die gebrek aan e-gereedheid te vind. Hierdie artikel fokus op die rol van prestasie-evaluering met die doel om die e-gereedheid van 'n aanlyn-leerfasiliteerderte evalueer ten einde sy/haar vaardighede en kapasiteit te verbeter. 'n Aantal menslike faktore wat 'n rol kan speel in 'n werk-nemer se prestasie-evaluering en -motivering, naamlik leerstyle, persoonlike werksprofiele en die pas en styl waarmee 'n werknemer aanpas by die gebruik van tegnologie, sal kortliks uiteengesit word met die doel om die rol wat hierdie faktore in die evaluering van e-gereedheid van 'n web-gerugsteunde leerfasiliteerder speel, te bepaal.