Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Industrial Engineering]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-789020130003&lang=en vol. 24 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Note from the editor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Maintenance approaches for different production methods</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Various production methods are used in industry to manufacture or produce a variety of products needed by industry and consumers. The nature of a product determines which production method is most suitable or cost-effective. A continuous process is typically used to produce large volumes of liquids or gases. Batch processing is often used for small volumes, such as pharmaceutical products. This paper discusses a research project to determine the relationship between maintenance approaches and production methods. A survey was done to determine to what extent three maintenance approaches - reliability-centred maintenance (RCM), total productive maintenance (TPM), and business-centred maintenance (BCM) - are used for three different processing methods (continuous process, batch process, and a production line method).<hr/>OPSOMMING Verskeie produksiemetodes word deur die industrie gebruik om 'n wye verskeidenheid produkte te vervaardig wat deur die industrie en verbruikers benodig word. Die aard van 'n produk bepaal watter produksiemetode die meeste koste-effektief is. Kontinue prosesse word gewoonlik gebruik vir die vervaardiging van groot volumes gasse of vloeistowwe. Enkelladingsprosesse word dikwels gebruik om klein hoeveelhede van 'n produk te vervaardig, bv. farmaseutiese produkte. Hierdie artikel bespreek 'n projek wat uitgevoer is om die verwantskap tussen instandhoudingsbenaderings en produksiemetodes te bepaal. 'n Meningsopname is gedoen om te bepaal tot watter mate drie benaderings -betroubaarheidgebaseerde instandhouding (RCM), totale produktiewe instandhouding (TPM) en besigheidgebaseerde instandhouding (BCM) - gebruik kan word vir drie alternatiewe produksiemetodes, naamlik kontinue prosesse, enkelladings prosesse, en die produksielyn metode. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of the degree of application of e-commerce on operational performance among Taiwan's high-tech manufacturers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study probes the correlation of types of operational strategy, degrees of organisational learning, types of organisational culture, the degree of the application of e-commerce, and operational performance among high-tech firms in Taiwan. The data was collected by questionnaires distributed via mail to senior supervisors at high-tech firms in six industries at three Taiwanese science parks. The results showed that a higher degree of e-commerce application leads to a significant and positive effect on operational performance. This study suggests that, in order to upgrade operational performance, firms should enhance their organisational learning and e-commerce, along with their rational, hierarchical, consensual, and developmental cultures, and the execution of prospector and defender strategies.<hr/>OPSOMMING Die studie ondersoek korrelasievorms van operasionele strategie, grade van organisasiekunde, tipes organisasiekultuur, die toepassingsgraad van e-handel en operasionele vertoning by hoë tegnologie ondernemings in Taiwan. Gegewens is versamel met behulp van vraelyste gerig aan seniortoesighouers by ses ondernemings in Taiwan. Die slotsom van die opname toon dat 'n hoë grad van e-handel daartoe lei dat 'n betekenisvolle positiewe resultaat by operasionele vertoning bereik word. Daar word aanbeveel dat bestaande ondernemings daarvan gebruik moet maak teen die agtergrond van die eienskappe van 'n e-handel milieu. <![CDATA[<b>Use of simulation to solve outpatient clinic problems</b>: <b>A review of the literature</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The increasing demand for outpatient services has led to overcrowded clinics, long waiting times for patients, and extended staff working hours in outpatient clinics. Simulation tools have been used to ameliorate deficiencies in the appointment system, resource allocation, and patient flow management that are the root causes of these problems. Integrated studies that considered these three factors together produced better results than attempts to resolve individual causes. While simulation has proved to be an effective problem-solving tool for outpatient clinic management, there is still room for improvement. This paper reviews studies over the past 50 years that have applied management simulation to resolve outpatient clinic problems.<hr/>OPSOMMING Die toenemende vraag na buitepasiëntdienste het gelei tot oorlaaide klinieke, lang wagtye vir pasiënte en verlengde werksure vir personeel in buitepasiëntklinieke. Simulasie sagteware is gebruik om tekortkominge in die afspraakstelsel, hulpbron toekenning en pasiëntvloeibestuur (die hoof oorsake van hierdie probleme) te versag. Geïntegreerde studies, wat hierdie drie faktore gesamentlik in ag neem, het beter resultate gelewer as studies wat individuele gevalle probeer aanspreek het. Alhoewel simulasie 'n effektiewe probleemoplostegniek vir buitepasiëntkliniekbestuur is, is daar steeds ruimte vir verbetering. Hierdie artikel hersien navorsing (wat strek oor die laaste 50 jaar) wat bestuursimulasie toegepas het om buitepasiëntkliniek probleme aan te spreek. <![CDATA[<b>The design of reconfigurable assembly stations for high variety and mass customisation manufacturing</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The economical production of mass customised and high variety goods is a challenge facing modern manufacturers. This challenge is being addressed, in part, by the on-going development of technologies that facilitate the manufacturing of these goods. Existing technologies require either excessive inbuilt flexibility or frequent changes to the machine set up to provide the manufacturing functions required for the customisation process. This paper presents design principles for automated assembly stations within the scope of mass customisation. Design principles are presented that minimise the hardware and operating complexities of assembly stations, allowing stations to be easily automated for concurrent mixed model assembly with a First In First Out (FIFO) scheduling policy. A reconfigurable assembly station is developed to demonstrate how the proposed design methods simplify the creation and operation of an assembly station for a product family of flashlights.<hr/>OPSOMMING Die ekonomiese vervaardiging van grootskaalse aangepaste en hoë verskeidenheid goedere is 'n uitdaging wat hedendaagse vervaardigers in die gesig staar. Die uitdaging word deels geadresseer deur die ontwikkel van tegnologieë wat die vervaardiging van hierdie goedere fasiliteer. Bestaande tegnologieë vereis egter uitgebreide ingeboude aanpasbaarheid of gereelde veranderinge aan die masjienopstelling, om die vervaardigingvermoë deur die aanpassings proses vereis, te verskaf. Hierdie artikel hou ontwerpbeginsels voor vir geoutomatiseerde monteerstasies binne die bestek van massa aanpasbaarheid. Die ontwerpbeginsels minimeer die hardeware- en bedryfkompleksiteit van monteerstasies. Hierdie benadering vergemaklik dit om stasies te outomatiseer vir gelyklopende gemengde model montering met 'n Eerste-In-Eerste-Uit (FIFO) skeduleringsbeleid. 'n Herkonfigureerbare monteerstasie is ontwikkel om te demonstreer hoe die voorgestelde ontwerpbeginsels die skep en bedryf van 'n monteerstasie vir 'n produk-familie van flitsligte vereenvoudig. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of parameter estimation on minimising the in-control average sample size for the double sampling</b>  <i>x</i><b>̅</b><b> chart</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The double sampling (DS) x̅ chart, one of the most widely-used charting methods, is superior for detecting small and moderate shifts in the process mean. In a right skewed run length distribution, the median run length (MRL) provides a more credible representation of the central tendency than the average run length (ARL), as the mean is greater than the median. In this paper, therefore, MRL is used as the performance criterion instead of the traditional ARL. Generally, the performance of the DS x̅ chart is investigated under the assumption of known process parameters. In practice, these parameters are usually estimated from an in-control reference Phase-I dataset. Since the performance of the DS x̅ chart is significantly affected by estimation errors, we study the effects of parameter estimation on the MRL-based DS x̅ chart when the in-control average sample size is minimised. This study reveals that more than 80 samples are required for the MRL-based DS x̅ chart with estimated parameters to perform more favourably than the corresponding chart with known parameters.<hr/>OPSOMMING Die dubbelmonster x̅-beheerkaart, wat grootskaals gebruik word, is voortreflik vir die opsporing van geringe en middelmatige verskuiwings van prosesmediaan. By 'n regsskuinse verdeling van looplengte lewer de mediaanlooplengte (MLL) 'n beter groottewaarde as die gemiddelde looplengte. Gewoonlik word die vertoning van die bogenoemde x̅-beheerkaart bepaal met geskatte prosesparameters. Die skattings word bepaall op die veronderstelling dat die proses onder beheer is. Aangesien die MLL gebaseerde beheerkaartvertoning betekenisvol beïnvloed word deur skattingsfoute, word dit ondersoek uit minimum gemiddelde monstergrootte. Die uiteindelike resultaat van die navorsing toon dat 80 monsters benodig word vir 'n beter vertoning as die ooreenstemmende beheerkaart vir bekende parameters. <![CDATA[<b>Immune genetic algorithm for scheduling service workflows with QoS constraints in cloud computing</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resources allocation and scheduling of service workflows is an important challenge in distributed computing. This is particularly true in a cloud computing environment, where many computer resources may be available at specified locations, as and when required. Quality-of-service (QoS) issues such as execution time and running costs must also be considered. Meeting this challenge requires that two classic computational problems be tackled. The first problem is allocating resources to each of the tasks in the composite web services or workflow. The second problem involves scheduling resources when each resource may be used by more than one task, and may be needed at different times. Existing approaches to scheduling workflows or composite web services in cloud computing focus only on reducing the constraint problem - such as the deadline constraint, or the cost constraint (bi-objective optimisation). This paper proposes a new genetic algorithm that solves a scheduling problem by considering more than two constraints (multi-objective optimisation). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed algorithm.<hr/>OPSOMMING In verdeelde rekenaarverwerking is hulpbrontoewysing en skedulering van diens werkstrome 'n belangrike uitdaging, veral in 'n wolkrekenaar omgewing waar daar baie rekenaarhulpbronne beskikbaar is op bepaalde plekke. Daarbenewens moet die kwaliteit van die diens kwessies, soos uitvoertyd en bedryfskoste, in ag geneem word. Om hierdie uitdaging suksesvol te adresseer moet twee klassieke rekenaarverwerking probleme aangepak word: eerstens, die toekenning van hulpbronne aan elk van die take in die saamgestelde webdienste of werkstrome en tweedens die skedulering van hulpbronne wanneer elke hulpbron gebruik kan word deur meer as een taak en op verskillende tye nodig mag wees. Die bestaande benaderings vir die skedulering van werkstrome of saamgestelde webdienste in wolkverwerking fokus op die vermindering van die beperkingsprobleme, soos die sperdatum of die kostebeperking. Hierdie artikel stel 'n nuwe genetiese algoritme, wat die hulpbrontoewysing en skedulering probleem deur die oorweging van meer as twee beperkings oplos, voor. Eksperimentele resultate demonstreer die doeltreffendheid en skaalbaarheid van die voorgestelde algoritme. <![CDATA[<b>The robust min-max newsvendor problem with balking under a service level constraint</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this paper we study an extension of a classic newsvendor model with balking under a service-level constraint. We also relax the assumption that the demand distribution is fully available to a decision-maker; we assume that only the mean and variance of the demand distribution are known, and discuss the procedure for determining the optimal order quantity for the concomitant model. We further extend our base model to two different cases: (i) when the fixed ordering cost is included, and (ii) when yield is uncertain. We illustrate the solution procedures for each case with numerical examples. Moreover, we discuss the performance and robustness of the approach through randomly generated test instances, and perform a numerical sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of the changes of a targeted fill-rate and variances of a demand distribution.<hr/>OPSOMMING Die navorsing handel oor uitbreiding van die klassieke koerantverkoopsmodel met weiering teen die agtergrond van 'n diensrandvoorwaarde en bekende gemiddelde en variansie van vraag. Die bogenoemde uitbreiding sluit ook as alternatief die bestelkoste vir onsekere vraag in. Die modelprestasie word gedemonstreer via 'n reeks van syfervoorbeelde. <![CDATA[<b>Quantitative methods required for implementing PAS 55 or the ISO 55000 series for asset management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Asset management is an important part of any organisation, as it allows them to extract value from their assets. The publicly-available specification for asset management (PAS 55) outlines what a standardised asset management system should consist of. The newly-proposed series of standards from the International Organizations for Standardization (the ISO 55000 series) also aims to provide a standardised framework for an asset management system. Both of these documents, however, only tell organisations what should be done, not how to do it. This article provides an introductory overview of numerical tools that an organisation can use when implementing an asset management system, and provides resources for further reading.<hr/>OPSOMMING Batebestuur is 'n belangrike aspek van enige organisasie. Batebestuur laat organisasies toe om waarde uit hul bates te ontgin. PAS 55 (die publieke spesifikasie van die Britse Standaarde Instituut) verskaf 'n gestandaardiseerde raamwerk vir die implementering van 'n batebestuurstelsel. Die Internasionale Organisasie vir Standaardisering (ISO) is ook besig om 'n stel internasionale standaarde te publiseer wat verder poog om batebestuurstelsels te standardiseer. Beide hierdie dokumente beskryf egter slegs wat gedoen moet word, nie hoe dit gedoen moet word nie. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van beskikbare numeriese metodes wat organisasies kan gebruik wanneer 'n batebestuurstelsel geïmplementeer word. <![CDATA[<b>Examining how manufacturing corporations win orders</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study adopted 14 criteria for order-winners and qualifiers as the attributes for evaluation. The first stage used a simultaneous importance-performance analysis to analyse the competitive market situations of a corporation and its competitors. The second stage used the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method to analyse the attributes' causal relationships and levels of influence; then two methods of analysis were integrated to analyse and re-formulate the competitive strategies for the winning orders. As well as serving as a novel theory-based method to examine how manufacturers win orders, the proposals in this study can be applied to practical industry experiences.<hr/>OPSOMMING Veertien kriteria vir mededinging word vir attribuut evaluering voorgehou. Ten aanvang word gelyktydige vertonings gemeet ten opsigte van mededingers. Tweedens word 'n lukraakmetode aangewend by die evaluering van attribute se kousale verhoudings en invloedspeile vir mededingingspeile om sodoende bestellings te bekom. Die resulterende voorstelle kan in die praktyk toegepas word. <![CDATA[<b>An investigation of industry expectations of industrial engineering graduates</b>: <b>A case study of graduate development programmes in South African universities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en During 2008 and 2009, post-apartheid South Africa and the global community experienced major economic turbulence, bringing into focus the need for skills development across the major South African economic sectors to resuscitate its failing economy. The solutions lay in organisations re-evaluating their current operational strategies by streamlining their organisations, and adopting aggressive, lean, and cost-saving approaches to remain competitive. The study introduced the need to address this issue by exploring the environments that play a role in the quality of life in South Africa. A qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approach was used to establish the skills gap between the business market and training institutes, in an effort to alleviate the negative effects of the current state of the economy. The need for skills growth and for cost-cutting, cost-saving, and an optimisation skill - a skill descriptively and applicably seen in industrial engineering - is apparent. The role of graduate institutions in facilitating the growth of human capital development in the work environment has become a critical factor in South Africa, aimed at improving the productivity and economic growth of the country. In this paper, the focus is on three main areas of discussion: the institutional environment of students; exploring the student-lecturer relationship; and the work environment. The study highlights the influence these three environments have on industrial engineering skills and competencies attained by industrial engineering university student graduates, and how this ultimately creates a way for the South African economy to grow.<hr/>OPSOMMING Post-apartheid Suid-Afrika, asook die res van die wêreld, het gedurende 2008 en 2009 groot ekonomiese druk ervaar met armoede, werkloosheid, en vaardigheidstekorte wat tot lae produktiwiteitsvlakke en afskaling in arbeid gelei het. Die regering en die sakesektor het as gevolg hiervan herbesin oor vaardigheidsontwikkeling in die belangrikste sektore van die ekonomie. Die oplossing was dikwels geleë in die bedryfstrategieë van organisasies, en daarom is daar veral op bedryfsvlakke gelet op vaartbelyning, kostbesparing, en verskralingsmetodes ten einde kompeterend te bly. Twee faktore het duidelik geraak: die behoefte aan vaardigheidsontwikkeling, en die behoefte aan kostebesparing en optimisering. Hierdie vaardighede is beskrywend en tiperend van bedryfsingenieurswese. Die rol van tersiêre instansies in die uitbreiding van vaardighede is ook 'n kritieke faktor in Suid-Afrika, gerig op die verbetering van produktiwiteit en ekonomiese groei. Hierdie artikel fokus op hierdie belangrike areas, en ondersoek veral die rol van bestaande student, dosente, en bedryfspraktisyns. Die studie wys die rol van hierdie rolspelers uit en hoe hulle saam 'n positiewe rol in die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie kan speel. <![CDATA[<b>Optimisation of make-to-order production for multiple-line production</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This work considers the make-to-order production of multiple-line production considering the production rate, production time interval, production yield, holding cost, manufacturing cost, set-up cost, the penalty cost of shortage, and constrained delivery deadline. Based on the research motivation of efficient and fast decisions, this paper constructs a mathematical model for achieving the maximum total profit, and selects the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) as the approach to a solution due to its simplicity and rapid convergence. The proposed model can be categorised as a nonlinear programming (NLP) model, and can also function as a decision-making tool for real-time analyses of multiple-line production planning. A numerical example is then followed to describe and analyse the results. Actually, this study is a computerised tool to deal with the production planning of make-to-order production by constrained delivery deadlines. This research can provide not only an efficient but also a fast referenced decision for an enterprise to face fast-changing business environments, and it can solve other cases easily by changing only its input parameters.<hr/>OPSOMMING Die navorsing handel oor multi-lyn vervaardiging wat bedryf moet word vir 'n gegewe produksietempo, produksietyd, opbrengs, houkoste, vervaardigingskoste, voorbereidingskoste, tekortkoste en afleweringstyd. Die sisteemmodel het ten doel maksimering van wins deur gemaklik gebruik te maak van die metode van swermoptimisering. Die model is nie-lineêr, gebruikersvriendelik en wyd aanpasbaar via verandering van parameters. <![CDATA[<b>Application of the aviation derived maintenance free operating period concept in the South African mining industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper analyses the use and possible application of the concept of the maintenance free operating period (MFOP), derived from the aviation sector, in the mining industry. The traditionally used reliability requirement, mean time between failure (MTBF), has been found to have several inherent problems with its application and definition. These problems are explained in this paper. It also provides a brief overview of the field of physical asset management (PAM), the overall domain of the research, and thereafter provides a characterisation of MTBF and its current use in the mining industry. MFOP is then introduced and contrasted with MTBF. A methodology for the analysis of MFOP performance is introduced and then applied to a case study conducted at an Anglo American platinum mine.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie verslag ontleed die nut en moontlike toepassing van die konsep 'instandhoudingsvrye bedryfstydperk' (MFOP), wat oorspronklik uit die lugvaartsektor kom, in die mynbedryf. Die tradisionele betroubaarheidsvereiste 'gemiddelde tydsduur tussen weierings' (MTBF) blyk etlike inherente probleme te hê wat toepassing en omskrywing betref, wat óók hierin bespreek word. Die navorsing bied voorts 'n bondige oorsig van die terrein van fisiese batebestuur (PAM), synde die oorkoepelende gebied waarop dié studie tuishoort, en beskryf daarná die MTBF-vereiste en die huidige aanwending daarvan in die mynbedryf. MFOP word dan bekend gestel en met MTBF vergelyk. 'n Metode vir die ontleding van MFOP-werkverrigting word voorgestel en uiteindelik op 'n gevallestudie by 'n myn van Anglo American platinum toegepas. <![CDATA[<b>Measuring the leanness of manufacturing systems by using fuzzy TOPSIS: A case study of the 'Parizan Sanat' company</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The implementation of lean manufacturing concepts has had a significant impact on various industries. Many companies around the world have attempted to implement lean manufacturing, but the lack of an obvious understanding of lean measurement and its performance has caused its implementation to fail. This paper presents an innovative approach by using fuzzy TOPSIS to measure the production leanness of manufacturing systems, as a paradigm. This approach is applied to the Parizan Sanat company.<hr/>OPSOMMING Die implementering van maer-vervaardigingkonsepte het 'n wesenlike impak op verskeie industrieë gehad. Baie maatskappye wêreldwyd het gepoog om maer-vervaardiging te implementeer, maar die 'n gebrek aan verstaan van die maer-meeting en die gepaardgaande uitvoering daarvan het die gevolg gehad dat die implementering van maervervaardiging misluk het. Hierdie artikel bied 'n innoverende benadering tot die meet van produksie maerheid deur van wasige TOPSIS gebruik te maak. Hierdie benadering word toegepas op die Parizan Sanat maatskappy. <![CDATA[<b>Selection and ranking of occupational safety indicators based on fuzzy AHP</b>: <b>A case study in road construction companies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP). A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational safety risks in these companies. The case study confirmed that organisational factors have a dominant effect on the quality of the occupational health and safety management system in Serbian road construction companies.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel toon die faktore, prestasies en aanwysers van beroepsveiligheid en 'n metode om beroepsveiligheid aanwysers te kies en te rangskik. Die rangskikking van beroepsveiligheid aanwysers is gegrond op die deskundige evaluasie metode en die wasige analitiese hiërargie proses. 'n Gevalle studie is geloods op padkonstruksie maatskappye in Serwië. Die sleutel veiligheidsprestasieaanwysers is geïdentifiseer en rangskik volgens die resultate van 'n opname onder deskundiges wat die beroepsveiligheid risiko's in hierdie maatskappye assesseer. Die gevalle studie het bevestig dat organisatoriesefaktore 'n daadwerklike effek op die gehalte van die beroepsveiligheid bestuurstelsel in Serwiese padkonstruksie maatskappye het. <![CDATA[<b>Designing a framework to design a business model for the 'bottom of the pyramid' population</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article presents a framework for developing and designing a business model to target the 'bottom of the pyramid' (BoP) population. Using blue ocean strategy and business model literature, integrated with research on the BoP, the framework offers a systematic approach for organisations to analyse and understand all aspects of the BoP and their environment, and then design a business model that minimises the risk of failure and fulfils the core requirements of the BoP. A case study on Capitec Bank demonstrates how the framework can be applied to the real world. The case study shows the practical examples that Capitec uses to target the BoP successfully, and the logic behind these actions. Further validation was done through interviews with experts in the relevant fields used in this study.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel stel 'n strategie vir die ontwikkeling en ontwerp van 'n besigheidsmodel vir die 'bottom of the pyramid' (BoP) populasie voor deur behulp van 'n raamwerk. Deur die 'blue ocean' strategie- en besigheidsmodel-literatuur te gebruik, sowel as deur navorsing oor die BoP te doen, kan die raamwerk 'n sistematiese benadering vir 'n organisasie gee om eers alle aspekte van die BoP en hul omgewing te ontleed en te verstaan, en daarvolgens 'n besigheidsmodel te ontwerp wat die risiko van mislukking en aan die kern vereistes van die BoP voldoen. 'n Capitec Bank gevallestudie illustreer hoe die raamwerk toegepas kan word in die praktyk. Die gevallestudie toon die praktiese voorbeelde wat Capitec gebruik om suksesvol die BoP te betree, met die motiverende logika. Verdere validasie was gedoen dmv onderhoude met kenners in die verwante velde aangeraak in die studie. <![CDATA[<b>Studies in Swarm Intelligence techniques for annual crop planning problem in a new irrigation scheme</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902013000300017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Annual crop planning (ACP) is an NP-Hard type optimisation problem in agricultural planning. It involves finding optimal solutions for the seasonal allocations of a limited amount of agricultural land among the various competing crops that need to be grown on it. This study investigates the effectiveness of employing three relatively new Swarm Intelligence (SI) techniques in determining solutions to an ACP problem at a new irrigation scheme. The SI metaheuristics studied include Cuckoo Search (CS), Firefly Algorithm (FA), and Glow-worm Swarm Optimisation (GSO). The solutions determined by these SI techniques are compared against the solutions of Genetic Algorithm (GA), another population-based metaheuristic technique. This helps to determine the relative merits of the solutions found by the SI techniques. The results show that the SI algorithms delivered solutions superior to those of GA in determining solutions to the ACP problem at a new irrigation scheme.<hr/>OPSOMMING Jaarlikse oesbeplanning is 'n NP-Hard soort optimiseringsprobleem in landbou beplanning. Dit behels die bepaal van optimale oplossing vir die seisoenale toekenning van 'n beperkte hoeveelheid landbougrond aan die verskeie mededingende gewasse. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die doeltreffendheid van drie relatiewe nuwe Swerm Intelligensie tegnieke om oplossings tot oesbeplanning by 'n nuwe besproeiingskema te vind. Die Swem Intelligensie tegnieke wat ondersoek is, is die Koekoek Soekmetode, die Vuurvliegie Algoritme en die Gloei-wurm Swerm Optimisering tegnieke. Die oplossings deur hierdie tegnieke verkry is vergelyk met dié verkry met die tradisionele Genetiese Algoritme. Dié vergelyking help om die relatiewe voordele van die nuwe Swerm Intelligensie tegnieke te bepaal. Die resultate toon dat die voorgestelde tegnieke beter oplossings as die tradisionele Genetiese Algoritme benadering gelewer het.