Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720150004&lang=pt vol. 80 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Voltaire: Natural scientific light against christian criminality - methodologies of targeting</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572015000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Western thought, since the Renaissance, shows a repeated development of methods aimed at attacking Christianity, from Machiavelli's Classicist militarism up to William James' 'empty' Pragmatism.¹ Methods have aims, and aims are subject to norms and criteria. A summit of anti-Christian enmity - in middle Modernity - was the pre-Revolutionary French philosophes, headed by Voltaire. In the previous article I have shown how the Neo-Classicist Voltaire developed a hermeneutic in which the Classical Greeks and Romans always appear as tolerant and virtuous, and Christianity is presented as misleading, intolerant, oppressive, violent and criminal - all through its history. In this article I investigate the nature of 'light' in the name 'Enlightenment', in order to understand Voltaire's alternative to Christianity. I argue that the philosophical term 'light' was rooted in Plato, developed and adapted by Augustine and Scholasticism, and became a basis for group mystical elitism in Joachim of Fiore. In Modernity - specifically Voltaire - the light becomes a replacement of the Medieval divine Logos (Law-word) - a new light for elitist groups. Modernity separated the Origin (causa efficiens) from the Destiny (causa finalis): the divine was split between 'Nature' (origin) and (super-natural) 'Rationality' (scientific and civil); linked these two with the faith in progress. The 'light' was insight into 'natural law' a priori in consciousness; an ambiguous 'natural law' expressing the bio-mechanical and the basis of civility, driving humankind to progress. Thus insight into the laws of physics - from Logos Newton via Caesar Voltaire - provides the basis for a rational society: scientific reason supports practical reason. Voltaire's insistence on the natural right of women to be incubators of workers and soldiers (adopted by the French Revolutionaries) shows how difficult it was to derive the human from the natural.<hr/>Die Westerse denke, sedert die Renaissance, toon herhaalde ontwikkeling van metodes bedoel om die Christendom aan te val, vanaf Machiavelli se Klassisistiese militarisme tot by William James se 'leë' Pragmatisme. Metodes het doelstellings, en doelstellings is onderworpe aan norme en kriteria. 'n Hoogtepunt in anti-Christelike vyandskap - in middel-Moderniteit - was die pre-Rewolusionêre Franse philosophes, gelei deur Voltaire. In die vorige artikel het ek laat sien hoe die Neo-Klassisis Voltaire 'n hermeneutiek ontwikkel het waarin die Klassieke Grieke en Romeine altyd as verdraagsaam en deugsaam verskyn, en die Christendom voorgehou word as misleidend, intolerant, onderdrukkend, gewelddadig en krimineel - regdeur sy geskiedenis. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die aard van 'lig' in die naam, Verligting, om so Voltaire se alternatief tot die Christendom te verstaan. Ek argumenteer dat die wysgerige term 'lig' op Plato teruggaan, ontwikkel en aangepas is deur Augustinus en die Skolastiek, en by Joachim van Fiore 'n basis vir mistieke groepselitisme geword het. In die Moderne era - in besonder Voltaire - word die lig 'n vervanging vir die Middeleeuse goddelike Logos ((Wet-woord) - n nuwe lig vir elitistiese groepe. Moderniteit het die Oorsprong (causa efficiens) geskei van die Bestemming (causa finalis): die goddelike is gesplit tussen die 'Natuur' (oorsprong) en die (bo-natuurlike) Rasionaliteit (wetenskaplik en siviel); die twee is verbind deur die progressiegeloof. Die 'lig' was insig in die 'natuurwet' a priori in die bewussyn; 'n dubbelsinnige 'natuurwet' wat beide die bio-meganiese en die basis vir burgerlikheid uitdruk; dit dryf die mensheid na vooruitgang. Dus voorsien insig in die fisika se wette - van Logos Newton via Caesar Voltaire - die basis vir 'n rasionele samelewing: die wetenskaplike rede ondersteun die praktikale rede. Voltaire se aandrang op natuurlike reg van vroue om broeimasjiene te wees van werkers en soldate (deur die Franse Rewolusionêre oorgeneem) toon hoe moeilik deduksie van die menslike uit die natuurlike was. <![CDATA[<b>Feminist pedagogy as a new initiative in the education of South African teachers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572015000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Not much has been published about feminist pedagogy and teacher education in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to introduce the above to the South African education fraternity, where it has not yet found a comfortable home. The problem of the study focuses on two issues: the lack of an alternative teacher education perspective and experience in South Africa, and the possibility of teacher education for the new gender order, and a revival of the gender equity debate. The purpose of the study is to reflect on the gendered (patriarchal) teacher education models, enhance the pre-service teachers' understanding of the power relations in education, and argue the case for the inclusion of feminist pedagogy in teacher education programmes. A qualitative conceptual document analysis was used as research design. The article is concluded with an exemplar teacher education module in which student teachers are introduced to a critical study of learning to teach (feminist pedagogy), and a feminist classroom setting.<hr/>Feministiese pedagogie as 'n nuwe inisiatief in die opleiding van Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysers. Daar is nog nie baie in Suid-Afrika oor feministiese pedagogie en onderwysersopleiding gepubliseer nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om bogenoemde aan die Suid-Afrikaanse onderwyskorps bekend te stel, waar dit nog nie 'n veilige tuiste geniet nie. Die probleem van die studie fokus op twee aspekte: die gebrek aan 'n alternatiewe onderwysersopleiding perspektief en ervaring in Suid-Afrika, en die moontlikheid van onderwysersopleiding vir die nuwe genderorde, en 'n oplewing in die genderdebat. Die doel van die studie is om te besin oor die patriargale onderwysersopleidingsmodelle, ongekwalifiseerde onderwysers se begrip van die magsverhoudinge in die onderwys te bevorder, en voorbrand te maak vir die moontlike insluiting van feministiese pedagogie in onderwysersopleidingsprogramme. 'n Kwalitatiewe konseptuele dokument-analise is as navorsingsontwerp gebruik. Die artikel is afgesluit met 'n eksemplaar onderwysersopleidingsmodule waarin die student-onderwysers aan 'n kritiese studie van leer om te onderrig (feministiese pedagogie), en 'n feministiese klaskameromgewing voorgestel word. <![CDATA[<b>"Create music that will open a person's heart": A perspective on emotional and social wellbeing as depicted in three films</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572015000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Music in film is a powerful means for highlighting particular themes or messages. Furthermore, film music provides a background to what the viewer perceives in scenes or events through the experiences of the actors. Although mostly fictional, many emotions or situations depicted in films can be assimilated with the life experiences of the viewer. The three films in question in this article, As it is in Heaven, Les Choristes and Harmony show that, in facing life's many challenges, singing as a form of music can serve as a means to express and/or attain a measure of emotional and social wellbeing. The meaning of group singing, the relationship between singing and wellbeing as well as the comments of conferences attendees and the interpretation of some lyrics are discussed in this qualitative research article. The preceding points link to the "broaden-and-build" model of positive emotions.<hr/>Die gebruik van musiek in films is 'n besonder kragtige wyse om spesifieke temas of boodskappe uit te lig. Filmmusiek verskaf ook 'n agtergrond vir wat die kyker in besondere tonele of gebeurtenisse deur die ondervindinge van die spelers beleef. Alhoewel heelwat emosies of situasies wat in films uitgebeeld word, fiktief is, kan die kykers as gevolg van hul eie lewenservaringe hulle daarmee vereenselwig. Die drie films wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, As it is in Heaven, Les Choristes en Harmony, wys dat sang as wyse kan dien om uitdrukking aan emosionele en sosiale welstand te gee wanneer verskillende uitdagings in die lewe n mens in die gesig staar. Die betekenis van groepsang, die verwantskap tussen sang en welstand sowel as die kommentaar van kongresgangers en die interpretasie van sekere lirieke word in hierdie kwalitatiewe navorsingsartikel bespreek. Die voorafgaande aspekte word met die "verruiming-en-bou"-model van positiewe emosies verbind. <![CDATA[<b>The transformation of reformed natural law doctrine in Samuel Rutherford's <i>Lex, Rex</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572015000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In addition to Rutherford's emphasis on core ideas of Reformed thought concerning God's ordination of civil government for His glory and equating divine law with natural law, he grounds both natural law and the limits to political authority in a covenant of creation between God and man. Flowing from these ideas, Rutherford distinguishes between the institution of the office (political government), and the designation of a person or persons to the office. A most important perspective emanating from Rutherford's covenantal natural law theory is his distinction between ends and means on secondary causation in the subject's involvement in political life. This essay investigates some of the implications flowing from Rutherford's transformation of Reformed natural law doctrine.<hr/>Bykomend tot Rutherford se beklemtoning van fundamentele idees van die Reformatoriese denke met betrekking tot God se instelling van burgerlike regering tot sy eer en die vereenselwiging van goddelike reg met natuurreg, grond hy sowel die natuurreg as die perke van politieke gesag in 'n skeppingsverbond tussen God en die mens. Uit hierdie opvattings spruit Rutherford se onderskeid tussen die instelling van die owerheidsamp (politieke regering) en die aanwysing van 'n persoon of persone in sodanige ampte. 'n Uiters belangrike perspektief wat spruit uit Rutherford se verbondsmatige natuurregsteorie is sy onderskeid tussen doelwitte en middele met betrekking tot sekondêre oorsaaklikheid in die onderdaan se betrokkenheid in die politieke lewe. Hierdie artikel ondersoek sommige van die implikasies van Rutherford se transformasie van die Reformatoriese natuurreg-leerstuk. <![CDATA[<b>A deconstruction of the term "revolution"</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572015000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The precise meaning of the concept of (political) revolution remains semantically contested. According to Arslanian (2013:127) this concept "is often used liberally, applied to everything from the 'Social Media Revolution' to the 'Sexual Revolution'". Brinton (1965:1-4) agrees, referring to revolution as a concept that "troubles the semanticist not only because of its wide range in popular usage, but also because it is one of those words charged with emotional content". In some instances revolution even becomes a "holy word" with an a priori moral force which sets preconditions for moral righteousness. It seems that "the revolution" can become just as important as a religion would be. This same revolution/religion also provides the opportunity to gain material and immaterial goods for human-kind (Marcuse, 2001:123). Koselleck (as quoted by Marinelli; 2014:8) argues that the semantics of the concept revolution is by no means unequivocal. The goal of this article therefore is to address the semantic vagueness of the political concept of revolution through a literature analysis, subsequently listing observable characteristics of the phenomenon. As such, this article is a theoretical effort contributing to what Babbie and Mouton (2008:113) call the hermeneutic cycle of ever-deepening understanding in which the different observables of revolution will be arrived at via the deconstruction of various definitions from wide-ranging schools of thought and ideas of revolution.<hr/>Die presiese betekenis van die konsep (politieke) revolusie is semanties omstrede. Volgens Arslanian (2013:127) word die konsep algemeen gebruik om enigiets van die 'Sosiale Media Revolusie' tot die 'Seksuele Revolusie' te beskryf. Brinton (1965:1-4) stem hiermee saam en beskryf revolusie as 'n konsep wat problematies is vir die semantikus omdat dit in die populêre taal gebruik word en omdat dit met emosionele inhoud gelaai is. In sommige omstandighede word revolusie selfs n "heilige woord" met n a priori morele mag wat die voorvereistes bevat vir geregtigheid. Dit blyk dat "die revolusie" net so belangrik kan raak soos wat n religie kan wees. Hierdie revolusie/religie voorsien dan die geleentheid om materiële en niemateriële goedere deur die mensdom te versamel (Marcuse, 2001:123). Koselleck (soos aangehaal deur Marinelli 2014:8) argumenteer dat die betekenis van revolusie allermins ondubbelsinnig is. Die doel van die artikel is dan om die semantiese vaagheid van die politieke term rewolusie te ontleed deur n literatuurstudie waarna die waarneembare kenmerke van die verskynsel gelys sal word. As sulks poog die artikel om n teoretiese bydrae te maak tot wat Babbie and Mouton (2008:113) die hermeneutiese siklus van dieperwordende begrip noem en waarin verskillende waarneembare kenmerke van revolusie geïdentifiseer sal word deur die dekonstruksie van verkillende definisies beskryf in verskillende denkskole. <![CDATA[<b>Uneasy lies the head: Poststructuralism in the midst of paradigm contestation in applied linguistics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572015000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A number of recent discussions reveal a renewed unease within applied linguistics with how the field should be defined, which direction it should take, what the legitimate focuses are for work in the discipline, what themes should engage applied linguists, and which methodologies they should employ. This paper focuses on how the currently ascendant, late-postmodern paradigm within applied linguistics is dealing with, or ignoring, the challenges it faces from within postmodernism, and beyond. In its response, it is evident that the view of applied linguistics as dealing with language issues or practices makes it difficult to distinguish from linguistics, even where, often contradictorily, its supposed multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary character is invoked. It is essential to distinguish the influence that other disciplines may themselves exert on applied linguistics from the philosophical paradigms operative in those disciplines. Paradigm alignment may therefore well be mistaken for interdisciplinary influence and understandings. Given a current uneasiness with postmodernist approaches, and an expressed desire to move beyond its relativism and political agendas, poststructuralism indeed presents an important theoretical defence of late postmodernism. One problem with that defence is its often strident dismissal of other postmodernist approaches, while implying that it is the purest form of that. So the ascendancy of poststructuralism comes at a cost: the rejection of potential allies. While it may yet contribute to more responsible applied linguistic designs, its emphasis on the political and especially ethical dimensions of applied linguistic work will probably be its enduring contribution.<hr/>'n Aantal onlangse besprekings gee blyke van hernieude ongemak in die toegepaste taalkunde met betrekking tot hoe die veld gedefinieer behoort te word, watter rigting dit moet inslaan, watter fokusse legitiem is vir sy dissiplinêre werk, watter temas aangespreek moet word, en welke metodologieë aangewend moet word. Hierdie bydrae fokus op die wyse waarop die huidig toonaangewende, laat-postmodernistiese paradigma in die toegepaste taalkunde die uitdagings wat afkomstig is vanuit die postmodernisme self, maar ook van buite die postmodernisme, hanteer of ignoreer. Uit die reaksie daarop is dit duidelik dat die siening van die toegepaste taalkunde as die hantering van taalkwessies of -praktyke dit moelik maak om dit te onderskei van die linguistiek, selfs waar die toegepaste taalkunde ietwat kontradiktories homself tegelyk beroem op sy multi-of interdissiplinêre aard. Dit is verder noodsaaklik om te onderskei tussen die invloed van ander dissiplines op die toegepaste taalkunde en die filosofiese paradigmas wat werksaam is in daardie ander dissiplines. Die belyning van paradigmas oor vakgrense heen kan maklik aangesien word vir interdissiplinêre invloed, wat dit nie is nie. Gegewe die huidige ongemak met 'n postmodernistiese aanpak, asook die versugting om aan te beweeg, weg van sy relativisme en politieke agendas, is dit verstaanbaar dat die poststrukturalisme 'n besondere teoretiese regverdiging mag bied vir die laat-postmodernisme. Die een probleem met daardie verweer is die telkens robuuste afwysing van ander postmodernistiese aanpakke, tesame met die implikasie dat die poststrukturalisme die suiwerste vorm daarvan is. Die invloedrykheid van die poststrukturalisme kom dit dus duur te staan: dit beteken dat potensiële bondgenote verwerp word. Terwyl dit nog kan bydra tot die meer verantwoordelike ontwerp van toegepaste taalkundige intervensies, bly die meer duursame bydrae wat dit kan maak steeds die klem te wees wat dit plaas op veral die politiese en etiese dimensies van toegepaste taalkundige werk. <![CDATA[<b>A history of the reformational movement in Britain: The pre-World War II years</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572015000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper looks at the development of neo-Calvinism in Britain during the period up to World War II (WWII). Though the term neo-Calvinism is broad, the focus here will be on the Reformational strand associated with the approach of Kuyper, Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven.<hr/>Hierdie vraestel kyk na die ontwikkeling van neo-Calvinisme in Brittanje gedurende die tydperk tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Tweede Wêreldoorlog). Alhoewel die term neo-Calvinisme is breë , sal die fokus hier op die Reformatoriese strand wat verband hou met die benadering van die Kuyper , Dooyeweerd en Vollenhoven.