Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720170002&lang=pt vol. 82 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Calvin and 500 years reformation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The incomplete reformation of Martin Luther (1483-1546); a reconnaissance of the philosophical foundations of his thinking with special reference to his two-kingdom doctrine</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die afgelope 500 jaar het, in vergelyking met die maagdom teologiese literatuur, min oor die diepere lewensbeskoulik-filosofiese grondslae van Luther se denkwêreld die lig gesien. Tot 'n mate is dit verstaanbaar omdat hy primêr 'n hervormer van kerk en teologie was, Ter herdenking van die gebeure op 31/10/1517 handel hierdie ondersoek oor die invloed van die laat-Middeleeuse filosofiese denke, in besonder dié van Willem van Ockham (1285-1349), op die reformator van Wittenberg. Daar word aangetoon hoe hy deur drie hoof fases ontwikkel het en daarna word spesiale aandag gegee aan sy bekende en omstrede leer van twee ryke, dié van God se linker- en regterhand. Onder andere die volgende vrae word in dié verband gestel. Wanneer en waarom het hierdie dubbelfokusvisie op die werklikheid ontstaan? Wat was die probleme wat Luther met so 'n paradigma wou aanspreek? Kan so 'n lewensvisie in die lig van God se drievoudige openbaring in die skepping, die Skrif en Christus gehandhaaf word? Kan dit - soos sekere Gereformeerde teoloë vandag weer suggereer - as werklik reformatories beskou word? Moet Luther se Christelike lewensbeskouing nie eerder gesien word as 'n onvoltooide reformasie wat tot verdere reformasie roep nie?<hr/>During the past five hundred years the studies written from a theological perspective on Luther's thinking could fill a whole library, while not much is available about the deeper worldviewish-philosophical presuppositions of his intellectual development Therefore this investigation traces the relevant late medieval influences on his thinking, especially the philosophy of William of Ockham (1285-1349). Special attention is given to the three phases in Luther's development and his much debated two-kingdom doctrine, distinguishing between the rule of God's left and right hand Questions like the following will be discussed: When and why did this double-focus view of reality originate? What were the real issues which Luther tried to solve with such a paradigm? Could it be maintained in the light of God's threefold revelation in creation, in Scripture and finally in Christ? Could it be regarded - as some contemporary Reformed theologians suggest - as a genuine Reformational approach? Should it not rather be viewed as an unfinished reformation, calling for continuous reformation? <![CDATA[<b>John Calvin on the gifts of the Holy Spirit in his commentary on Acts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt John Calvin is often considered to have taught the cessation of the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit. This certainly does not give the complete picture of how Calvin wrestled with those passages from Scripture which deal with the extraordinary gifts. In his commentary on the book of Acts Calvin makes a conscious effort to show that in most of the cases where the gifts of the Spirit are mentioned, the focus is not on the gifts in a general sense, but in an extraordinary sense. These extraordinary gifts had been limited to the initial phase of the church. The reasons that Calvin provides for this cessation is somewhat ambiguous. On the one hand Calvin indicates a very specific, divine purpose for the gifts, which limits its usefulness and existence until the point when the purpose had been achieved. However, there are also passages where one gets the impression that the cessation of the gifts was not necessarily divinely intended, but was due to human error. Of great importance is the way Calvin subsequently applies these texts to the readers of his own day<hr/>Dikwels word aangeneem dat Johannes Calvyn die beëindiging van die buitengewone gawes van die Heilige Gees voorgestaan het. Dit gee egter nie die volle prentjie van hoe Calvyn met daardie Skrifgedeeltes, waarin die buitengewone gawes behandel word, geworstel het nie. In sy kommentaar op die boek Handelinge wys Calvyn bewustelik daarop dat in die meeste gevalle waar die gawes van die Gees genoem word, die fokus nie op die gawes in 'n algemene sin is nie, maar eerder op die gawes in 'n buitengewone sin. Hierdie buitengewone gawes is beperk tot die beginfase van die kerk. Die redes wat Calvyn vir hierdie beëindiging aanvoer, is egter dubbelsinnig. Aan die eenkant wys Calvyn op 'n baie spesifieke, Goddelike doel met die gawes, waardeur hulle bruikbaarheid en voortbestaan beperk word tot die tyd toe die doel bereik is. Aan die anderkant, egter, is daar ook gedeeltes wat die indruk skep dat die beëindiging van die gawes nie noodwendig Goddelik bepaal is nie, maar 'n gevolg was van menslike sonde. Van groot belang is hoe Calvyn hierdie tekste vervolgens toepas op die lesers van sy eie tyd. <![CDATA[<b>Calvin's reply to Sadolet as an extension of his pastoral ministry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In his concise autobiography in the dedication to the Psalms commentary Calvin made it plain that his role was primarily as a pastor; he compared his role in the church to that of King David in Israel: "And yet, as he [David] was elevated from the sheepfolds to the highest position of authority, so God took me [Calvin] also from obscure and small beginnings and honored me with the office of herald and minister of the gospel." (Calvin, 1958:51.) Beza (1564:9), Calvin's contemporary biographer, in Life of John Calvin also described Calvin as primarily engaged in pastoral ministry This paper will investigate and analyse the theological acumen and the pastoral tone in Calvin's treatise, Reply by John Calvin to the Letter by Cardinal Sadolet to the Senate and People of Geneva. This reply to Sadolet exudes outstanding intellectual brilliance and an unwavering pastoral concern that characterised Calvin's entire ministry and literature A study of this treatise reveals that even in this theological work, Calvin was practising his pastoral ministry. <![CDATA[<b>A life cultivated by righteousness: Calvin's exposition of the eighth Commandment in teaching children</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article profiles Calvin's elucidation of the eighth Commandment ('You shall not steal') in his catechetical works, thus linked to a setting determined by instruction and tuition of children. The 1537/8, the 1542/5 Catechisms as well as l'Institution puerile de la doctrine Chrestienne (1538-41) and La maniere d'interroguer les enfans (1551) are considered and related to his great pedagogical works the Institutes. In teaching children, Calvin keeps the theological framework, in which he deals with the Law in his Institutes, intact. The trajectories that he follows in his explication of the Commandment in the Institutes, also surface in his catechetical education. The emphasis shifts from the 'fear and love of God' (1536) to 'God's righteousness' (injusticejustice) (1539) as a determining theological motive in the interpretation of the Commandment, and can also be traced in his catechetical work. Calvin, therefore, explains to children that our lives in Christ, in the righteousness of Christ, are shaped by what is prohibited and demanded by the Commandment. Because: The more clearly God's Law reveals his righteousness, the more it unmasks our ingenuity and condemnation. And this is in his Christ. In Christ God's countenance shines full of grace and kindness even toward poor and unworthy sinners. It is by faith that Christ is embraced and enjoyed only by believers, the children are assured, who receive Him, sent to them, who do not reject Him, given to them, who follow Him, who is calling them.<hr/>Hierdie artikel skets die uitleg van die agste gebod in die kategetiese werk van Calvyn, dit wil sê, hoe hy hierdie gebod ('Jy mag nie steel nie') binne 'n konteks waarin kinders onderrig ontvang het, verduidelik het. Vir hierdie doeleindes is die 1537/8, die 1542/5 kategismusse asook l'Institution puerile de la doctrine Chrestienne (1538-41) en La maniere d'interroguer les enfans (1551) oorweeg en in verband met sy groot pedagogiese werk, die Institusie, gebring In die onderrig aan kinders hou Calvyn hom by die teologiese raamwerk waarin hy die wet in sy Institusies behandel. Die trajekte wat hy in sy verduideliking van die agste gebod volg, duik ook op in die kategetiese onderwys. Die klemverskuiwing van die 'vrees en liefde vir God' (1536) na die 'geregtigheid van God' (onreg/reg) (1539) as bepalende teologiese motief by die uitleg van die gebod, kan eweneens in sy kategetiese werk opgespoor word. Calvyn verduidelik dus vir kinders dat ons lewe in Christus, in die geregtigheid van Christus, gestalte kry in wat die gebod verbied en gebied. En die rede? Hoe helderder God se wet sy geregtigheid aan die lig bring, des te helderder ontmasker dit ons ongeregtigheid en verdoemenis. En, dit gebeur in sy Christus. In Christus straal God se aangesig vol genade en ontferming uit tot selfs arme en onwaardige sondaars. Deur geloof word Christus omhels en geniet slegs deur gelowiges, verseker Calvyn die kinders, wat Hom, gestuur na hulle, ontvang, wat Hom, gegee vir hulle, nie verwerp nie, wat Hom, terwyl Hy hulle roep, volg <![CDATA[<b>John Calvin, 2 Samuel 2:8-32 and Resistance to Civil Government: Supreme Equivocation or Mastery of Contextual Exegesis?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Over the years, it has been the considered view of some scholars that John Calvin regarded popular armed resistance to duly appointed but abusive civil rulers as illegitimate. Instead, they are of the view that the legitimacy of forceful resistance to a tyrannical civil magistrate, as subsequently developed by the later Huguenots, Scottish Covenanters and English Parliamentarians, was rooted in the thought of Theodore Beza as it allegedly diverged from that of Calvin. They apparently base this view exclusively on a reading of the Institutes 4.20.24 - 31. This paper examines whether Calvin's sermons on 2 Samuel, preached in 1562, put to rest accusations of equivocation raised by the infamous "perhaps" of 4.20.31; and if so, whether they evidence a development in Calvin's thought which stands in irreconcilable contradiction to the position expressed in the last chapter of the Institutes<hr/>Deur die jare was dit die oorwoë mening van kenners dat Johannes Calvyn gewapende weerstand teen die regmatige - hoewel onderdrukkende - owerheid as onwettig in die wêreld van die 16de eeu beskou het, en dat dit daarom ook onwettig vir vandag is. Daarenteen is hulle van mening dat die regmatigheid van gewelddadige weerstand teen die onderdrukkende owerheid, soos dit later deur die Hugenote, Skotse 'Covenanters' en Engelse Parlementariërs ontwikkel is, eerder in die denke van Theodore Beza gegrond was, na bewering in afwyking van Calvyn. Oënskynlik word hierdie mening uitsluitend gebaseer op 'n lesing van die Institusie 4.20.31. Hierdie artikel ondersoek of Calvyn se preke oor 2 Samuel, gehou in 1562, die aantyging van dubbelsinnigheid wat deur die berugte "miskien" van paragraaf 31 opgeroep word, kan weerlê. En indien wel, of hierdie preke 'n ontwikkeling in Calvyn se denke aantoon, wat in 'n onversoenbare teenstrydigheid staan met die posisie wat in die laaste hoofstuk van die Institusie ingeneem word. <![CDATA[<b>De Calvin à Althusius. L'importance du modèle ecclésiologique réformé pour la pensée fédérale</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, the relationship between Johannes Althusius' federal views of civil government - as expressed in his Politica methodice digesta - and John Calvin's conception of the role and function of public authorities, is examined in the light of three sermons on Deuteronomy 17 preached by Calvin in 1555. The discussion takes its starting point in the consideration of the kind of politico-theological connection denied or ignored in today's secularized France, with a particular historical reference to the regime of the Terreur in 1793-1794. The question of the influence which Calvin's ecclesiology as well as subsequent Calvinistic ecclesiological developments in the Netherlands may have had on Althusius' theory of government and of political life is raised in the light of the fact that Althusius not only held a degree in civil law, but also in Church law (both obtained in Basel the same year, under strong Luthero-Calvinist influence). If elements of a relation do indeed appear they still remain to be established with more precision. Still, in their views both Calvin and Althusius clearly point towards a unified vision of society under the norm of God's rule. With Althusius, this norm - embodied in the Decalogue - is refracted in the various spheres constitutive of human activity associated with each other in a federative way, each one retaining its own mode of operating. <![CDATA[<b>Re-visiting the relevance of John Calvin's values of self-denial and calling for new Learning Organisations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572017000200008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Modern organisations are subjected to increasing demands for the space employees ana members need to find purpose, meaning and sense in what they do every day This article aims to connect John Calvin's ideas related to calling and self-denial with the needs of organisations to accommodate staff members' wishes for meaningful engagement with the work they do in the context of the concept of Learning Organisations. This connection between Calvin and the aim of organisational renewal is made by briefly pointing to the disillusionment of postmodern society with modernistic forces of rationalism, linear thinking, bureaucratisation and standardisation which have led to the dehumanisation of organisations and, ultimately, the world of work. The argument is also made that the development of the Learning Organisation as concept is a new trend in organisational thinking The Learning Organisation represents a break with modern bureaucratic and hierarchical thinking The aim is to link these relatively new two organisational trends with the principles which John Calvin articulated about the calling or vocation of the faithful and their relationship with their fellow humans. The conclusion is that, for Christian (Reformed) faithful, the Learning Organisation and acknowledgement of their spiritual contribution is an opportunity to claim the workplace as territory to be in the service of others (as explained in Chapter 7 of Book 3 of the Institutes of the Christian Religion) and, effectively in service of God, experience work as a true vocation and calling.<hr/>Moderne organisasies kry te doen met toenemende eise om ruimte te voorsien vir werknemers en lede van die organisasies waarin hulle doel, betekenis en waarde kan sien waarin hulle elke dag doen. Hierdie artikel poog om Johannes Calvyn se idees van roeping en selfverloening as beginsel te verbind met die behoefte van organisasies om werknemers betekenisvol betrokke te maak in die werk wat hulle doen in die konteks van die idee van Lerende Organisasies. Die verband tussen Calvyn en die doel van organisatoriese vernuwing word getrek deur kortliks te wys op die teleurstelling van die postmoderne samelewing met die modernistiese kragte van rasionalisme, liniêre denke, burokratisering en standaardisering wat gelei het tot die ontmensliking van organisasies en uiteindelik die wêreld van werk. Die argument word ook aangebied dat 'n nuwe beweging in organisatoriese denke ontstaan het wat die ontwikkeling van die idee van die Lerende Organisasie voorstaan. Die Lerende Organisasie verteenwoordig 'n breuk met moderne burokraties en hiërargiese denke. Die doel is om hierdie relatief nuwe idees oor vernuwing in organisasies te verbind met die sienings wat Johannes Calvyn uitgedruk het oor die roeping van gelowiges in die werkpiek en huile verhouding met die medemens. Die gevolgtrekking is dat Christelike (Gereformeerde) gelowiges die Lerende Organisasie en erkenning van hulle geestelike bydrae as 'n geleentheid kan gebruik om die werkplek as terrein op te eis waar die naaste gedien kan word (soos verduidelik in Hoofstuk 7 van Boek 3 van Calvyn se Institusie van die Christelike Godsdiens) in diens van God. Op hierdie manier kan werk ervaar word as 'n ware uitlewingsgeleentheid van hulle roeping.