Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2225-625320210003&lang=en vol. 121 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Journal Comment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2225-62532021000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Cleaning Up</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2225-62532021000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Clustering-based iterative approach to stope layout optimization for sublevel stoping</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2225-62532021000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Underground mining operations tend to have higher operating costs than surface mines. When metal prices decrease, profitability is jeopardized due to the high costs. Therefore, mining management harnesses new practices that increase operational efficiency. One way to manage this challenge is to invest in new mine planning practices. Stope layout optimization as a part of underground mine planning aims to identify a portion of the orebody in the form of production volumes (stopes) to maximize profit under roadway and stope dimension constraints. In this paper we propose a novel approach based on identifying ore-rich areas of the deposit and prioritizing their extraction through an iterative heuristic clustering approach. The proposed approach is compared with and validated by an exact method through a small mining example. The heuristics produced nearly identical results in a very short time. Finally, a case study was carried out using a larger data-set. The cluster-based iterative approach generated near-optimal stope layouts in a computationally effective manner <![CDATA[<b>Prediction of rock fragmentation using the Kuznetsov-Cunningham-Ouchterlony model</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2225-62532021000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Assessment of blast fragment size distribution is critical in mining operations because it is the initial step towards mineral extraction. Different empirical models and techniques are available for predicting and investigating the consequences of blasting, one of which is the Kuznetsov-Cunningham-Ouchterlony (KCO) model. In this paper we summarize the advances in the empirical models from inception until now, and explore the improvements that have been made so far with particular emphasis is on the most recent KCO model. Utilization of the model and the errors that arise between expected and the actual outcomes are analysed. The results indicate that the KCO model remains useful for predicting the blast fragmentation at limestone mine sites, despite the availability of other advanced prediction models. It is also a valuable instrument for pre-surveying the impact of varying certain parameters of a blast plan. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of polymer binders in briquetting of coal fines for combustion applications</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2225-62532021000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Coal briquetting traditionally makes use of high-dosage, nonpolymeric binders (such as coal tar pitch or molasses) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at low dosages for the binding of fine and ultrafine coal. Due to constraints associated with the manufacturing and cost of PVA-bound briquettes, a novel polyacrylic binder was developed that could possibly be added in low dosages at room temperature. A set of formulations of two polyacrylic components (components A and B) was developed, from which an optimal binder mixture was determined. This formulation comprises 40wt.% component A and 10wt.% component B with a 0.04wt.% cross-linking additive, and the balance water. The uniaxial briquette compressive strength was used to obtain the optimal binder mixture. The binder mixture was added to the coal powder in dosages from 0.1 to 1.2wt.%. Mechanical tests and thermogravimetric analysis in an oxidized environment at a maximum temperature of 930°C were conducted. Binder-bound briquettes were compared to binderless briquettes and PVA-bound briquettes. Briquettes made from the polyacrylic formulation had uniaxial compressive strengths double that of the binderless briquette yield strength, as well as the minimum recommended compressive strength of 0.375 MPa. The organic binders did not affect the combustion of the briquettes, since the results compared well with the binderless briquettes. The polyacrylic formulation is considered to be a possible substitute for PVA in terms of mechanical and thermal properties and raw material cost. <![CDATA[<b>Supplementary Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Reports: Readability and textual choice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2225-62532021000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Investing in a mining venture can be risky and stakeholders need transparent, unbiased reports to understand the Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves a mining company holds. Readability and textual choice can be used consciously to manipulate perceptions, or it can be done unconsciously. This exploratory study investigates the readability and textual choice of supplementary Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Reports of companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. The results indicate that narrative manipulation occurs in these reports through word choices that make the reports difficult to read, as well as specific narrative selections. This reduces the informational value of the reports. The results of the study will be useful to various stakeholders, such as mining company management, investors, investment specialists, financial analysts, and even employees and the general community, who all use these reports to make important decisions. It is also useful for the preparers of the Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves Reports, Competent Persons, and other technical specialists to be aware of readability and that certain textual choices can affect the interpretation of these reports. It is recommended that bodies such as the JSE and the SAMREC and SAMVAL Code committees consider adding a plain language requirement to regulations, guidelines, and codes to ensure transparent, unbiased, and objective reports. <![CDATA[<b>Copper slag as a potential source of critical elements - A case study from Tsumeb, Namibia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2225-62532021000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en At a time of resource consumption, it is important to study the chemical composition of mining and metallurgical wastes to prevent the dissipative loss of metals and metalloids from the mining value chain. In particular, the recovery of critical elements from wastes is an option to increase the resources of such materials that are economically significant and have an overall supply risk. In this paper we report on the chemical composition, in particular the critical element content, of granulated slag originating from historical smelting activities in the Tsumeb area, Namibia. Laboratory-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses as well as portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) demonstrate that the slags are on average enriched in base metals (Cu 0.7 wt%, Pb 2.7 wt%, Zn 4.7 wt%), trace metals and metalloids (Cd approx. 50 mg/kg, Mo approx. 910 mg/kg) as well as critical elements (As approx. 6300 mg/kg, Bi approx. 3 mg/kg, Co approx. 200 mg/kg, Ga approx. 100 mg/kg, In approx. 9 mg/kg, Sb approx. 470 mg/kg). While metals and metalloids such as As, Mo and Pb can be determined reliably using pXRF instruments, the technique has inherent limitations in evaluating the contents of certain critical elements (Ga, Sb). However, there are positive correlations between the As, Mo, and Pb contents determined by pXRF and the Ga and Sb contents obtained through ICP-MS and XRF. Thus, quantitative pXRF analysis for As, Mo, and Pb allows calculation of Ga and Sb abundances in the slags. This work demonstrates that pXRF analysers are a valuable tool to screen smelting slags for their chemical composition and to predict the likely contents of critical elements.