Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720160003&lang=en vol. 81 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The Marikana massacre, labour and capitalism: towards a Ricoeurian alternative</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this article is to critically discuss the tragedy that occurred between 11 and 16 August 2012 at the Lonmin Mine in Marikana, South Africa. Although the events leading up to the Marikana massacre were complex and not one single factor was responsible for the tragedy we will focus on the philosophical and anthropological aspect that may have influenced the breakdown of engagement between the management of Lonmin and workers. It will be argued that this breakdown may have been the result of reductionist anthropological trends that arise in capitalism. These trends selectively utilize modern economic principles to advance the profit motive of business and dehumanises workers. This dehumanisation is clear in the view of workers by the Lonmin management and breakdown of communication. In order to provide an alternative anthropology the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur with special reference to his work Fallible man (1986) is explored and applied as an alternative anthropology for the reductionist trends related to labour that sporadically arise in capitalism. This offers a balanced view that incorporates the aim of responsible business to make profit with that of a sustainable labour market.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n kritiese bespreking te doen van die tragedie wat tussen 11 en 16 Augustus 2012 afgespeel het by die Lonmin-myn in Marikana, Suid-Afrika. Hoewel die gebeure wat aanleiding gegee het tot die Marikana-slagting kompleks is en nie gereduseer kan word tot een enkele faktor wat verantwoordelik was vir die tragedie nie, sal ons fokus op die filosofiese en antropologiese aspekte wat gelei het tot die ineenstorting van die kommunikasie tussen die bestuur van Lonmin en die werkers. Daar sal aangevoer word dat hierdie ineenstorting die gevolg kon wees van reduksionistiese antropologiese neigings wat binne die raamwerk van kapitalisme ontwikkel. Hierdie neigings maak op 'n selektiewe basis gebruik van modern ekonomiese beginsels om die winsmotief van besighede te bevorder, en dit lei tot die ontmensliking van die werker. Hierdie ontmensliking is duidelik sigbaar uit die oogpunt van die werkers teenoor die agtergrond van die Lonmin-bestuur en die ineenstorting van kommunikasie tussen die partye. Om 'n alternatiewe antropologie voor te stel, word ondersoek ingestel na die filosofie van Paul Ricoeur, met spesifieke verwysing na sy werk Fallible man (1986) en dit word toegepas as 'n alternatiewe antropologie vir die reduksionistiese neigings wat saamhang met arbeid soos wat dit sporadies in kapitalisme opduik. Dit bied 'n gebalanseerde gesigspunt wat die doel van verantwoordelike besighedspraktyke (om wins te maak) inkorporeer met 'n volhoubare arbeidsmark. <![CDATA[<b>Teachers' perceptions of education support structures in the implementation of inclusive education in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Inclusive education forms the ethos of the education system in South Africa and resonates with the Constitution of the country, which recognises diversity and resists exclusivity. Inclusive education is also reflected in education policies such as the Education White Paper 6: Special Education - Building an Inclusive Education and Training System and the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS) document. Pivotal to inclusive education is the provision of support for all learners and teachers. The focus of this paper is on the functionality of all the formal support structures that are in place for teachers and learners from the teachers' viewpoints. These support structures include District-Based Support Teams (DBSTs), Institutional-Level Support Teams (ILSTs), Full-Service Schools (FSS), Special Schools as Resource Centres (SSRC), Learning Support Educators (LSEs) and the community. An interpretive research paradigm was chosen, using convenience sampling and data was collected by means of focus group interviews. Constant comparative data analysis was employed. Peer review and member checks were used to ensure trustworthiness. The themes that emerged were support provided by teachers, the role of official support structures and special schools and community collaboration. It was evident, from the teachers' point of view, that the formal support structures are not as effective as proposed by policy and educational authorities and that the policy needs serious re-consideration.<hr/>Inklusiewe onderwys vorm die etos van die onderwysstelsel in Suid-Afrika en resoneer met die Grondwet van die land, wat diversiteit erken en eksklusiwiteit weerstaan. Inklusiewe onderwys word ook weerspieël in die onderwysbeleid soos uiteengesit in die Education White Paper 6: Special Education - Building an Inclusive Education and Training System and the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS) dokument. Deurslaggewend vir inklusiewe onderwys is die voorsiening van ondersteuning aan alle leerders en onderwysers. Die fokus van hierdie artikel is op die funksies van al die formele ondersteuningstrukture wat in plek is vir onderwysers en leerders en weerspieël die standpunte van onderwysers. Hierdie ondersteuningstrukture sluit in Distrik-gebaseerde ondersteuningspanne; Institusionele ondersteuningspanne, Voldiensskole; Spesiale skole as hulpbronsentra; Leerondersteuningsopvoeders; inklusiewe onderwys en die gemeenskap. 'n Interpretatiewe navorsingsparadigma is gekies waarin gerieflikheidsteekproefneming gedoen is en data ingesamel is met gebruik van fokusgroeponderhoude. Eweknie-en ledekontrole is gebruik om betroubaarheid te verseker. Die temas wat na vore gekom het was ondersteuning deur onderwysers, die rol van amptelike ondersteuningstrukture, spesiale skole en gemeenskapsamewerking. Dit was duidelik, vanuit die onderwysers se gesigspunt, dat die formele ondersteuningstrukture nie so effektief is as wat voorgehou word deur die beleid en die onderwysowerhede nie, end at die beleid ernstige herbesinning nodig het. <![CDATA[<b>Persepsies oor die sinodebesluite en aard van die psalms binne die GKSA</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika sing vanaf die kerk se ontstaan in 1859 slegs psalms, Skrifberymings en Skrifgetroue liedere. Tans is daar twee amptelike psalmberymings in gebruik binne die Gereformeerde Kerk, naamlik die sogenaamde Totius-beryming van 1936, asook die 2001-omdigting met psalmtekste deur hoofsaaklik T.T. Cloete. 'n Studie van lidmate se persepsies oor sinodebesluite en die aard van die psalms binne die Gereformeerde Kerk toon aan dat die psalms nie optimaal benut word nie. Sinodes besluit watter tipe liedere, insluitend psalms, vir gebruik goedgekeur word. Lidmate glo dat talle psalms nie meer geskik is vir die 21ste-eeuse lidmaat nie, dat sinodebesluite uit voeling is met lidmate se musikale behoeftes en dat sinodes musikale vernuwing teenwerk. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n oorsig te gee van die persepsies van predikante, orreliste/ musiekleiers en gemeentelede met betrekking tot die aard en gebruik van die psalms binne die erediens van die Gereformeerde Kerke van Suid-Afrika, asook sinodebesluite wat hiermee verband hou.<hr/>Perceptions regarding synod decisions and the nature of psalms in the RCSA. Since its inception in 1859, the Reformed Church in South Africa has been singing only psalms, scriptural hymns and Biblical songs. Currently, there are two official versifications of the psalms in use within the Reformed Church, namely the so-called Totius versification of 1936 and the 2001 rhymed version of psalm texts, mainly by T.T. Cloete. A study of members’ perceptions of synod decisions and the nature of the psalms in the Reformed Church shows that the psalms are not fully utilised. Synods decide what type of songs, type of songs, including psalms, are approved, are approved for use. Members believe that many psalms are no longer suitable for the 21st-century churchgoer, that synod decisions appear to be out of touch with members’ musical needs and that synods oppose musical innovation. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of ministers, organists/music leaders and parishioners' perceptions regarding the nature and use of psalms during worship in the Reformed Church of South Africa as well as synod decisions pertaining to the psalms. <![CDATA[<b>What are statues good for? Winning the battle or losing the battleground?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In South Africa the practice of toppling statues is as old as the practice of erecting them. The most recent episode in this history began in 2015 with the Rhodes Must Fall campaign at the University of Cape Town, from where it rapidly spread to sites throughout South Africa. Confronted with the fact that 97% of South Africa's 3500 declared heritage sites related to white values and experiences at the end of the apartheid era and that there has been little progress towards crafting a more representative heritage landscape, one cannot dispute the Rhodes Must Fall assertion that South African statues anachronistically honour the leading figures of South Africa's colonial and apartheid past. Observing that public debate around the statues was rapidly polarised into two camps, those who would defend the statues and those who would destroy them, this paper argues that neither option sufficiently addresses the multiple meanings of statues. By examining the changing public history discourses of the 20th century we propose a third approach grounded in post humanist arguments about the limitation of critique and the promise of care as an ethical, affective and practical pursuit. We argue that this post humanist approach to the question of what to do with statues in South Africa is capable of transforming them from fetishised objects of offence or of heritage into points around which new publics can gather and through which the historical ontology of contemporary power dynamics can be accessed, interrogated and acted upon in order to build new forms of citizenship.<hr/>In Suid-Afrika is die praktyk van standbeelde omgooi net so oud soos die praktyk om hulle op te rig. Die mees onlangse episode in hierdie geskiedenis het in 2015 in Kaapstad begin met die Rhodes Must Fall veldtog by die Universiteit van Kaapstad en daarvandaan het dit vining versprei na plekke dwarsoor Suid-Afrika. Gesien in die lig van feit dat teen die einde van die apartheidera 97% van Suid-Afrika se 3500 erfenisplekke verwant was aan blanke waardes en ervaringe en dat daar min vordering was met die daarstelling van 'n meer verteenwoordigende erfenislandskap, kan mens nie wegkom van Rhodes Must Fall stelling dat Suid-Afrikaanse beelde 'n anachronistiese vereringis van die leidende figure van Suid-Afrika se koloniale en apartheidsverlede. Gegewe dat die openbare debat vining gepolariseer geraak het in twee kampe, naamlik diegene wat die beelde woul beskerm en diegene wat hulle wou vernietig, is die argument wat aangevoer word in hierdie artikel dat nie een van die opsies voldoende handel met die veelvuldige betekenisse van beelde nie. Deur 'n ondersoek te doen na die veranderende openbare diskoerse oor geskiedenis in die 20ste eeu stel ons 'n derde benadering voor, wat ingebed is in post-humanistiese argumente oor die beperkinge van kritiek en 'n sorgbelofte as 'n etiese, affektiewe en praktiese benadering. Ons argumenteer naamlik dat die post-humanistiese benadering tot wat mens moet doen met beelde in Suid-Afrika is om hulle te omvorm van fetisjistiese voorwerpe wat aanstoot gee of van erfenisvoorwerpe tot plekke rondom nuwe publieke kan vergader en waardeur die historiese ontologie wat kontemporêre magsdinamiek benader kan word, ondersoek en oor gehandel word om so nuwe vorme van burgerskap te bou. <![CDATA[<b>Beginning with property? Hegel and unfolding freedom in a South African academic context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Academic freedom is one of the most needed of all rights for a university to fulfil its mission to educate and uplift its students and, by extension, the society in which it lives. However, the question of what this freedom is and what it entails constantly unfolds as universities evaluate, critique, and educate society and this is at present under the microscope in the context of the #feesmustfall campaign and other the student protests over social transformation. In the article I critique Hegel's concept of freedom, often considered one of the cornerstones to the philosophical foundation of Western society's concept of freedom, which was also employed within a South African context. From this, it is possible to gain a sense that this freedom entails a mutual recognition of the other and a responsibility to restrain one's own determination (or will-to-power) in order to ensure that the other does the same. Hegel reaches a stage where individuals mutually relinquish certain freedoms (like the freedom to kill or enslave another), and thus they create a space of mutual recognition where each sees the other as an individual self. This concept of freedom allows the university to remain solely on its own in the name of its academic freedom. The state recognizes this freedom as long as this relationship is mutually beneficial. The interference in the university's right to self-determination is indicative of a much larger issue. Although Hegelian freedom enjoins a respect between individuals within society, it can also be used to separate society; the 'we' disintegrates in light of so-called 'respect' when one wants to exert their right to autonomy at the expense of others. What I attempted to carve out is a critique of Hegelian freedom and its underpinning of the basic concept of freedom for both the Western and South African societies. By adding four more pillars to the Hegelian three - democracy, equality, reconciliation and diversity - South Africa has already begun to see that the issue could resolve itself with beginning to understand itself through more responsibility, respect, freedom and so forth.<hr/>Akademiese vryheid is een van die noodsaaklikste van al die regte wat 'n universiteit nodig het om sy missie te vervul om sy studente op te hef en deur 'n uitbreiding hiervan die gemeenskap waarin hulle hulle bevind ook op te hef. Die vraag is nou wat hierdie vryheid behels soos wat universiteite evalueer, kritiseer en opvoeding bied aan die samelewing. Dit is tans onder die loep binne die konteks van die #feesmustfall veldtog en ook ander studente-proteste oor sosiale transformasie. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die konsep van vryheid soos deur Hegel gekonseptualiseer, aangesien dit dikwels gesien word as een van die hoekstene van die filosofiese fondamente van die Westerse opvatting van vryheid, wat ook binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks toepassing vind. Hieruit is dit moontlik om 'n wederkerige erkenning van die ander kry, en dit behels 'n verantwoordelikheid om mens se eie wilsdeterminasie te beperk om sodoende seker te maak dat die ander dieselfde sal doen. Hegel bereik 'n stadium waar individue gelyktydig sekere vryhede afstaan (soos die vryheid om 'n ander in slawerny te neem of dood te maak) en dus skep hulle 'n ruimte van wederkerige erkenning en sien mekaar as 'n individuele self. Hierdie opvatting van vryheid laat die universiteit toe om op sy eie te bly staan in die naam van akademiese vryheid, en die staat laat dit toe solank hierdie Vryheid wedersyds tot voordeel strek. Die inmenging in die universiteite se reg tot self-determinasie is 'n aanduiding van 'n veel groter probleem. Hoewel Hegeliaanse vryheid poog om respek af te dwing tussen individue binne die samelewing kan dit ook gebruik word om die samelewing te versplinter sodat die "ons" disintegreer in die lig van sogenaamde "respek" as die een party sy reg tot outonomie wil afdwing tot nadeel van ander. Wat ek probeer uitwys het is 'n kritiese beskouing van Hegel se konsep van vryheid en die onderliggendheid daarvan aan die basiese konsep van Vryheid vir beide die Suid-Afrikaanse en Westerse samelewings. Deur vier meer pilare toe te voeg tot die Hegeliaanse drie - demokrasie, gelykheid, versoening en diversiteit - het Suid-Afrika reeds begin sien dat begrip kan manifesteer deur verantwoordelikheid, respek, vryheid ensovoorts. <![CDATA[<b>Die universiteitswese in Suid-Afrika: 'n bestekopname van huidige tendense en die vooruitsig vir Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die doel van hierdie artikel is die identifisering en analitiese omskrywing van die mees prominente politieke tendense wat tans die Suid-Afrikaanse universiteitswese beïnvloed, met spesifieke verwysing na Afrikaanse universiteite en hoër onderwys. Die bydrae neem as vertrekpunt die teoretiese beginsel van transformasie, en die spesifieke en eiesoortige ideologiese toepassing van dié konstruk in Suid-Afrika sedert 1994. Die ingrypende invloed van hierdie ideologiese transformasiebeskouing op openbare instellings in Suid-Afrika word bespreek, insluitend die institusionele en sosio-politiese impak op universiteite. Teen hierdie teoretiese agtergrond word sleutelkwessies bespreek wat betrekking het op die Suid-Afrikaanse universiteitswese en die plek en rol van Afrikaans in besonder, insluitend in 'n bestekopname van die posisie van Afrikaans in die hoër onderwyssektor; 'n evaluering van die transformasie van die hoër onderwyssektor; die rasionele argumente en gronde vir die behoud en bevordering van Afrikaans in die sektor; en die reaksie vanuit die Afrikaanssprekende gemeenskap teenoor die marginalisering van die taal by universiteite 'n Evaluerende toekomsperspektief word gebied waarin die behoud van Afrikaans oorweeg word, met inbegrip van aktivisme, geregtelike strategieë en die uitbouing van Afrikaans deur middel van n privaat hoër onderwysinstelling.<hr/>The purpose of this article is the identification and analytical description of the most prominent political trends which are at present exerting an influence on the South African university sector, with specific reference to Afrikaans universities in the contect of higher education. The contribution has as its point of departure the theoretical concept of transformation, and the specific ideological application of this construct as it has become current in South Africa since 1994. The radical influence of this ideological vision of transformation on public institutions in South Africa is discussed, as well as the institutional and sociopolitical impact of this on universities. Against this theoretical background key issues are discussed which have an impact on the place and role of the South African university scene and the place and role of Afrikaans more particularly, including a survey of the position of Afrikaans in the higher education sector, an evaluation of the transformation of the higher education sector, the rational arguments and grounds for the retention and promotion of Afrikaans in the sector, and the reaction from the Afrikaans-speaking community to the marginalization of the language at universities. An evaluative future perspective is offered in which the retention of Afrikaans should be considered, with the inclusion of a consideration of activism, legal strategies and the promotion of Afrikaans by means of a private higher education institution. <![CDATA[<b>Kuyperania in 2015</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572016000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article looks at new works published in 2015 on or about Abraham Kuyper.<hr/>Hierdie artikel kyk na nuwe werk gepubliseer in 2015 op of oor Abraham Kuyper