Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture]]> vol. 40 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Editorial Letter</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Chemical and Sensorial Characterization of Tropical Syrah Wines Produced at Different Altitudes in Northeast of the Brazil</b>]]> Over the years, viticulture has expanded to new regions outside the temperate zones, such as Northeast Brazil, India, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Venezuela, characterized by the production of tropical wines. It is important for the productive sector to comprehend the effects of grapevine interaction with the characteristics of each new region on wines composition. In this study, the composition of wines of Syrah from two regions with different altitudes in Northeast Brazil were analyzed by different methodologies to characterize chemical compounds as sugar, acids, minerals, phenolics (anthocyanins, fla-vonols, stilbenes and condensed tannins) and the sensory profile. The wines of the Bahia region (1100 m of altitude) obtained high concentrations for chemical parameters related to color, monomeric anthocyanins, stilbenes and monomelic and oligomeric tannins. Wines of the low altitude region, Pernambuco (350 m of altitude) were characterized by higher concentrations of flavonols (kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin and rutin) and polymerized tannins. The chemical composition of wines from the two studied regions was influenced by altitude. A trend towards higher concentrations in most for phenolic compounds analyzed was observed in wines from the higher altitude region during the two years of study. Regarding the sensory profile, fruity, floral, herbaceous and empyreumatic attributes aromatic obtained highest scores in wines of the 350 m altitude region, the other attributes were dependent on the year of harvest. <![CDATA[<b>Comparative Anatomy and Morphology of the Leaves of Grenache Noir and Syrah Grapevine Cultivars</b>]]> Grenache Noir and Syrah are two of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars used to a great extent worldwide. They have very different leaf morphologies from an ampelographic (botanical) point of view. This might also be related to differences in the anatomy and micro-morphology of their leaves. The goal of the present work was to compare these cultivars' leaf anatomy and morphology. Adult leaves from both cultivars were characterised using a range of microscopy techniques. Grenache Noir had a significantly smaller leaf surface area, but a significantly thicker leaf blade, than Syrah. It also had significantly larger stomata and a larger stomatal index than Syrah. The distribution of mesophyll tissues was similar in both cultivars, but the upper epidermis was significantly thicker in Grenache Noir, and the palisade parenchyma cells were longer in Syrah. The mesophyll tissues of both cultivars contained abundant idioblasts carrying crystals of calcium oxalate and mucilage. This work reveals quantitative and qualitative differences in the anatomy and morphology of mature Grenache Noir and Syrah leaves. Further work is needed to determine how these anatomical and morphological differences may be connected with different responses at the functional level.