Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720190001&lang=en vol. 84 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Degrees of adequacy: the disclosure of levels of validity in language assessment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The conceptualization of validity remains contested in educational assessment in general, ana in language assessment in particular. Validation and validity are the subjective and objective sides of the pr ocess of building a systematic argument for the adequacy of tests. Currently, validation is conceptualized as being dependent on the validity of the interpretation of the results of the instrument. Yet when a test yields a score, that is a first indication of its adequacy or validity. As the history of validity theory shows, adequacy is further disclosed with reference to the theoretical defensibility ("construct validity") of a language test. That analogical analytical disclosure of validity is taken further in the lingually analogical question of whether the test scores are interpretable, and meaningful. This paper will illustrate these various degrees of adequacy with reference mainly to empirical analyses of a number of tests of academic literacy, from pre-school level tests of emergent literacy, to measurements of postgraduate students' ability to cope with the language demands of their study. Further disclosures of language test design will be dealt with more comprehensively in a follow-up paper Both papers present an analysis of how such disclosures relate to a theoretical framework for responsible test design<hr/>Om geldigheid te konsepsualiseer bly n betwiste saak in opvoedkundige meting in die algemeen, en in taalassessering in die besonder. Geldigmaking en geldigheid kan respektiewelik opgevat word as die subjektiewe en objektiewe kante van die sistematiese argument wat gevoer kan word vir die toereikendheid van toetse. Tans word geldigmaking gekonseptualiseer as afhanklik van die interpretasie van die resultate van die instrument. Tog is dit so dat wanneer n toets 'n punt oplewer, dit 'n eerste aanduiding is van sy geldigheid Soos die geskiedenis van geldigheidsteorie ook aantoon, word daardie toereikendheid verder ontsluit met verwysing na die teoretiese regverdiging (konstrukgeldigheid) van n taaltoets Daardie logies-analitiese ontsluiting van geldigheid word verder geneem in die analogies linguale vraag: Is die toetsresultate interpreteerbaar en betekenisvol? Hierdie artikel illustreer hierdie verskillende grade van geldigheid met verwysing na empiriese analises van toetse van akademiese geletterdheid, vanaf voorskoolse toetse van ontluikende geletterdheid tot by metings van nagraadse studente se vermoë om die eise van akademiese diskoers te hanteer. Verdere ontsluitings van taaltoetsontwerp word vollediger hanteer in 'n opvolgartikel. Beide artikels bied 'n analise van hoe sulke ontsluitings verband hou met 'n teoretiese raamwerk vir verantwoordelike toetsontwerp. <![CDATA[<b>Validation and the further disclosures of language test design</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The subjective validation of language tests and their objective validity remain contested. The debate is clouded by a lack of conceptual clarity: every measure of the adequacy of a test is either subsumed under validity, or other test features are promoted to prime consideration An alternative is to recognize the technical dimension of experience as the leading function of applied linguistic artefacts such as language tests. In its coherence with other dimensions of reality, the technical aspect generates echoes of those others. These references to other facets are the basis of technically stamped, applied linguistic concepts. While a previous analysis referred to a number of foundational concepts in test design, this paper examines the traces of the lingual, social, economic and ethical aspects within the technical. These are all regulative technical ideas, acting as lodestars in the design of language tests. They are disclosures of the technical meaning of test design. Moreover, they allow applied linguistics to conceive of them as design principles, which must be given concrete shape and form in the actual development of language tests. Acknowledging this state of affairs enables the applied linguist to develop a robust and non-reductionist theory of applied linguistics<hr/>Daar is geen eenstemmigheid oor wat die subjektiewe validering van taaltoetse asook hul objektiewe geldigheid behels nie. Die debat word vertroebel deur n gebrek aan konseptuele duidelikheid: elke maatstaf vir die effektiwiteit van 'n toets word óf ingetrek onder geldigheid, óf verhef tot belangrikste oorweging. Die alternatief is om die tegniese dimensie van ons ervaring as die leidende funksie van toegepaste taalkundige artefakte te erken. In sy samehang met ander dimensies genereer die tegniese aspek analogies van die ander. Daardie verwysings na ander aspekte vorm die basis van tegnies gekwalifiseerde toegepaste taalkundige begrippe Waar 'n vorige analise na 'n aantaal funderende begrippe verwys het, ondersoek hierdie bydrae die linguale, sosiale, ekonomiese en etiese spore in die tegniese aspek. Hierdie analogies is almal regulatiewe tegniese idees, wat optree as rigtingwysers in die ontwerp van taaltoetse. Hulle is ook ontsluitings van die tegniese betekenis van toetsontwerp. Terselfdertyd maak hulle dit vir die toegepaste taalkunde moontlik om hulle as ontwerpbeginsels te beskou wat in die ontwikkeling van taaltoetse konkrete beslag en vorm te kry. Om hierdie stand van sake ernstig op te neem is vir die toepgepaste taalkundige die beginpunt van die ontwikkeling van 'n robuuste en nie-reduksionistiese teorie van die toegepaste taalkunde. <![CDATA[<b>Philosophy at Potchefstroom the past century (1917-2017). Part 4: At the cross-roads?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572019000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In drie vorige artikels in hierdie tydskrif is die geskiedenis van filosofie op Potchefstroom vanaf die begin van die vorige eeu tot ongeveer 2009 behandel. In hierdie en die volgende bydrae bied die skrywer, weer h vlieg teen die muur, h volgende kyk op die huidige situasie teen die einde van 2017. Soos die subtitel van die huidige artikel aandui, wil dit voorkom asof die Potchefstroomse Christelike filosofie tans voor h tweesprong te staan gekom het. Verskillende redes kan daarvoor aangevoer word, soos die voortgaande sekularisering van die Noordwes-Universiteit (NWU). h Oorsaak vir die verskille binne die Skool vir Filosofie kan moontlik ook daarin gesoek word dat dosente van buite die tradisionele Christelik-Reformatoriese tradisie bygekom het en die denkgemeenskap van meer as h eeu nie deel nie. As een voorbeeld van so h alternatiewe visie sal die akademiese agtergrond, publikasies en standpunt van prof. A.H Verhoef in h laaste (vyfde) bydrae in besonderhede nagegaan word. Die huidige artikel oor die hoofkontoere van h Reformatoriese wysbegeerte dien as agtergrond waarteen die filosofiese teologie van Verhoef in die slotartikel analiseer en evalueer sal word<hr/>Three previous articles in this journal reviewed the history of philosophy at Potchefstroom from the beginning of the previous century up to about 2009. In this and the next, contribution the writer, acting again as a fly on the wall, provides a peephole on the current situation at the end of 2017. As the subtitle suggests, it seems that Christian philosophy at Potchefstroom has arrived at the cross-roads. Different reasons, like the on-going secularisation of the North-West University have contributed to the situation. A cause for differences within the School of Philosophy may also be that lecturers from outside the tradition of a Reformational approach are critical about the traditional Christian philosophical approach of more than a century. Since his viewpoint is one clear example of such an alternative approach the academic training, publications and viewpoint of Prof Anné H. Verhoef will be investigated in detail in a last (fifth) contribution. The present article about the main contours of a Reformational approach in philosophy serves as a necessary background from which the philosophical theology of Verhoef will be analysed and evaluated in the conclusion of this series