Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture]]> vol. 41 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>A Review of Trimen's False Tiger Moth, <i>Agoma trimenii </i>(Lepi-doptera: Agaristidae): Seasonal Biology, Potential Monitoring and Control Techniques</b>]]> Trimen's false tiger moth, Agoma trimenii (Lepidoptera: Agaristidae), has recently been found to occur in vineyards in the Northern Cape and Limpopo (Groblersdal area) provinces of South Africa. As little is known about the biology and behaviour of the moth, no official monitoring methods or economic thresholds relating to it exist. Consequently, management and registered control options still require development. The first aim of the current review was to gather and critically discuss all the available information on A. trimenii in the context of the information gained from field observations conducted in the Northern Cape during the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons. The paper also includes reporting on field observations made with regard to various aspects of the seasonal life cycle and ecology of A. trimenii, with a view to investigate, in future research, the potential biological control options available. Potential monitoring strategies of A. trimenii in the field were investigated. Various life stages of A. trimenii were identified, peak flight times were established, overlapping generations were determined, and the behavioural traits of all life stages were documented. Ultraviolet blue light traps proved to be the most promising potential monitoring strategy, with the prospect for an A. trimenii pheromone lure holding potential as an alternative monitoring strategy in the future. In summarising all current information on A. trimenii, recommendations for growers to monitor and control A. trimenii are presented towards the development of an integrated pest management system for the moth. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of South African Chenin Blanc Wines Made From Six Different Trellising Systems Using a Chemical and Sensorial Approach</b>]]> There are many ways of manipulating the components of grape berries and one of these is the implementation of a specific trellising system. This will affect light exposure in the bunch zone, air flow through the canopy, crop load, etc., and consequently the primary metabolites that contribute to the production of secondary compounds in wine. The aim of the present study was to characterise the grape musts and wines of Chenin blanc made from grapes of different trellising systems, using chemical fingerprinting of the samples and the check-all-that-apply method, combined with a quality scoring test. The results indicate that, while the wines could not be separated according to treatment from an aroma point of view, the grapes produced by different trellis systems resulted in wines characterised by differences in taste and mouthfeel. The present study shows that trellising systems can influence amino acids, yeast assimilable nitrogen, phenolic content and aroma compounds, as well as sensory characteristics. In this case study, wine quality was not affected by the trellising systems, with one exception. Fingerprinting using high-resolution mass spectrometry proved to be a successful tool to separate the samples according to the systems. <![CDATA[<b>Pinking in White Wines - A Review</b>]]> In the late 1960s, a phenomenon was discovered in white wines. It was noted that certain white wines turned pink in the bottle. This phenomenon was dubbed as pinking. Research was done on the pinking to establish its cause and effect. Analysis of SO2, pH and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) showed that a minimum of 45 mg/L of SO2 were needed for the wine not to be susceptible to pinking. Tests on the decrease in pH showed that there was no increase in pink colour with a decrease in pH, which meant that monomeric anthocyanins were not the cause of pinking. Recent research claims that malvidin-3-O-glucoside is the most abundant monomeric anthocyanin found in pinked wines and could be the cause of pinking. This led to the theory that phenols contribute to pinking susceptibility, and this was accepted as fact in recent years. The establishment of a pinking assay in 1977 made the testing for pinking easier and cheaper for winemakers. The sales of PVPP increased as winemakers worked preventatively with their wine to decrease susceptibility to pinking. This review attempts to describe the history of pinking, the establishment of the assay, as well as to describe factors that could lead to pinking susceptibility in white wines. <![CDATA[<b>Modulation of Aroma and Sensory Properties of Prokupac Wines by a <i>Bacillus-based </i>Preparation Applied to Grapes Prior to Harvest</b>]]> Modern viticulture requires the replacement of hazardous agrochemicals with eco-friendly, bio-based products such as microbial preparations that enhance grape and wine quality while protecting the grapevine from pest and disease attacks. This study investigated the effects of a commercially available Bacillus-based preparation on the volatile and sensory properties of wines made from Vitis vinifera, cv. Prokupac grapes. Three different concentrations of preparation based on Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 were applied to grapevines two weeks prior to harvest. The total soluble solids in the grapes was affected by the application of B. subtilis Ch-1 and the alcohol content of the wine made from these grapes was greater. Wines made from the B. subtilis Ch-13-treated grapes showed an average increase in total phenolic compounds of about 27%, compared to the wine made from the untreated control grapes. The colour intensity of wines from the treated grapes, independently of the concentration, was higher by more than 30% than for the wine from the control grape sample. The B. subtilis Ch-13 treatment also affected the content of 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl decanoate and ethyl octanoate in the wine, at about 35%, 40% and 20%, respectively. The latter compounds are responsible for floral and fruity aromas. Generally, wines made from the treated grapes showed similar sensorial characteristics but scored better overall than the control. Principal component analysis showed a clear differentiation between wine made from the control and that from the B. subtilis Ch-13-treated grapes. The results suggest that the application of B. subtilis Ch-13 to grapevines two weeks prior to harvest has a positive effect on wine quality. <![CDATA[<b>Investigating the Concept of South African Old Vine Chenin Blanc</b>]]> Although South African vineyards are still young by European standards, there is a belief in the industry that vines aged 35 or more years produce grapes and wines with specific characteristics ("old vine wines"). The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of the concept of old vine Chenin blanc wines using a typicality rating and sorting tasks. Chenin blanc wines were made from grapes harvested from vines aged five to 45 years old. Winemaking was standardised, with no wood contact. Typicality rating and sorting tasks were performed on young (first-stage) and two-year bottle-aged (second-stage) wines. Principal component analysis (PCA) on rating data demonstrated judge consensus, but no correlation was found between vine age and typicality rating. Sorting results were submitted to agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) performed on the correspondence analysis (CA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) results for grouping and attributes resulting from the sorting task. The clusters were different for the young wines and two-year bottle-aged wines. The verbal aspect of the sorting demonstrated the judges' agreement on the concept of old vine Chenin blanc, shown by the annotation of the old vine group as 'complex', 'balance', 'rich' and 'good mouthfeel'. However, because the judges did not sort the wines according to vine age, the perceptual aspect of the concept could not be confirmed, its features could not be tested further, and the sensory space could not be built. <![CDATA[<b>Laboratory Bioassays on the Susceptibility of Trimen's False Tiger Moth, <i>Agoma trimenii </i>(Lepidoptera: Agaristidae), to Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Fungi</b>]]> Trimen's false tiger moth, Agoma trimenii (Lepidoptera: Agaristidae), recently developed as a pest of grapevine in the Northern Cape and Limpopo (Groblersdal area) provinces of South Africa. Little is known about the biology of A. trimenii and control options are lacking. The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of A. trimenii larvae and pupae to two locally isolated entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis noenieputensis, and two commercially available entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae were screened for pathogenicity of the two nematode species, using a concentration of 100 infective juveniles (IJs)/50 μ! of water. After 48 h, 100% mortality of the larval stage was found. However, no pupae were infected with EPNs. Larvae and pupae were screened for pathogenicity of the two EPF isolates by means of a dipping test, at a concentration of 0.2 ml/500 ml water and 0.5 g/500 ml water, respectively. Five days post-treatment, 100% larval mortality was recorded in comparison with no deaths in the controls. Overt mycosis was only observed in the case of M. anisopliae. However, in the case of pupae, no mortality was observed for both the nematode and the fungal applications. In future studies, the prepupal soil stage of A. trimenii should be screened for susceptibility to EPNs and EPF. The results of this study indicate the excellent potential of EPNs and EPF as biological control agents against the larvae of A. trimenii, especially for application to small areas with high infestation, without disrupting an integrated pest management programme. <![CDATA[<b>Cold Hardiness of Primary Buds of Wine and Table Grape Cultivars in Poland</b>]]> The aim of this study was to compare the cold resistance of grapevine cultivars in field conditions. Following the winters of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018, an assessment of frost damage was carried out on the vines of 42 wine cultivars and 45 table grape cultivars grown in central Poland (Skierniewice, latitude 51.9627 N, longitude 20.1666 E). The minimum temperature for each of the two winters was recorded on 2017-0107 (-20.9°C) and on 2018-02-27 (-20.1°C). Among the assessed cultivars, 19 (13 wine grape cultivars and six table grape cultivars) belonged to V. vinifera species and 68 were inter- or inter-intraspecific hybrids. Cultivars were divided into five classes of different frost tolerance, with information on the proportion of primary buds frozen given in the brackets: very resistant (below 1.9%), resistant (2% to 24.9%), medium susceptible (2% to 74.9%), susceptible (75% to 95.9%) and very susceptible (above 96%). The number of wine and table grape cultivars in particular classes (mean for two winters) was as follows: very resistant - 20 (wine) and 10 (table), resistant - 15 and 13, medium susceptible - six and 20, susceptible - one and two. Both the V. vinifera cultivars and the interspecific hybrids were highly diversified in terms of frost tolerance. In most cultivars, the number of frozen buds after the winter of 2016/2017 was greater than after the winter of 2017/2018. Among V. vinifera, 'Riesling', 'Pinot Noir', 'Chasselas Dore' (reference) and 'Tauberschwarz', 'Veltliner Frührot' ('Fruehroter Malvasier'), 'Turan', 'Domina', 'Tressot Panache', 'Blue from Tychy', and 'Irsai Oliver' were very resistant or resistant. Other cultivars of V. vinifera were medium susceptible or susceptible. <![CDATA[<b>Complete Genome Sequencing of <i>Lactobacillus plantarum </i>UNQLp 11 Isolated from a Patagonian Pinot Noir Wine</b>]]> Lactobacillus plantarum UNQLp 11 strain was isolated from a Patagonian Pinot noir wine at the oldest commercial winery (110 years old) in General Roca, North Patagonia, Argentina, and has demonstrated its ability to survive during winemaking processes and successfully carry out malolactic fermentation. This work aimed to obtain the whole assembled genome of the UNQLp 11 strain, analysing its architecture and the possible functions of the predicted genes from the oenological properties of this strain. The genome size is 3 534 932 bp, with a mean GC content of 44.2%, 3 412 CDS, 80 transposons and 148 tandem repeats. A comparison between the genome size and gene content of 14 Lb. plantarum strains from different origins was performed, and UNQLp 11 exhibited the largest size. The in silico genome-wide analysis allowed us to confirm the existence of genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of several metabolites of oenological interest, in addition to bacteriocins and exopolysaccharides. Furthermore, it is possible to speculate on this strain's adaptation to different environments, as it is able to use diverse substrates for its growth. All these features suggest the potential of UNQLp 11 to be a good starter culture for malolactic fermentation. <![CDATA[<b>Colour Evaluation of Pinot Noir and Merlot Wines after Malolactic Fermentation Carried out by <i>Oenococcus oeni </i>and <i>Lactobacillus plantarum </i>Patagonian Native Strains</b>]]> Malolactic fermentation is a complex process that involves many reactions aside from the decarboxylation of L-malic acid. But we still have only glimpses of that complexity. It is not clear if the phenolic composition and colour are affected by malolactic fermentation and, if so, to what extent. So, the aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the behaviour of native Patagonian strains of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus plantarum in two wine varieties, and 2) to analyse the effect of malolactic fermentation on the colour of these wines. Our results show that the survival of bacteria and L-malic acid decarboxylation is different depending on the lactic acid bacteria strain employed and the wine variety. In addition, we found that O. oeni can survive in wine even when L-malic acid is not being consumed. We found some correlations between MLF and colour-related parameters in Pinot noir but not for Merlot. In fact, some of the colour-related parameters measured in Merlot (total polyphenolic index, colour intensity, hue, as well as the CIELAB parameters) were affected even when L-malic acid was not being consumed. <![CDATA[<b>A Review of Leaf-mining Insects and Control Options for their Management, with Special Reference to <i>Holocacista capensis </i>(Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae) in Vineyards in South Africa</b>]]> A leaf-mining pest occurring on commercial varieties of Vitis vinifera in South Africa was investigated due to the presence of cocoons on fruit. The leaf miner, Holocacista capensis, was reported on grapevines in 2012. Since its discovery on commercial grape varieties, control strategies have consisted solely of insecticide applications. Despite the fact that the leaf-mining habit is taxonomically diverse and considered ancient, little is generally known of leaf-mining larvae. A review was conducted in order to better understand the leaf-mining strategy and amalgamate the current knowledge of other leaf-mining insects. The general evolutionary history within the full complement of taxa that display the leaf-mining habit is discussed. The review focuses on lepidopteran leaf-mining pests and discloses the known information associated with the first report and the impact of H. capensis in the Western Cape, South Africa. As no control methods have been identified for H. capensis in vineyards, various chemical, biological and cultural control strategies adopted for other leaf-mining pests were investigated. Control options, including the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), parasitoids, physical and cultural control measures, were considered and are discussed. Alternate control methods are pertinent for the grape-growing industry to avoid the development of the insecticide resistance that is common amongst leaf miners. This review aims to consolidate the available literature and therefore aid in the development of an integrated pest management strategy to effectively control H. capensis in infested vineyards in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Evolution of Phenolic Composition During Barrel and Bottle Aging</b>]]> During red wine ageing, phenolic compounds undergo several reactions that have an impact on wine colour and mouthfeel properties. The evolution of phenolic content is affected during wine ageing. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic content and evolution of 82 commercial red wines subjected to barrel and bottle ageing. The phenolic content evolution of wines that underwent an ageing period of 12 months in commercial 225 litre barrels, followed by 12 months in the bottle, was monitored. While the total phenolic content remained stable, the anthocyanin fraction was affected the most, which led to substantial changes in the colour properties of the wines. Differences were found during both ageing regimes, indicating certain phenolic reactions being favoured or compromised under different ageing conditions, with an impact on wine colour properties. This paper provides the first large-scale study on the phenolic evolution of commercial red wine during ageing. <![CDATA[<b>Alteration Index Three Facilitates Interpretation of ß-Glucosidase, Acid-phosphatase and Urease Activities in Soils Irrigated with Diluted Winery Wastewater</b>]]> Soil enzyme activity data from a lysimeter pot trial involving four dissimilar soils irrigated over two simulated seasons (SS) with winery wastewater (WW) and municipal water (MW), were converted to numerical scores using the alteration index three (AI3). Unlike the activities of individual enzymes which are substrate specific and do not reflect the overall status of the soil microbiome, AI3 enabled differences in treatment-induced alteration states between combinations of soil and water to be quantified and statistically assessed. The more negative AI3 scores corresponded to a more altered state in the WW than the MW treatments, after SS3 than after SS4 and in the 0-10 cm compared to the 10-20 cm soil depth interval. AI3 is therefore a potentially useful adjunct to soil enzyme activity assays in monitoring and management of biological activity in vineyard soils. These findings, however, require verification under commercial vineyard conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Is There a Link Between Coffee Aroma and the Level of Furanmethanethiol (FMT) in Pinotage Wines?</b>]]> Over the years, Pinotage has found its way into the South African and international market. Producers have used the flavour potential of this "original" South African grape to produce different wine styles, one of them being the so-called "coffee-style Pinotage". The current study aims to explain the impact of furanmethanethiol (FMT) on the characteristic coffee aroma of these coffee-style wines. Chemical and sensory evaluation, as well as data mining of the technical information available, was performed. Not all wines marketed as "coffee Pinotage" showed a high "coffee" rating. However, the results showed a good correlation between the aroma perception and FMT concentrations (R² = 0.81). However, RV coefficients were low when comparing the coffee rating with the information provided on both the front and the back label, which shows that, in some cases, the use of the "coffee Pinotage" term was rather part of the marketing strategy.