Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Industrial Engineering]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-789020220001&lang=pt vol. 33 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Note from the editor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>A variable sample size synthetic chart for the coefficient of variation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A variable sample size (VSS) synthetic chart to monitor the coefficient of variation (γ) is proposed in this paper to improve the performance of the existing synthetic χchart. A description of how the chart operates, as well as the formulae for various performance measures (i.e., the average run length (ARL), standard deviation of the run length (SDRL), average sample size (ASS), and expected average run length (EARL)) are proposed. The algorithms that optimise the out-of-control ARL (ARL1) and EARL (EARL1), subject to the constraints in the in-control ARL (ARL0) and ASS (ASS0), are also proposed. Subsequently, optimal charting parameters for various numerical examples are obtained. The proposed chart shows a significant improvement over the existing synthetic γ-chart. Comparisons with other γ-charts also show that the proposed chart performs better than the Shewhart- γand VSS-γcharts under all cases, while showing better performance than the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and VSS EWMA- γ²charts for moderate and large shift sizes. Finally, this paper shows the implementation of the proposed chart on an actual industrial example.<hr/>'n Veranderlike Steekproefgrootte sintetiese grafiek om die variasiekoëffisiënt ( γ) te monitor, word in hierdie artikel voorgestel om die werkverrigting van die bestaande sintetiese grafiek te verbeter. 'n Beskrywing van hoe die grafiek werk, sowel as die formules vir verskeie prestasiemaatstawwe (d.w.s. die gemiddelde lopielengte, standaardafwyking van die lopielengte, gemiddelde steekproefgrootte en verwagte gemiddelde lopielengte) word voorgestel. Die algoritmes wat die buite-beheer gemiddelde lopielengte) en verwagte gemiddelde lopielengte optimeer, onderhewig aan die beperkings in die in-beheer gemiddelde lopielengte en gemiddelde steekproefgrootte, word ook voorgestel. Vervolgens word optimale parameters vir verskeie numeriese voorbeelde verkry. Die voorgestelde grafiek toon 'n aansienlike verbetering teenoor die bestaande sintetiese γgrafiek. Vergelykings met ander χ-grafieke toon ook dat die voorgestelde grafiek beter presteer as die Shewhart- χen Veranderlike Steekproefgrootte- γ²kaarte onder alle gevalle, terwyl dit beter prestasie toon as die eksponensieel geweegde bewegende gemiddelde γ²kaarte vir matige en groot skofgroottes. Ten slotte, hierdie artikel toon die implementering van die voorgestelde grafiek op 'n werklike voorbeeld in die industrie. <![CDATA[<b>Decision support for clinical laboratory test requisition: the utility of ICD-10 coding</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This study examined the possibility of a strong relationship between ICD-10 codes and the panel of clinical laboratory tests requested. Decision-tree learning principles were used to determine whether requisition event attributes had a useful relationship with laboratory tests. A recommender system was designed and tested using ICD-10 codes as a core predictor. The results showed an average requisition accuracy upwards of 74 per cent. If such a system were to be deployed, health professionals would be able to draw from a vast and accessible pool of knowledge when selecting clinical laboratory tests, improving the effectiveness of clinical laboratory operations.<hr/>Hierdie studie het die moontlikheid ondersoek van 'n sterk verband tussen ICD-10-kodes en die paneel kliniese laboratoriumtoetse wat gevra word. Besluitboom-leerbeginsels was gebruik om vas te stel of eienskappe van rekwisisiegebeurtenisse 'n nuttige verband met laboratoriumtoetse gehad het. 'n Aanbevelingstelsel was ontwerp en getoets deur die gebruik van ICD-10-kodes as 'n kernvoorspeller. Die resultate het 'n gemiddelde rekwisisie-akkuraatheid van 74 persent getoon. As so 'n stelsel geïmplementeer word, kan gesondheids-werkers uit 'n wye en toeganklike poel kennis trek wanneer hulle kliniese laboratoriumtoetse moet kies, wat die doeltreffendheid van kliniese laboratorium-bedrywighede sal verbeter. <![CDATA[<b>A literature review on mitigation strategies for electrical component obsolescence in military-based systems</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this research is to conduct an all-inclusive investigation on past studies of obsolescence, the issues involved, and tactics for mitigation in military-based systems. This research investigates four categories: 1. Obsolescence Consequences, 2. Life Cycle Stages and Strategies for Life Cycle Management, 3. Design for Obsolescence and Cost Optimisation, and 4. Management and Tools. A quantitative approach was used to determine the key topics of the 55 articles used in this literature review. A keyword and topic matrix was used to determine the six main areas of concern in current research, and then broken down further into the four categories discussed in this paper. A deep dive into the literature shows that the main areas of concern for obsolescence are cost optimisation, obsolescence management, system life cycle, design/system refresh planning, architecture/open systems, and end-of-life (EOL) predictions. In the EOL predictions category, only one article proposed the idea of machine learning as a forecasting method. This effort suggests a need for a more streamlined management approach to tackling obsolescence. Newer research shows an interest shift from system life cycle management towards forecasting techniques and looking towards future proactive management improvements. This study demonstrates opportunities and challenges for entities dealing with component obsolescence and methods for minimising the issues that go along with it. This paper identifies current practices for obsolescence management, and points to areas for further research development.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie navorsing is 'n allesomvattende ondersoek oor vorige studies van veroudering, sowel die betrokke kwessies en taktiek vir versagting in militêre stelsels. Vier kategorieë word ondersoek: 1. Verouderingsgevolge, 2. Lewensiklusstadia en -strategieë vir lewensiklusbestuur, 3. Ontwerp vir veroudering en koste-optimering, en 4. Bestuur en gereedskap. Met behulp van 'n kwantitatiewe benadering is die sleutelonderwerpe van 55 artikels in die literatuuroorsig bepaal. 'n Sleutelwoord- en onderwerpmatriks is gebruik om ses hoofareas van kommer in huidige navorsing te bepaal, en is dit verder afgebreek in die vier kategorieë wat in hierdie artikel bespreek word. 'n Detail analise in die literatuur toon dat die hoofareas van kommer vir veroudering koste-optimering, verouderingsbestuur, stelsel-lewensiklus, ontwerp /stelselvernuwingsbeplanning, argitektuur/oop stelsels en lewensduur voorspellings is. In die lewensduur-voorspellingskategorie het slegs een artikel masjienleer as 'n voorspellingsmetode voorgestel. Dit dui op 'n behoefte aan 'n meer vaartbelynde bestuursbenadering om veroudering aan te pak. Nuwer navorsing toon dat belangstelling verskuif van stelsellewensiklusbestuur na voorspellingstegnieke en proaktiewe bestuurverbeterings. Hierdie studie demonstreer geleenthede en uitdagings vir entiteite wat te doen het met komponent-veroudering en metodes om die kwessies wat daarmee gepaardgaan, te minimeer. Hierdie artikel identifiseer huidige praktyke vir verouderingsbestuur, en identifiseer areas vir verdere ontwikkeling <![CDATA[<b>Assessing the sustainability of manufacturing processes in the manufacture of transport equipment, based on fuzzy grey relational analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper presents a sustainability assessment of manufacturing processes for transport equipment, using fuzzy grey relational analysis. The metrics or sub-indicators for sustainability indicators and their relative applications in the manufacturing processes are used to create sustainability matrices, which are then compared with an ideal series in order to determine grades for the processes using the grey relational model. Grades in the form of values are determined for the performances of the manufacturing processes of four different kinds of transport equipment. The grades identified manufacturing processes in which the performance of the sustainability indicators could be improved.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bied 'n volhoubaarheidsevaluering van vervaardigings-prosesse vir vervoertoerusting aan, deur gebruik te maak van wasige grys relasionele analise. Die maatstawwe of sub-aanwysers vir volhoubaarheidsaanwysers en hul relatiewe toepassings in die vervaardigingsprosesse word gebruik om volhoubaarheidsmatrikse te skep, wat dan met 'n ideale reeks vergelyk word ten einde grade vir die prosesse te bepaal deur die grys relasionele model te gebruik. Grade in die vorm van waardes word bepaal vir die prestasie van die vervaardigingsprosesse van vier verskillende soorte vervoertoerusting. Die grade het vervaardigingsprosesse geïdentifiseer waar die prestasie van die volhoubaarheidsaanwysers verbeter kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the disconnect between the bodies of literature pertaining to socio-technical transitions and technology management (part 1): a bibliometric analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The purpose of the bibliometric analysis documented in this article is to investigate the degree of overlap or disconnect between the bodies of literature pertaining to technology management and socio-technical transitions. There is a general agreement in the literature that technology has an indispensable role to play in realising the promise of sustainable societies; this paper considers a specific relationship within this technology-social context - namely, the link between technology management and socio-technical transitions. The importance and value of integrating the concepts of technology management and socio-technical transitions have been highlighted in the literature. However, the extent to which these concepts have been considered together and/or the extent to which they are disconnected has not been elucidated. This study thus considers the respective scientific networks, compares them from a number of bibliometric perspectives, and concludes that no concrete evidence of integration or significant similarity in foundational concepts used in both bodies of literature is evident; and so the study further highlights the need for more research efforts that focus on both bodies of knowledge to support and enable efforts to integrate the concepts of technology management and socio-technical transitions.<hr/>Die doel van die bibliometriese analise wat in hierdie artikel gedokumenteer word, is om die mate van oorvleueling of ontkoppeling tussen die liggame van literatuur met betrekking tot tegnologiebestuur en sosio-tegniese oorgange te ondersoek. Daar is 'n algemene ooreenkoms in die literatuur dat tegnologie 'n onontbeerlike rol het om te speel in die verwesenliking van die belofte van volhoubare samelewings; hierdie referaat oorweeg 'n spesifieke verhouding binne hierdie tegnologie-sosiale konteks - naamlik die skakel tussen tegnologiebestuur en sosio-tegniese oorgange. Die belangrikheid en waarde van die integrasie van die konsepte van tegnologiebestuur en sosio-tegniese oorgange is in die literatuur uitgelig. Die mate waarin hierdie begrippe saam oorweeg is en/of die mate waarin hulle ontkoppel is, is egter nie toegelig nie. Hierdie studie oorweeg dus die onderskeie wetenskaplike netwerke, vergelyk hulle vanuit 'n aantal bibliometriese perspektiewe, en kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat geen konkrete bewyse van integrasie of betekenisvolle ooreenkoms in grondbeginsels wat in beide literatuurliggame gebruik word, duidelik is nie; en so beklemtoon die studie verder die behoefte aan meer navorsingspogings wat op beide kennisliggame fokus om pogings te ondersteun en moontlik te maak om die konsepte van tegnologiebestuur en sosio-tegniese oorgange te integreer. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the disconnect between the bodies of literature pertaining to socio-technical transitions and technology management (part 2): a linkage analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The importance and value of integrating the concepts of technology management with that in the socio-technical transitions literature has been highlighted in the literature. However, a disconnect still exists between these two bodies of literature. Therefore, this series of two papers investigates this disconnect from two perspectives. Part 1 investigates the disconnect by means of a bibliometric analysis that highlights the limited overlap and integration between technology management and socio-technical transitions. This paper, Part 2, enriches the investigation with a systematic and in-depth exploration of the literature bases used by the respective bodies of literature to gain additional insights into the level of integration (or the lack of it) between the socio-technical transitions literature and that on technology management. Similar to Part 1, this paper also finds that, even though these two fields are not integrated from a conceptual or theoretical perspective, it is evident that, to some extent, they share scholarly roots.<hr/>Die belangrikheid en waarde van die integrasie van die konsepte van tegnologiebestuur met dié in die sosio-tegniese oorgangsliteratuur is in die literatuur uitgelig. Daar bestaan egter steeds 'n skeiding tussen hierdie twee literatuurliggame. Daarom ondersoek hierdie reeks van twee artikels hierdie ontkoppeling vanuit twee perspektiewe. Deel 1 ondersoek die ontkoppeling deur middel van 'n bibliometriese analise wat die beperkte oorvleueling en integrasie tussen tegnologiebestuur en sosio-tegniese oorgange uitlig. Hierdie referaat, Deel 2, verryk die ondersoek met 'n sistematiese en diepgaande verkenning van die literatuurbasisse wat deur die onderskeie literatuurliggame gebruik word om bykomende insigte te verkry oor die vlak van integrasie (of die gebrek daaraan) tussen die sosio-tegniese oorgange literatuur en dit oor tegnologiebestuur. Soortgelyk aan Deel 1, vind hierdie referaat ook dat, al is hierdie twee velde nie geïntegreer vanuit 'n konseptuele of teoretiese perspektief nie, dit duidelik is dat hulle tot 'n mate wetenskaplike wortels deel. <![CDATA[<b>Selection process for an automated storage system: a unison framework approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt An automated storage system (ASS) is a computer-controlled warehousing system that is used to manage and automatically pick and place parts/goods. A good automated storage system can maximise space and shorten shipments' response time, thereby helping the company to adapt quickly to an ever-changing market. For many enterprises there is also an urgent need to establish and install ASS. However, many companies find it difficult to design and install the right ASS. Many considerations need to be examined in choosing a suitable ASS, given their various capacities and capabilities. This study aimed to employ the UNISON framework to present a comprehensive model for selecting the most suitable ASS. It identified two fundamental objectives in the ASS selection process: (1 ) choosing the most suitable design for ASS; (2) choosing the most competent vendor to build and implement the ASS. This study then broke the fundamental objectives down into more detailed mean objectives and attributes. After defining the mean objectives and attributes, the study created a key performance indicator to assess the selection process. An empirical study was conducted among small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in Taiwan to validate the proposed framework. A qualitative study was then developed by interviewing three related stakeholders - the vice president, the head of the production department, and the senior engineer - to support the identification process in selecting and implementing the ASS. From this case study, we found that our ASS selection model showed good practical viability.<hr/>'n Outomatiese bergingstelsel (ASS) is 'n rekenaarbeheerde pakhuisstelsel wat gebruik word om onderdele/goedere te bestuur en outomaties te kies en te plaas. 'n Goeie outomatiese bergingstelsel kan ruimte maksimeer en verskepings se reaksietyd verkort, en sodoende die maatskappy help om vinnig aan te pas by 'n steeds veranderende mark. Vir baie ondernemings is daar ook 'n dringende behoefte om ASS te vestig en te installeer. Baie maatskappye vind dit egter moeilik om die regte ASS te ontwerp en te installeer. Baie oorwegings moet ondersoek word by die keuse van 'n geskikte ASS, gegewe hul verskillende deursette en vermoëns. Hierdie studie het ten doel gehad om die UNISON-raamwerk te gebruik om 'n omvattende model aan te bied vir die keuse van die mees geskikte ASS. Dit het twee fundamentele doelwitte in die ASS-seleksieproses geïdentifiseer: (1 ) die keuse van die mees geskikte ontwerp vir ASS; (2) die keuse van die mees bekwame verkoper om die ASS te bou en te implementeer. Hierdie studie het dan die fundamentele doelwitte opgebreek in meer gedetailleerde gemiddelde doelwitte en eienskappe. Nadat die gemiddelde doelwitte en eienskappe gedefinieer is, het die studie 'n sleutelprestasie-aanwyser geskep om die keuringsproses te assesseer. 'n Empiriese studie is onder klein en mediumgrootte ondernemings (KMO) in Taiwan gedoen om die voorgestelde raamwerk te bekragtig. 'n Kwalitatiewe studie is toe ontwikkel deur onderhoude te voer met drie verwante belanghebbendes - die Vizepresident, die hoof van die produksiedepartement en die senior ingenieur - om die identifikasieproses te ondersteun in die keuse en implementering van die ASS. Uit hierdie gevallestudie het ons gevind dat ons ASS-seleksiemodel goeie praktiese lewensvatbaarheid getoon het. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of forecasting methods to reduce the margin of error in electronic component sales</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt International competition in the electronic market requires that organisations use their resources not only to manufacture high quality components, but also to adopt or develop appropriate sales forecasting methods that could adapt to their needs and guarantee their economic development. From an industrial engineering perspective, keeping balanced orders and healthy safety stocks is required for such organisations. These two metrics play a significant role in their economic growth and development, because any disruption results in high costs throughout their manufacturing processes. Thus significant resources are spent by these organisations to develop information systems and logistics skills in order to implement more reliable and precise sales forecasting methods. Nevertheless, planners and forecasters constantly face different challenges such as sudden demand changes, seasonality, products with a short life cycle, a lack of historical data, and swings in the world economy. The objective of this research is to determine the most convenient demand forecasting method for the manufacturers of electronic devices that target a specific market. Twenty-seven months of sales data were analysed and different quantitative forecasting methods were tested and analysed using statistical tools. From the results obtained, the combined forecasting method appeared to be the most suitable since the least amount of forecasting error is obtained when this method is applied. The results of this research could be adopted by other companies to forecast the future sales of any items with a similar pattern to that used in our study. This has significant implications for their decision-making processes and inventory planning.<hr/>Internasionale mededinging in die elektroniese mark vereis dat organisasies hul hulpbronne nie net gebruik om komponente van hoë gehalte te vervaardig nie, maar ook om toepaslike metodes om verkope te voorspel aan te neem of te ontwikkel wat by hul behoeftes aanpas en ekonomiese ontwikkeling kan waarborg. Vanuit 'n bedryfsingenieurswese-perspektief is die hou van gebalanseerde bestellings en gesonde buffer voorraad vir sulke organisasies nodig. Hierdie twee maatstawwe speel 'n beduidende rol in hul ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling, want enige ontwrigting lei tot hoë koste regdeur hul vervaardigingsprosesse. Beduidende hulpbronne word dus deur hierdie organisasies bestee om inligtingstelsels en logistieke vaardighede te ontwikkel ten einde meer betroubare en presiese verkope voorspellingsmetodes te implementeer. Nietemin staar beplanners en voorspellers voortdurend verskillende uitdagings in die gesig, soos skielike vraagveranderinge, seisoenaliteit, produkte met 'n kort lewensiklus, 'n gebrek aan historiese data en siklusse in die wêreldekonomie. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om die mees gerieflike metode vir die voorspelling van vraag te bepaal vir die vervaardigers van elektroniese toestelle wat 'n spesifieke mark teiken. Sewe-en-twintig maande se verkopedata is ontleed en verskillende kwantitatiewe voorspellingsmetodes is met behulp van statistiese instrumente getoets en ontleed. Uit die resultate wat verkry is, het die gekombineerde voorspellingsmetode die geskikste geblyk te wees aangesien die kleinste voorspellingsfout verkry word wanneer hierdie metode toegepas word. Die resultate van hierdie navorsing kan deur ander maatskappye aangeneem word om die toekomstige verkope van enige items met 'n soortgelyke patroon as wat in ons studie gebruik is, te voorspel. Dit het beduidende implikasies vir hul besluitnemingsprosesse en voorraadbeplanning. <![CDATA[<b>Research on module partition for remanufacturing parts to be assembled</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt To solve the technical, economic and environmental problems in the remanufacturing process of decommissioned machine tools, this study proposes a module partition method for remanufacturing retired machine tools. Through an analysis of the economic, accuracy, environment-friendly, and functional and physical interactivity principles, this study applies the fuzzy cluster method (FCM) to analyse the modularity of the components to be assembled. It establishes the correlation matrix between the parts, from which a module division scheme is obtained. Finally, a case study is presented to verify the feasibility of the module division method.<hr/>Om die tegniese, ekonomiese en omgewingsprobleme in die hervervaardigingsproses van masjiengereedskap wat buite gebruik geraak het, op te los, stel hierdie studie 'n moduleverdelingsmetode voor vir die hervervaardiging van sulke masjiengereedskap. Deur 'n ontleding van die ekonomiese, akkuraatheid, omgewingsvriendelike en funksionele en fisiese interaktiwiteitsbeginsels, pas hierdie studie die "fuzzy cluster" metode (FCM) toe om die modulariteit van die komponente wat saamgestel moet word, te analiseer. Dit bepaal die korrelasiematriks tussen die dele, waaruit 'n module-verdelingskema verkry word. Ten slotte word 'n gevallestudie aangebied om die uitvoerbaarheid van die module-indelingsmetode te verifieer. <![CDATA[<b>An investigation of the effect of the ISO 9001 quality management system on small and medium enterprises in Gauteng, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The implementation of quality management systems (QMS) is central to the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). At present, there is a lack of information about the level of adoption and implementation of QMS by SMEs in Gauteng Province, even though that province has the highest number of SMEs in South Africa (SA). This study therefore aims to investigate the effect of the ISO 9001 QMS on SMEs in Gauteng. Quantitative research was conducted, and an online survey was used to collect data. An inferential statistical data analysis involving the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used to analyse the collected data. The chi-square and Fischer's exact tests were applied to validate the statistical significance of four hypotheses. The inferential analysis showed that there is a relationship between ISO 9001 implementation and SMEs' sustainability, as well as a direct relationship between the implementation of ISO 9001 and the performance, growth, and life span of SMEs in Gauteng Province. In addition, the results indicated that 64 per cent of the surveyed SMEs are aware ISO 9001, while 36 per cent of SMEs were not aware of QMS. The survey indicated that SMEs face several challenges, such as the ineffective implementation of QMS, poor funding, a low level of human capacity development, a lack of adequate resources, poor working environment, and poor work organisation, a lack of necessary materials, and the use of inappropriate work methods. It is envisaged that, if a culture of QMS were to be adopted and implemented by SMEs, there would probably be an improvement in operational efficiency, leading to improved customer satisfaction and increased turnover and profitability.<hr/>Die implementering van kwaliteitsbestuurstelsels (QMS) is sentraal tot die prestasie van klein en medium ondernemings (KMO's). Tans is daar 'n gebrek aan inligting oor die vlak van aanvaarding en implementering van KMO's deur KMO's in Gauteng Provinsie, alhoewel daardie provinsie die hoogste aantal KMO's in Suid-Afrika (SA) het. Hierdie studie het dus ten doel om die effek van die ISO 9001 QMS op KMO's in Gauteng te ondersoek. Kwantitatiewe navorsing is gedoen, en 'n aanlyn opname is gebruik om data in te samel. 'n Inferensiële statistiese data-analise wat die Statistiese Pakket vir die Sosiale Wetenskappe (SPSS) sagteware behels, is gebruik om die versamelde data te analiseer. Die chi-square en Fischer se presiese toetse is toegepas om die statistiese betekenis van vier hipoteses te bekragtig. Die Inferensiële analise het getoon dat daar 'n verband is tussen ISO 9001 implementering en KMO's se volhoubaarheid, asook 'n direkte verband tussen die implementering van ISO 9001 en die prestasie, groei en lewensduur van KMO's in Gauteng Provinsie. Daarbenewens het die resultate aangedui dat 64 persent van die opname se KMO's bewus is van ISO 9001, terwyl 36 persent van KMO's nie bewus was van KMO's nie. Die opname het aangedui dat KMO's verskeie uitdagings in die gesig staar, soos die ondoeltreffende implementering van QMS, swak befondsing, 'n lae vlak van menslike kapasiteitsontwikkeling, 'n gebrek aan voldoende hulpbronne, swak werksomgewing en swak werksorganisasie, 'n gebrek aan nodige materiaal en die gebruik van onvanpaste werksmetodes. Daar word voorsien dat, indien 'n kuituur van QMS deur KMO's aangeneem en geïmplementeer sou word, daar waarskynlik 'n verbetering in bedryfsdoeltreffendheid sou wees, wat lei tot verbeterde kliëntetevredenheid en verhoogde omset en winsgewendheid. <![CDATA[<b>Selecting a public service delivery assessment tool for South Africa: an application of the AHP method</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Many service delivery performance assessment (SDPA) tools exist globally that address the need to measure actual performance against pre-defined standards and to take corrective action to improve service delivery. The purpose of this paper is to guide the selection of the most appropriate SDPA tool for South Africa. Given the overwhelming civic unrest linked to public service performance levels, a solution is needed urgently. This study therefore presents a scientific approach to the process of deciding on a shortlist of off-the-shelf solutions, based on the criteria of effectiveness, project, and technical, so that a decision on the most appropriate tool for South Africa can be made on the basis of the synthesised results and a sensitivity analysis. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used, and the performance journey mapping (PJM) tool has been selected on the basis of criteria and sub-criteria that were also validated for their practicality.<hr/>Baie diensleweringsprestasie-evaluering (SDPA)-instrumente bestaan wêreldwyd wat die behoefte aanspreek om werklike prestasie teen voorafbepaalde standaarde te meet en om regstellende stappe te neem om dienslewering te verbeter. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die keuse van die mees geskikte SDPA-instrument vir Suid-Afrika te lei. Gegewe die oorweldigende burgerlike onrus gekoppel aan staatsdiensprestasievlakke, is 'n oplossing dringend nodig. Hierdie studie bied dus 'n wetenskaplike benadering tot die proses om te besluit op 'n kortlys van kommersieel beskikbare oplossings, gebaseer op die kriteria van doeltreffendheid, projek en tegnies, sodat 'n besluit oor die mees geskikte hulpmiddel vir Suid-Afrika geneem kan word op grond van die gesintetiseerde resultate en 'n sensitiwiteitsanalise. Die analitiese hiërargieproses (AHP) word gebruik, en die prestasiereiskartering-instrument (PJM) is gekies op grond van kriteria en subkriteria wat ook vir hul praktiese toepassing bekragtig is. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring relationship power in supply chain sustainability practices: a case study of a South African hospital group</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Buyers and suppliers of healthcare products and services are more dependent on each other than ever before for the provision of scarce and unique resources, which highlights the need to implement supply chain sustainability practices. Firms controlling these resources hold excessive power over others. This study adopted resource dependence theory as a theoretical lens to explore the role of relationship power in supply chain sustainability practices between a South African private healthcare provider and its suppliers. The study employed a generic qualitative singlecase study design. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from 12 participants at various levels of the case organisation's hierarchy. The main findings revealed several types of environmental and social practice used in the supply chain of the private healthcare provider. Some of the environmental practices were effective waste management and recycling, while the social practices included supplier selection and periodic reviews. The healthcare provider exercised extensive power over its suppliers to implement these practices. By exploring the advantages and disadvantages of sustainability practices, the findings showed that relationship power acted as a driver of supply chain sustainability. Mutual commitment, continuous communication, and training support these practices. Healthcare managers must be aware of the importance of relationship power for supply chain sustainability practices implementation, and are advised to invest time and effort in building buyer-supplier relationships to aid sustainability. This study expands the literature on relationship power in supply chain sustainability practices in an underexplored developing country healthcare context.<hr/>Kopers en verskaffers van gesondheidsorgprodukte en -dienste is meer afhanklik van mekaar as tevore vir die voorsiening van skaars en unieke hulpbronne wat die implementering van voorsieningsketting-volhoubaarheidspraktyke aanspoor. Maatskappye wat hierdie hulpbronne beheer het buitensporige mag oor ander. Hierdie studie het hulpbronafhanklikheidsteorie as 'n teoretiese lens gebruik om die rol van verhoudingsmag in voorsieningsketting volhoubaarheidspraktyke tussen 'n Suid-Afrikaanse private gesondheidsorgverskaffer en sy leweransiers te ondersoek. Semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude was uitgevoer om data in te samel van 12 individue op verskeie vlakke van die gevallestudie onderneming se hierargie. Die studie het verskeie soorte omgewings- en sosiale praktyke geïdentifiseer. Van die geïdentifiseerde omgewingspraktyke is sluit effektiewe afvalbestuur en herwinning in, terwyl sosiale praktyke leweransier selektering en gereëlde hersienning ingesluit het. Die studie toon dat die groep mag uitoefen oor sy leweransiers om voorsieningskettingbestuur-volhoubaarheidspraktyke te implementeer. Die resultate van die studie dui aan dat verhoudingsmag 'n drywer van hierdie praktyke is. Gemeenskaplike getrouheid, voordurende kommunikasie, en opleiding ondersteun die praktyke. Gesondheidsorg bestuurders moet bewus wees van hoe belangrik verhoudingsmag vir hierdie praktyke se implementering is. Daar moet tyd belê word in die bou van koper-en-leweransier verhoudings om by te dra tot volhoubaarheid. Hierdie studie brei die literatuur rakende verhoudingskrag in voorsieningskettingvolhoubaarheidspraktyke uit in 'n onderontginde ontwikkelende land gesondheidsorgkonteks <![CDATA[<b>The identification and selection of an optimised maintenance strategy for conveyor systems used in the transportation of bulk materials: a case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In recent years an increased number of conveyor failures has been experienced in a port in South Africa, which has directly impacted revenue through unachieved handling volumes. This research aimed to use conveyor failure data to: 1) review and identify the effects of the existing maintenance approach, 2) highlight failure causes and consequences, and 3) determine the most suitable optimised maintenance strategy for conveyors that would reduce failures, thereby reducing downtime and loss of revenue. The results indicated that the current maintenance initiatives were directly linked to conveyor the failures and to cargo being changed without a design verification of the infrastructure. The research has provided useful insights that could lead to fault-finding activities with equipment that is not achieving its design life and, in particular, conveyor belting that has been failing prematurely. Further investigations are required to verify the design of the existing infrastructure in handling the changed cargoes. In addition, the research has shown that condition-monitoring devices will aid in co-ordinating maintenance actions and responses. It also recommended that training plans be updated to ensure that staff are up-to-date with existing maintenance practices before they use the optimised maintenance approach. In summary, this research study has provided essential results and recommendations to warrant the use of an optimised maintenance strategy on conveyor systems, particularly in the port of concern.<hr/>Daar is onlangs 'n toenemende aantal vervoerbandfoute in 'n hawe in Suid-Afrika ondervind, wat inkomste direk beïnvloed het deur hanteringsvolumes wat nie bevredig kon word nie. Hierdie navorsing het ten doel gehad om vervoerbandfalingsdata te gebruik om: 1) die gevolge van die bestaande instandhoudingsbenadering te hersien en te identifiseer, 2) oorsake en gevolge van faling uit te lig, en 3) die mees geskikte geoptimeerde instandhoudingstrategie vir vervoerbande te bepaal wat falings sal verminder, en sodoende stilstand en verlies aan inkomste te verminder. Die resultate het aangedui dat die huidige instandhoudingsinisiatiewe direk gekoppel is aan die foute van die vervoerband en aan vrag wat verander word sonder 'n ontwerpverifikasie van die infrastruktuur. Die navorsing het nuttige insigte verskaf wat kan lei tot foutopsporingsaktiwiteite met toerusting wat nie ontwerpleeftyd bereik nie en veral vervoerbande wat voortydig onklaar geraak het. Verdere ondersoeke word vereis om die ontwerp van die bestaande infrastruktuur in die hantering van die veranderde vragte te verifieer. Daarbenewens het die navorsing getoon dat toestandmoniteringstoestelle sal help om instandhoudingsaksies en -reaksies te koördineer. Dit is ook aanbeveel dat opleidingsplanne bygewerk word om te verseker dat personeel op hoogte is van bestaande instandhoudingspraktyke voordat hulle die optimum instandhoudingsbenadering gebruik. Samevattend, hierdie navorsingstudie het noodsaaklike resultate en aanbevelings verskaf om die gebruik van 'n optimum instandhoudingstrategie op vervoerbandstelsels te regverdig, veral in die kommerwekkende hawe. <![CDATA[<b>Application of lean six sigma to a small enterprise in the Gauteng province: a case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902022000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The quest to improve customer satisfaction is one of the core aims of businesses in the competitive global market. This paper aims to apply the principles of Lean Six Sigma for continuous improvement in a small enterprise in the service industry in South Africa. A case study approach was used to carry out the investigation using the Lean Six Sigma 'define measure analyze improve and control' (DMAIC) approach. Data collection was done in a face-to-face interview and brainstorming session with the business owner and consultants. Observations and a time study were also used to collect additional data. The results showed a lack of knowledge and awareness of Lean Six Sigma among the business owner and the consultants. The commitment to and engagement of management in the project contributed positively to the implementation of the DMAIC approach. The process improvement changes were applied over a period of three months, after which the process performance was reviewed. The case study resulted in a 60.3% reduction in total non-value-added time and an increase in both the value-added time (53.85%) and the amount of uptime (10.74%). Furthermore, downtime was also reduced (47.7%). This study shows that the application of the Lean Six Sigma tool could solve the challenges of productivity and waste in a bookkeeping and tax consulting SME in the Gauteng province with a direct implication for operational efficiency and customers' satisfaction.<hr/>Die strewe om kliëntetevredenheid te verbeter is een van die kerndoelwitte van besighede in die mededingende globale mark. Hierdie artikel het ten doel om die beginsels van "Lean Six Sigma" toe te pas vir voortdurende verbetering in 'n klein onderneming in die dienste sektor in Suid-Afrika. 'n Gevallestudiebenadering is gebruik om die ondersoek te doen deur middel van "Lean Six Sigma" se DMAIC ('definieer meet, analiseer, verbeter en beheer) benadering. Data-insameling is gedoen in persoonlike onderhoude en dinkskrumsessie met die besigheidseienaar en konsultante. Waarnemings en 'n tydstudies is ook gebruik om bykomende data in te samel. Die resultate het 'n gebrek aan kennis en bewustheid van "Lean Six Sigma" onder die sake-eienaar en die konsultante getoon. Die verbintenis tot en betrokkenheid van bestuur by die projek het positief bygedra tot die implementering van die DMAIC-benadering. Die prosesverbeteringsveranderinge is oor 'n tydperk van drie maande toegepas, waarna die prestasie weer evalueer is. Die gevallestudie het gelei tot 'n vermindering van 60,3% in totale nie-waarde-toegevoegde tyd en 'n toename in beide die waardetoegevoegde tyd (53,85%) en die beskikbaarheid (10,74%). Verder is onbeskikbaarheid ook verminder (47,7%). Hierdie studie toon dat die toepassing van "Lean Six Sigma"- die uitdagings van produktiwiteit en vermorsing in 'n boekhou- en belastingkonsultasie-"SME" in die Gauteng provinsie kan oplos met 'n direkte verbetering vir bedryfsdoeltreffendheid en klante se tevredenheid.