Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720160001&lang=pt vol. 81 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Classroom management for optimal learning in a context of shared instructional leadership</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A growing body of scholarship links classroom management to effective teaching and learning. This article looks at the 'what' of classroom management that contributes to optimal learning. A qualitative investigation was undertaken based on individual interviews conducted at three primary schools in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Northwest Province. The findings show that functional arrangements in the classroom brought about by rules of conduct democratically determined engender an environment of consideration. The development of a caring environment and the fostering of a philosophy of respect create a sense of belonging that motivates learning engagement. Teachers who strive to be subject experts and who arrange classroom space and activities in such a way to involve all pupils in active participation contribute to self-realisation. A main limitation to classroom management is the lack of providing sufficiently for the learning needs of gifted pupils. The findings contribute to the discourse on classroom management for the sake of optimal learning.<hr/>'n Groterwordende getal kundiges koppel klaskamerbestuur aan effektiewe onderrig en leer. Hierdie artikel kyk na die 'wat' van klaskamerbestuur wat tot optimale leer bydra. 'n Kwalitatiewe ondersoek gebaseer op individuele onderhoudvoering is by drie laerskole in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal en die Noord-Wes provinsie onderneem. Die bevindings dui daarop dat funksionele reelings in die klaskamer, wat deur gedragsreëls wat demokraties bepaal is teweeggebring word, 'n konsidererende omgewing tot gevolg het. Die ontwikkeling van 'n omgewing van omgee en die kweek van 'n filosofie van repek lei tot die skep van 'n gevoel van behoort wat leerbetrokkenheid aanmoedig. Onderwysers wat daarna streef om vakspesialiste te wees en wat klaskamerruimte en aktiwiteite op sodanige wyse reël dat alle leerlinge aktief betrokke is, dra tot selfverwesenliking by. 'n Belangrike leemte met klaskamerbestuur is die in gebreke bly om genoegsaam in die leerbehoeftes van begaafde leerlinge te voorsien. Die bevindings dra by tot die diskoers oor klaskamerbestuur ter wille van optimale leer. <![CDATA[<b>The world-picture of the reformed biologist, Jan Lever (1922-2010) from an evolutionary theory towards an evolutionistic faith?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Evolusie as teorie word vandag wyd verkondig, deur baie as 'n feit aanvaar, en word dus ook gereflekteer in handboeke vir sekondêre en tersiêre instellings. Die hoofprobleem wat in hierdie refleksie bespreek word, is of die evolusieteorie altyd 'n blote teorie of hipotese bly. Gebeur dit nie dikwels, selfs onbedoeld en geleidelik, dat dit eventueel in n evolusionistiese geloof en lewensvisie ontwikkel en op dié wyse vir Christene 'n onaanvaarbare wêreldbeskouing word nie? Verskillende huidige sekulêre denkers erken vandag reeds openlik die afhanklikheid van hulle evolusieteorie van 'n agnostiese of ateïstiese geloof en/of die omgekeerde: dat hulle evolusieteorie tot so n geloof voer. Sommige Christelike natuurwetenskaplikes (1) verwerp duidelik die evolusieteorie en ook n evolusionistiese lewensvisie. Ander (2), wat ook verteenwoordigers uit die Christelik-gereformeerde tradisie insluit, is van mening dat, nadat God (voor tyd daar was) alles geskep het, die werklikheid onder sy voorsienigheid verder ontplooi of evolveer het. In die geval van n derde groep Christelik-evolusionêre bioloë (3) wil dit voorkom asof die kompromie of sintese wat hulle tussen hulle Christelike oortuigings en wetenskaplike hipoteses en teorieë wou bereik, gefaal het. Aan die einde moes hulle vir die een of die ander kies. In 'n eerste artikel (vgl. Van der Walt, 2016a) is alreeds hierdie verskillende en selfs botsende gesigspunte onder Christenwetenskaplikes bespreek. Dit was toegespits op die standpunte van n vroeëre bekende gereformeerde teoloog (Abraham Kuyper) van Nederland en 'n Suid-Afrikaanse Christelike filosoof (Hendrik Stoker). In 'n tweede bydrae oor dieselfde vraagstuk het die aandag geval op die visies van drie gereformeerde bioloë, naamlik Harry Diemer, Duyvené de Wit en Jan Lever (vgl. Van der Walt, 2016b). Die eerste twee kan beskou word as verteenwoordigers van standpunt (2) hierbo, terwyl die derde persoon se siening aanvanklik ook onder dieselfde groep geval het, maar sedert ongeveer 1970 in die rigting van (3) ontwikkel het. Die huidige artikel volg Lever se ontwikkeling vanaf ongeveer 1970 tot 2010. Daarvolgens ontstaan daar n toenemende spanning tussen sy Christelike geloof in die Bybel van God as Skepper en sy dierkundige navorsing volgens 'n evolusionêre paradigma. Dit word duidelik dat hy geleidelik soveel gewig en selfs openbarende krag aan sy wetenskaplike resultate geheg het dat dit eventueel gebots het met en selfs sy Christelike lewensbeskouing oorrompel het om vervang te word met n evolusionistiese wereldbeeld of selfs (semi-) evolusionistiese wêreldvisie.<hr/>Evolution as a theory is today proclaimed widely, accepted by many as a fact and is often reflected even in South Africa in prescribed textbooks for schools and universities. The main question to be discussed in this reflection is whether the idea of evolution always remains a mere theory. Does it not often, even unintentionally, eventually develop into an evolutionistic faith or worldview and thus would become to Christians an unacceptable worldview? Different contemporary secular thinkers openly acknowledge the dependence of their theory of evolution upon an agnostic or an atheistic faith and/or, vice versa, their evolutionary theory leading toward unbelief. Some Christian-reformed natural scientists (1) clearly rejected the hypothesis of evolution, including an evolutionistic worldview. Others (2), again including those from the reformed Christian tradition, are of the opinion that, after God (before time) created everything, reality unfolded or developed under His guidance. In the case of a third group of (3) Christian evolutionary scientists it seems as if the compromise or synthesis which they tried to achieve between their Christian convictions and their scientific hypotheses could not be achieved. Finally they had to choose in favour of the one or the other. A first article (cf. Van der Walt, 2016a) already discussed these varying and even clashing viewpoints among Christians. It focussed on the position of an earlier, well-known reformed theologian from the Netherlands (Abraham Kuyper) and a South African Christian philosopher (Hendrik Stoker). A second contribution on the same issue (cf. Van der Walt, 2016b) shifted attention to the viewpoints of three biologists from the reformed Christian circle, viz. Harry Diemer, Duyvené de Wit and Jan Lever. The first two of them may be regarded as representatives of position (2) above, while the third initially belonged to (2) but after about 1970 gradually developed towards (3). The present article follows Lever's thinking from about the seventies up to 2010. An increasing tension developed between his Christian belief in the Bible, and God as Creator and his zoological research according to an evolutionary paradigm. It gradually becomes evident that he ascribed such weight and even revelationary power to his scholarly results that it eventually clashed and overpowered his Christian worldview, replacing it with an evolutionistic world-picture or even a (semi-)evolutionistic worldview. <![CDATA[<b>Enabling liminality prophetic witness to xenophobia: Proposing a missiological spirit response for the church in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Missiological Spirit is a multidisciplinary approach to ecclesiology grounded in an understanding that all human knowledge, including secular disciplines, holds a degree of redemptive possibility because the Spirit of truth is actively engaged in every dimension of human existence. Particularly in this article, the approach intersects with anthropology, sociology, theology and ritual studies to explicate how these disciplines can interact to transform the Church in South Africa through reconceptualising some of the key Christian doctrines in the light of liminality theory. Through a case study of 2015 xenophobic attacks in South Africa that exemplifies the affinity between public speech and public violence, the article shows how a Missiological Spirit framework can inspire and empower South African Christians to respond adequately to the plague of xenophobia through consciousness-raising as prophetic resistance to violence.<hr/>Die Missiologiese Gees is 'n multidissiplinêre benadering tot die ekklesiologie wat gegrond is die begrip dat alles menslike kennis, insluitende sekulêre disciplines, 'n mate van verlossende moontlikheid in hou, omdat die Gees vandie waarheid aktief betrokke is in elke dimensie van die menslike gees. In hierdie artikel veral kruis die gegewe met antropologie, teologie en studies van ritueel om aan te dui hoe hierdie dissiplines in interaksie kan tree om die Kerk in Suid-Afrika te transformer deur 'n herkonseptualisering van sekere sleuteldoktrines van die Christendom in die lig van die teorie van liminaliteit. Deur 'n gevallestudie van die 2015 xenofobiese aanvalle in Suid-Afrika wat die affiniteit van openbare redevoering en openbare geweld uitspel, toon die artikel aan hoe 'n Missiologiese Geesraamwerk Suid-Afrikaanse Christene kan inspirer en versterk om toepaslik te reageer op die plaag van xenofobie deur bewusmaking as profetiese teenvoeter teen geweld. <![CDATA[<b>Maatskaplike werk groepsintervensie vir slagoffers van boeliegedrag: Funksionele elemente</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel bied 'n oorsig oor 'n gedeelte van 'n navorsingstudie wat daarop gerig was om 'n intervensie in groepsverband te ontwikkel vir kinders in hul laat middelkinderjare wat slagoffers is van boeliegedrag. In die tweede fase van intervensie-navorsing, naamlik die insameling en sintese van data, is menings van professionele persone in 'n fokusgroep verkry oor die aard van die probleem en ook om funksionele elemente te identifiseer vir insluiting in die intervensie. Vir die verfyning van die intervensie-prototipe was dit belangrik om slagofferdeelnemers se stemme te hoor oor hoe hulle boeliegedrag ervaar en hanteer; en alternatiewe wyses van hantering te bespreek. Die ouers van slagofferdeelnemers se menings oor hul kinders se inskakeling by die intervensie-prototipe word ook weergegee as deel van die vroeë ontwikkeling en voortoetsfase. Data-insameling is aangevul met 'n literatuurstudie. Vier temas is geïdentifiseer en word in die artikel beskryf.<hr/>This article covers part of a research project aimed at the development of an intervention for use in group work with children in their late middle childhood who are victims of bullying behaviour. In the second phase of the intervention research, namely the collection and synthesis of data, the opinions of professional persons were sought in a focus group regarding the essence of the problem as well as to identify functional elements that needed to be included in the intervention. In order to refine the intervention prototype, it was important for the voices of the victims of bullying participants to be heard about their experience and management of bullying behaviour, and to discuss alternative ways of managing bullying. The opinions of the parents of victims of bullying participants, regarding their children's inclusion in the intervention prototype, are also included as part of the early development and pre-test phase data. Data collection is supplemented by comprehensive literature research. Four themes were identified and are discussed in this article. <![CDATA[<b>Men's experience of loneliness after the loss of a spouse: A description of a narrative pastoral engagement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die doel van hierdie studie is om die fenomeen van eensaamheid by mans na die verlies van 'n lewensmaat te ondersoek. Dit behels navorsing wat die voorkoms, betekenis en die belewenis van eensaamheid na die verlies van 'n eggenoot kan verhelder. Die navorsing is gegrond in praktiese teologie. Dit word nagevors vanuit postmoderniteit as paradigma met 'n sosiaal-konstruksionistiese diskoers as epistemologiese vertrekpunt soos verwoord in die narratief-hermeneutiese benadering. Verskeie aksies onderliggend aan deelnemende aksienavorsing vir die insameling van data word as deel van 'n kwalitatiewe navorsingsbenadering benut. Meganismes onderliggend aan die narratiewe benadering wat korreleer met beginsels onderliggend aan deelnamende aksie-navorsing word geïmplementeer by die insameling van data. Waardevolle alternatiewe, wat 'n bydrae kan lewer in die hantering van eensaamheid, word vanuit die gespreksbenadering verken en beskryf. Antropologiese paradigmas word verhelder vanuit die siening dat die mens 'n komplekse wese is, wat deur sy/haar eie narratiewe sy omstandighede konstrueer. Met die studie word gevind dat mans eensaamheid kan ondervind na afsterwe van 'n lewensmaat. Hulle ondervind ook 'n behoefte aan 'n verbintenisfiguur wat kan help om hul eensaamheid te hanteer.<hr/>The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenon of loneliness that men experience after the loss of a spouse. It contains research to illuminate the occurrence, meaning and perception of loneliness after the loss of a spouse. The research is founded in practical theology and researched from within a postmodern paradigm, with a social constructionist discourse as epistemological point of departure as it is expressed in the narrative hermeneutic approach. Several actions subjacent to participatory action research are employed and form part of a qualitative research. Mechanisms of the narrative approach that resonate with the principles of participatory action research are used to collect the information. Valuable significant alternatives to cope with loneliness are explored by using the conversational approach. Anthropological paradigms are clarified from the view that a human being is a complex entity that constructs his/her own circumstances through narratives. Important findings of this research are that men can experience loneliness after the loss of a spouse and they are in need of an attachment figure to help them to cope with loneliness. <![CDATA[<b>A history of the Reformational Movement in Britain. II: The Post-World-War II years to the end of the Twentieth Century</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper looks at the development of neo-Calvinism in Britain during the period after World War II (WWII). Though the term neo-Calvinism is broad, the focus here will be on the Reformational strand associated with the approach of Kuyper, Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven.<hr/>Hierdie artikel kyk na die ontwikkeling van neo-Calvinisme in Brittanje gedurende die tydperk ná die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Alhoewel die term neo-Calvinisme breed is, is die fokus hier op die Reformatoriese Strand wat saamhang met die benadering van Kuyper, Dooyeweerd en Vollenhoven.