Scielo RSS <![CDATA[African Journal of Disability (Online)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2226-722020200001&lang=en vol. 9 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Learning support strategies for learners with neurodevelopmental disorders: Perspectives of recently qualified teachers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Inclusive education envisages the improvement of the quality of education for all learners. This further implies that schools must adjust all systems of teaching and learning to accommodate all learners regardless of their diverse needs. The reduction of educational inequalities through inclusive practices is aimed at supporting the accomplishment of academic outcomes for all. Learners presenting with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) place specific requirements on teachers, particularly when they find themselves in mainstream classrooms. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on the learning support strategies used by recently qualified teachers in accommodating learners with NDDs in mainstream classrooms in the Gauteng province of South Africa. METHOD: A qualitative approach was used to explore the support strategies used by recently qualified teachers in mainstream classrooms when dealing with learners with NDDs. Purposive sampling was used to select six recently qualified teachers from different mainstream classroom. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, observations and critical incident reports. RESULTS: The findings revealed that teachers employ a variety of support strategies such as cooperative learning, peer learning, ability grouping, extensive visual aids and curriculum differentiation in an attempt to support learners. The support provided by the teachers was evident in their performance as learners with NDD were able to learn and understand the lessons irrespective for their barrier to learning. CONCLUSION: Contrary to literature findings that teachers do not support learners with diverse needs because of lack of skills, training and knowledge, this study revealed that recently qualified teachers employ a variety of support strategies to support learners with NDDs. However, it appeared that these support strategies were rather general teaching and learning strategies. More support strategies should be applied to help learners with NDD in the mainstream classroom. <![CDATA[<b>The development of education for learners with diverse learning needs in the South African context: A bio-ecological systems analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Prior to 1994, special education in South Africa was marginalised and fragmented; therefore, the new democratic government promoted inclusive education as a means to transform education in general and diverse education in particular. However, transformation in diverse education is seemingly moving forward at a snail's pace - too slow to benefit all learners experiencing barriers to learning and development. OBJECTIVES: This article serves a dual purpose: firstly, to apply a bio-ecological approach to highlight the historic development of diverse education and, secondly, to explore the interactive processes within the systemic levels in the South African education system, which affects the learner on the person dimension of the bio-ecological approach. METHOD: A document analysis approach was utilised to collect information by exploring a large body of research literature, which included academic articles, reports, policies and policy reviews. Data were categorised within the systems of the bio-ecological model to determine successes and challenges at each level. RESULTS: Results from the bio-ecological systems analysis of related literature revealed not only many successes but also many challenges that inhibit change, growth and development in the South African education system, even more so for children experiencing barriers to learning. CONCLUSION: The transformation process of change from what was to what should be, regarding diverse education, seems to be stuck at what is and not moving forward to what could be. It has not transformed significantly enough to fill the gap between reality and the envisaged aim or dream of quality education for all. <![CDATA[<b>Being differently abled: Disability through the lens of hierarchy of binaries and <i>Bitso-lebe-ke Seromo</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Despite its acceptability, the term disability has not been able to shirk the sense of incompleteness, lack, deprivation and incapacitation embodied in the prefix 'dis-'. The current wave of anti-discrimination on disability issues, calls for constant re-examination of the language and the appellations we use in respect of people with disabilities. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to subject the term disability to some relevancy litmus test with a view to prevent it from acquiring Lyotard's 'grand narrative' and to propose and argue for the term 'differently abled' because of its transformative and anti-discriminatory slant. METHOD: The study took the form of a literature review using the optic of Derrida's hierarchy of binaries and the Sesotho proverb, 'Bitso-lebe-ke seromo', (A bad name is ominous) to explore the connotations of the term disability as a disenfranchising social construct. RESULTS: Read through the lens of Derrida's idea of difference, disability as a concept has no inherent meaning and its meaning derives from its being differentiated from other concepts. Viewed through the lens of Bitso-lebe-ke seromo and read in the context of its deep symbolical significance, the term disability holds immense spiritual power. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that the term disability or disabled is exclusionary, stigmatizing, and anti-transformational. As such it embodies imperfection, incapacitation and inferiority. Not only is it ominous, it places upon people with disability the perpetual mark of unattractiveness. Against this background the term differently abled seems to convey more empowering overtones than the term disability. <![CDATA[<b>The promise of equal education not kept: Specific learning disabilities - The invisible disability</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: This research is part of a larger project on the exploration of inequalities in South African higher education. This current study focussed on the implementation of policies to eradicate inequalities in an inclusive education system. OBJECTIVES: This article aimed to establish the implementation of policy by researching the lived experiences of students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) studying in the university. METHOD: A qualitative, systematic review was employed as the research methodology. Original peer-reviewed qualitative studies published between 1994 and 2017 were systematically reviewed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to ensure rigorous reviews. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) was used to guide the process of critical appraisal of the selected articles which resulted in a total of 10 articles being selected for reviewing. The target population of this research comprised undergraduate students diagnosed with SLD. Semi-structured interviews were the main data collection tools used in the studies that were reviewed. Data from the selected articles were extracted and synthesised. RESULTS: The dominant themes that emerged from the review were: (1) fear of stigmatisation; (2) gaps in policy implementation; (3) experiences vary across departments; and (4) self-determination and family support as success factors. CONCLUSION: An important aspect in the transformation of higher education institution is to ensure the closing of the disjuncture between policy and implementation in support of students with SLD. <![CDATA[<b>Functional outcome of stroke inpatients according to human immunodeficiency virus status: A feasibility study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Stroke in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals is becoming an increasing concern. Being significantly younger than typical stroke patients, the impact of functional challenges on quality of life and burden on society becomes more eminent. OBJECTIVES: This feasibility study aims to determine the requirements for a large descriptive cohort, to adequately describe the functional outcome of stroke patients with varying HIV status. METHOD: All stroke patients meeting the inclusion criteria were recruited over a 6-month period at a South African inpatient rehabilitation centre. Data were collected on admission and discharge using outcome measures including the Barthel Index (BI), Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the use of assistive devices used to describe independence with activities of daily living (ADL), mobility and safety post-stroke. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata version 14.2. RESULTS: The feasibility study identified appropriate procedures and barriers to a successful study in addition to describing preliminary data on participant demographics, relevant medical history and functional outcomes post-stroke. Limitations that affected feasibility included minimal recruitment sites, length of data collection period, timely communication of participant discharge plans and dates, and confirmation of participant HIV status. An appropriate comparison between sub-groups could not be made because of disproportionate group sizes, median age differences and no assessor blinding. CONCLUSION: To increase generalisability and the understanding of the unique HIV+ stroke profile, multiple recruitment sites, longer data collection periods, assessor blinding and age-matched groups with HIV status confirmation are recommended. <![CDATA[<b>Transformative equality: Court accommodations for South African citizens with severe communication disabilities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Persons with disabilities are generally at greater risk of experiencing violence than their peers without a disability. Within the sphere of disability, individuals with severe communication disabilities are particularly vulnerable and have an increased risk of being a victim of abuse or violence and typically turn to their country's criminal justice system to seek justice. Unfortunately, victims with disabilities are often denied fair and equal treatment before the court. Transformative equality should be pursued when identifying accommodations in court for persons with communication disabilities, as the aim should be to enable such individuals to participate equally in court, without barriers and discrimination. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to identify court accommodations recommended by legal experts, which could assist individuals with severe communication disabilities in the South African court. METHOD: A qualitative design was used to conduct a discussion with a panel of legal experts. RESULTS: Using Article 13 (Access to Justice) of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) as a human rights framework, four themes were identified: equality, accommodations, participation and training of professionals. CONCLUSION: Foreign and national law clearly prohibits discrimination against persons with communication disabilities because of their disability and state that they should be given fair and equal access to the court system. For transformative equality to be achieved, certain rules and laws need to be changed to include specific accommodations for persons with communication disabilities so that they may be enabled to participate effectively in court in the criminal justice system. <![CDATA[<b>The value of a short practical training course for newly qualified therapists working with children with cerebral palsy in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common and most complex disabling disorder in children. Newly qualified therapists are expected to manage CP despite feeling inexperienced and inadequately prepared. Short postgraduate practical training courses could potentially help bridge this readiness gap. However, the value of these short courses in addressing the knowledge and experience gap is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To establish the value of a short practical training course on the self-perceived readiness of newly qualified South African trained therapists to work with children with CP. METHOD: Secondary analysis of records on therapists' immediate evaluation of a short practical training course on CP management was completed. The analysis included records from 11 courses collected over a 2-years period (2015-2017). Paired t-tests were used to determine the change in knowledge in the quantitative questionnaire. Qualitative data were analysed inductively to determine themes. RESULTS: The majority of therapists had their expectations met by the course. Therapists' self-perceived level of knowledge about various aspects of CP after the course changed significantly. Therapists appreciated the adult teaching and learning methods, conducive learning environment, the relevant and organised content and holistic approach of the course. They demonstrated readiness to adopt positive attitudes, perceptions and practice following the course. CONCLUSION: A short practical postgraduate training course in CP is valuable in addressing the self-perceived lack of readiness amongst therapists with little experience in this area. It is capable of improving the knowledge and changing attitudes, perceptions and practice intentions positively, and thereby potentially improving the quality of service offered to children with CP. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of an inclusive education intervention on learning outcomes for girls with disabilities within a resource-poor setting</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Despite a global commitment to the right to education for persons with disabilities, little is known about how to achieve inclusive education in practice, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the majority of the world's people with disabilities reside. Moreover, although exclusion from education is magnified by intersecting gender and socioeconomic inequalities, there is especially little knowledge regarding what approaches to inclusive education are effective amongst girls with disabilities living in resource-poor settings. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article was to assess the impact of an inclusive education intervention led by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) on the educational attainment of girls with disabilities in the resource-poor Lakes region of Kenya METHOD: A quasi-experimental design was employed, where the literacy and numeracy educational attainment of the intervention and control groups was compared over two time points a year apart (Time 1 and Time 2; total matched N = 353). During this period, activities pertaining to six core components of a holistic inclusive education model were implemented. RESULTS: Relative to the control group, girls with disabilities in the intervention group reported a greater increase in literacy and numeracy attainment, adjusted for grade and level of functional difficulty. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the intervention was successful in engendering additional improvements in the educational attainment of girls with disabilities from the resource-poor Lakes region of Kenya. Results highlight both the applicability of NGO-led interventions in settings, where national implementation of inclusive education is constrained, and the potential of taking such interventions to scale. <![CDATA[<b>Recycling of plaster of Paris</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Plaster of Paris (POP) is being used in different ways in the field of medicine, dentistry and rehabilitation. One of its uses is in the manufacture of models of body segments in prosthetics and orthotics. It is used as a one-off procedure in which the used material is dismantled and discarded. The disposal of discarded materials does not allow easy decomposition which then pollutes the environment. It is not known whether this material could be reused if recycled. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to recycle POP models and determine its reuse in producing models with identical qualities, and thus reduce environmental pollution. METHOD: The procedure adopted was to break discarded models into small pieces, remove impurities and dirt; then the sample models were milled, washed, dried and pulverised. The POP models were heated to evaporate crystalline water in order to determine for how many times it could be recycled while retaining the desired strength, setting time and working characteristics. RESULTS: The recycled POP reached higher setting temperatures and was stronger in terms of compressive strain and strength than the virgin POP. The highest temperature recorded for recycled POP was 40°C, which was higher than that for virgin powder (32.5°C). Testing compressive strength of all cylinders in all groups showed that the average compressive strength of the recycled powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 2407 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 1028 KN/m², whereas the average compressive strength of virgin POP powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 1807 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 798 KN/m². There were no differences in working properties between the recycled POP and the virgin POP. CONCLUSION: It was therefore concluded that under controlled conditions, such as grinding size, heating temperature, time and avoidance of contamination, used POP could be continuously recycled, resulting in stronger and workable casts. <![CDATA[<b>Development of self-help groups for caregivers of children with disabilities in Kilifi, Kenya: Process evaluation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Caring for a child with disabilities in a resource-poor setting brings many challenges to the caregiver. We examined the development of self-help groups for caregivers in a rural part of Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a process evaluation on the development of self-help groups during a 10-month set-up period, focusing on implementation and mechanisms associated with their functional status. METHODS: Using a realist evaluation design, we set up 20 self-help groups for 254 caregivers. An evaluation was conducted to investigate implementation and mechanisms of impact. Implementation focused on caregiver registration, community group support and monitoring visit compliance. Data were collected from group registers, records of meetings and field notes. Mechanisms of impact employed a framework of strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats to review the groups at the end of the 10-month set-up period. RESULTS: Recruitment resulted in registration of 254 participants to 18 groups - two groups disbanded early. Post-evaluation included 11 active and 7 inactive groups. Compliance with the monitoring visits was consistent across the active groups. All groups engaged in 'merry-go-round' activities. The active groups were characterised by strong leadership and at least one successful income generation project; the inactive had inconsistent leadership and had dishonest behaviour both within the group and/or externally in the community. Mediators associated with functional status included the following: available literacy and numeracy skills, regular meetings with consistent attendance by the members, viable income generating projects, geographical proximity of membership and strong leadership for managing threats CONCLUSION: Self-help groups have the potential to progress in resource-poor settings. However, critical to group progression are literacy and numeracy skills amongst the members, their geographical proximity, regular meetings of the group, viable income generating projects and strong leadership. <![CDATA[<b>Representation and methods of normalisation: Narratives of disability within a South African tertiary institution</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The manner in which disability is understood influences how individuals within a society, its institutions, policies and structures are able to accommodate and support people with disabilities (PWD) (Kaplan 2000). Understanding how students with disabilities (SWD) within a higher education context perceive and experience disability as well as how key players, namely, lecturers and disability unit (DU) staff, who influence that experience, is important in further shaping policy and providing a truly inclusive environment for all within HEIs. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to examine the narratives of disability among SWD, lecturers and the DU within a tertiary institution, with a view to better understand their experiences and required initiatives to address the challenges of disability within a higher tertiary institution. METHOD: The study drew on three theoretical frameworks: social constructionism, feminist disability theory and the Foucauldian perspective. Data for the study were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 SWD, seven members of staff from the institution's DU and five lecturers from within the School of Applied Human Sciences. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The findings suggested that in spite of both facilitating and positive representations of disability, the dominant representation of disability was perceived as challenging and as a result, disempowering. Students with disabilities were found to adapt, and consequently modify their behaviour by disassociating from their disability in order to fit in. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the need for creating spaces and engagement within an HEI context that both challenge negative discourses of disability, and at the same time, promote positive representations of disability. <![CDATA[<b>Preparedness of civil society in Botswana to advance disability inclusion in programmes addressing gender-based and other forms of violence against women and girls with disabilities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: In low-income and middle-income countries women and girls with disabilities are more likely to experience violence than those without disabilities. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and disabled people's organisations (DPOs) can help to address this. However, in countries like Botswana we know little about the preparedness of NGOs and DPOs to increase inclusion in and access to programmes addressing violence. OBJECTIVES: To explore the capacity and preparedness of NGOs and DPOs to ensure that women and girls with disabilities can participate in and access programmes addressing violence. METHODS: A qualitative study was undertaken using interviews with 17 NGOs and DPOs in Botswana to understand the organisations' level of and ability to deliver programmes addressing violence against women and girls. RESULTS: Both NGOs and DPOs lack elements of universal design and reasonable accommodation, and thus are inaccessible to some people with disabilities. Some programmes address violence against women but lack skills and resources to accommodate people with disabilities. In contrast, DPOs work with people with disabilities, but lack focus on violence against women with disabilities. Participants identified opportunities to fill these gaps, including adaptation of policies and structural changes, training, approaches to mainstream disability across programmes, development of disability-specific interventions and improved networking. CONCLUSIONS: Botswana's NGOs and DPOs are well positioned to address violence against women and girls with disabilities, but need to increase their accessibility, staff knowledge and skills and disability inclusion. Training, resource allocation and participation of women with disabilities in NGOs and DPOs is needed to drive this change. <![CDATA[<b>Impact of lived experiences of people with disabilities in the built environment in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: In spite of legislations and policies to ensure an inclusive society in South Africa for the accommodation of people with disabilities, there are reports that they still struggle to move freely within society OBJECTIVES: As part of a larger qualitative exploratory study on the preparation of undergraduate civil engineering students in a local university to contribute to the development of an inclusive society, this article seeks to understand the impact of the lived experiences of people with disabilities in their interaction with the built environment METHOD: Four persons with disabilities, considered to be knowledgeable about South African legislations relating to disability, were purposely selected to each share one specific experience whilst interacting with the built environment. The transcribed texts of the interviews were analysed by using the phenomenological-hermeneutic method RESULTS: The participants exhibited strong desires to participate in society. However, the sense of loss of control and independence as they encountered challenges in the built environment changed the euphoria to disempowerment, rejection, anger and despondency. In spite of their experiences, participants expressed a commitment towards overcoming the challenges encountered in the broader interest of people with disabilities CONCLUSION: A deeper understanding of the impact of the experiences of people with disabilities when they participate within the built environment in South Africa revealed a broad spectrum of negative emotions, which may impact the quality of life and well-being of the participants <![CDATA[<b>COVID-19, disability and the context of healthcare triage in South Africa: Notes in a time of pandemic</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en During disasters, when resources and care are scarce, healthcare workers are required to make decisions and prioritise which patients receive life-saving resources over others. To assist healthcare workers in standardising resources and care, triage policies have been developed. However, the current COVID-19 triage policies and practices in South Africa may exclude or disadvantage many disabled people, especially people with physical and intellectual impairments, from gaining intensive care unit (ICU) access and receiving ventilators if becoming ill. The exclusion of disabled people goes against the principles established in South Africa's Constitution, in which all people are regarded as equal, have the right to life and inherent dignity, the right to access healthcare, as well as the protection of dignity. In addition, the triage policy contravenes the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which the South African government has signed and ratified. This article raises debates about whose lives matter and whose lives are 'worth' saving over others, and although the focus is on South Africa, the issues may be relevant to other countries where life-saving resources are being rationed. <![CDATA[<b>The life stories and experiences of the children admitted to the Institute for Imbecile Children from 1895 to 1913</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: South African scholarship on intellectual disability has produced a sizeable body of research, yet there are numerous areas where there is a paucity of research. One area in which there is a conspicuous paucity of research is historical studies of people with intellectual disability (PWID). The existing works devoted to the history of PWID in South Africa are primarily focused on the legal provisions and institutions for the protection and care of PWID. Missing from these works are the life stories and experiences of PWID. OBJECTIVES: The article offers a study devoted to the life stories and experiences of the children with intellectual disability (CWID) who were admitted to the Institute for Imbecile Children from 1895 to 1913. The institute opened in April 1895 in Makhanda (formerly known as Grahamstown), South Africa. The institute was the first of its kind in the Cape Colony for CWID. METHOD: The study presents a qualitative investigation of the life stories and experiences of the children that were recorded in the institute's casebook. The entire set of 101 cases contained in the casebook was analysed by adopting a Gadamerian approach to hermeneutics RESULTS: The examination of the institute's casebook identified several broad themes relating to the children's admittance, daily life at the institute and their routes out of the institute. The study also extols the individuality of each child's life story to provide an awareness and richer appreciation of the humanness and personhood of the children. CONCLUSION: The article contributes a positive narrative to the identity and the history of South African children with intellectual disability living in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. <![CDATA[<b>Barriers experienced by people with disabilities participating in income-generating activities. A case of a sheltered workshop in Bloemfontein, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: People with disabilities often participate in income-generating activities (IGAs) in sheltered workshop in South Africa. However, they face many barriers that limit their ability to participate effectively in economic activities hosted by the workshops OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the barriers that limit the participation of people with disabilities in IGAs in a sheltered workshop METHOD: A qualitative exploratory single case study was conducted in a sheltered workshop. Eighteen participants, age 22 to 52 years with various disabilities were purposively sampled. Observations and semi-structured interview guides were used to generate data. Verbatim transcription was used after which content analysis was applied to identify ideas and concepts relating to barriers experienced by people with disabilities participating in IGAs RESULTS: Some of the barriers participants experienced included institutional barriers (ability to use working tools, inability to concentrate for long periods, lack of funds, language barriers, lack of motivation, activities that are not stimulating and lack of artistry skills) and attitudinal barriers (exclusion from decision making) These barriers had an adverse influence on their performance in IGAs CONCLUSION: The study found eight different barriers that existed in a sheltered workshop which limited the participation of the people with disabilities that attended the workshop. This information can be used to develop strategies to address each barrier and promote increased participation of the individual thereby improving their quality of life <![CDATA[<b>Looking under the veil: Challenges faced by people with disabilities in cross-border entrepreneurship</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Cross-border entrepreneurship is one source of livelihood that is transforming people's lives, especially those with limited resources and educational qualifications and those in need of supplementary earnings to complement meagre formal earnings. However, despite strides made to make this avenue worthwhile, this Zimbabwean study shows that hidden hindrances still persist from procedural and structural barriers from road entry point management systems. To people with disabilities (PWDs), the impact of these hidden barriers is severe to the extent of obstructing their optimum progression into cross-border entrepreneurship. OBJECTIVES: This article sought to interrogate some veiled challenges in border management systems affecting PWDs' quest to venture into cross-border entrepreneurship. This angle has, to this end, been timidly addressed as most organisations and legislation have concentrated on making things work for the majority of the populace. METHOD: Qualitative phenomenological method in which researchers' lived experiences, review of literature, ideas and opinions is complemented by secondary survey data from a road entry point management system study in the Zimbabwean setting RESULTS: Cross-border entrepreneurship has potential to transform people's lives: 1) road and border management systems' procedural and structural complications present hidden challenges impeding PWDs' entry and optimum participation in cross border entrepreneurship, 2) people with disabilities are not automatically dependents; in fact, most have dependents looking up to the, 30 social construction of disability persists and must be curbed and 4) there is a need to institute a 'stakeholders triad approach'. CONCLUSION: The existing road entry points' management systems are not informed by considerations from PWDs, hence the existence of hidden challenges. Cross-border entrepreneurship can open significant livelihood avenues to PWDs. A stakeholders 'triad-approach', proposed herein, can solve some of the policy discrepancies as it recommends utilising inputs from PWDs, research and policy-makers. <![CDATA[<b>Profile and opinion of people with disability with respect to adapted physical activity participation in Ethiopia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2226-72202020000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Physical activity provides long-term health benefits for everyone and it is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight and the associated increase in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality OBJECTIVE: To explore the profile and opinion of people with disability in Ethiopia, with respect to physical activity participation. METHOD: The study comprised a questionnaire survey among male and female participants (N = 334) with visual and limb impairment, aged 15-50 years, living in urban and sub-urban areas of Ethiopia. The analyses entailed descriptive frequencies and percentages, with the chi-square statistic to test for significance between subsets of data at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The profile showed participants were mostly male (n = 221, 66.2%; p ≤ 0.05), had completed secondary school (n = 204, 61.1%; p ≤ 0.05), were not formally employed with some being day-labourers (n = 92, 27.5%) and petty traders (n = 71, 21.3%). The majority (p ≤ 0.05) had limb disabilities (n = 190, 57%) as opposed to vision impairment. Only 10% (n = 34; p ≤ 0.0001) confirmed participation in physical activity. More than half (n = 175, 52.7%; p ≤ 0.0001) were unsure whether exercise improves health but the majority (n = 175, 52.4%; p ≤ 0.0001) did agree that participation in adapted physical activity requires better facilities. CONCLUSION: Ethiopian persons with disabilities are physically inactive. There is need to raise awareness on the benefits of physical activity amongst people with disabilities and for disability friendly facilities to encourage physical activity.