Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Industrial Engineering]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-789020180004&lang=en vol. 29 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Note from the editor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment implementation: A case study of a major grocery retailer in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this study was to investigate the key factors that affect the implementation of collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR). A single case study method was adopted, examining a critical case in the South African grocery retail sector. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data. The study confirmed five of the six key factors affecting CPFR implementation that have been identified in the literature. Two new key factors, business understanding and a common goal, were identified. The study also determined the framework that the focal firm used to implement CPFR. The findings aid supply chain managers in understanding and leveraging the key factors that affect the successful implementation of CPFR. The framework can be used for benchmarking and guiding managers through the process of implementing CPFR.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie studie was om die belangrike faktore wat die implementering van gesamentlike beplanning, vooruitskatting, en aanvulling (GBVA) beïnvloed te ondersoek. 'n Enkele gevallestudie metode was gebruik om 'n kritieke geval binne die Suid-Afrikaanse kruideniersware kleinhandelsektor te ondersoek. Semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude was uitgevoer om data in te samel. Die studie het vyf van die ses belangrikste faktore bevestig wat GBVA implementering beïnvloed, soos wat vervat is in die literatuur. Twee nuwe sleutel faktore, besigheidsbegrip en 'n gemeenskaplike doel, was geïdentifiseer. Die studie het ook die raamwerk bepaal wat die firma gebruik het om GBVA te implementeer. Die studie bemagtig voorsieningskettingbestuurders om die belangrikste faktore wat die suksesvolle implementering van GBVA beïnvloed te verstaan en te benut. Die raamwerk kan help om 'n normtoets te stel en bestuurders te lei deur die proses van die GBVA implementering. <![CDATA[<b>Early fault detection of elevators using remote condition monitoring through IoT technology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Remote condition monitoring (RCM) of machines seeks to enhance proactive maintenance through just-in-time responses to machine faults and process deterioration. This approach offers the benefit of reduced manning of machines and robust joint maintenance decisions, due to remote access to the machines' condition. This paper employs a remote condition monitoring approach to two elevator parameters, vibration and machine room-temperature, using an Internet of Things (loT) device for remote data acquisition and remote fault indication. A remote monitoring set-up was developed that uses augmented sensors, networked connections, and an Arduino Yun microcontroller installed on the elevator system to monitor remotely any deterioration in its working condition. The set-up was configured to monitor the conditions online remotely through an email application service. The data from the email were analysed, and notifications were generated at the machine's severity level. The result showed that RCM enables faster repair and maintenance decisions, prevents the catastrophic breakdown of machines, and serves as a troubleshooting guide for fault diagnosis.<hr/>Afstand toestand monitering van masjiene poog om proaktiewe onderhoud te verbeter deur net-in-tyd reaksie op masjienfoute en prosesagteruitgang te bewerkstellig. Hierdie benadering bied die voordeel van verminderde toerusting bemanning en robuuste gesamentlike onderhoud besluite as gevolg van afgeleë toegang tot die toerusting se toestand. Hierdie artikel verskaf 'n afstand toestand moniteringbenadering van twee hysbak parameters, naamlik vibrasie en masjienkamertemperatuur deur 'n internet-van-dinge toestel vir afstand dataverkryging en afstand fout aanduiding. ' Afstand moniteringopstelling, bestaande uit versterkte sensors netwerkverbindings en ' Arduino Yun mikro-beheerder, is geïnstalleer op die hysbakstelsel om enige agteruitgang in die werkende toestand te monitor. Die opstelling is gekonfigureer om die toestand oor 'n afstand te monitor. Die opstelling is gekoppel deur ' e-pos toepassing. Die e-pos data is ontleed en kennisgewings gegenereer op grond van die erns van die toerusting se toestand. Die resultaat toon dat toestand monitering oor ' afstand vinniger herstel- en instandhoudings-besluite moontlik maak, katastrofiese faling van die toerusting voorkom en ook dien as 'n probleemoplossingsgids vir foutbespeuring. <![CDATA[<b>Factors that contribute to the use of modularisation in the automotive industry: A survey in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article aims to verify factors that can contribute to the use of modularisation in the Brazilian automotive industry through a survey methodology, using principal component analysis and structural equation modelling by partial least squares as techniques. We found three types of factors appearing as drivers or precursors of a formal strategy of modularisation: the use and knowledge of individual non-integrated aspects of modularisation, such as modular architecture; the introduction of competition differentials focusing mainly on cost reduction and increase in flexibility, quality, and dependability; and the existence of a business environment prone to innovation. The main conclusion is that elements of modularisation in the design and the need to meet customers' requirements have much more influence in stimulating a formal, articulated modularisation strategy than a business environment prone to innovation.<hr/>Hierdie artikel het as doelstelling die verifiëring van faktore wat kan bydra tot die gebruik van modularisering in die Brasiliaanse voertuig industrie. 'n Peilingsmetodologie, wat van vernaamste komponent-analise en strukturele vergelykingmodellering deur parsiële minste vierkante gebruik maak, word hiervoor gebruik. Drie soorte faktore is identifiseer as die voorlopers van 'n formele strategie vir modularisering, naamlik: die gebruik en kennis van individuele, nie-geïntegreerde aspekte van modularisering, soos modulêre argitektuur, die bekendstelling van kompetisie onderskeidings wat hoofsaaklik fokus op kostebesparing en 'n toename in buigsaamheid, gehalte en betroubaarheid, en die bestaan van 'n besigheidsomgewing geneig tot innovasie. Die gevolgtrekking is dat elemente van modularisering in die ontwerp en die behoefte om kliënte se versoeke te bevredig n groter invloed het in die stimulasie van n formele, geartikuleerde modularisering strategie as die besigheidsomgewing wat neig tot innovasie. <![CDATA[<b>Improving the operations performance of a chemotherapy clinic: A two-phase approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The increasing number of cancer patients, coupled with the development and use of new, efficient medications, has increased the demand for cancer service care. Outpatient chemotherapy clinics (OCCs) are complex facilities, due to the large variability in treatment durations resulting from different cancer types and chemotherapy protocols under limited resources. In this paper we address the operations planning problem encountered by OCCs, of optimally assigning the first days of treatment for a set of new patients in tandem with the presence of existing patients. We propose a two-phase approach to optimise the start days of a set of new patients. In the first stage, a system dynamics (SD) simulation model, adapted from the literature, is used to find the critical days for the new patients - i.e., the upper bounds by which patients must begin treatment. The optimal start days are then determined using a new mixed-integer programming (MIP) model. The results show that the optimal start days can be effectively prioritised and evaluated using simulation and mathematical programming.<hr/>Die toenemende aantal kankerpasiënte, gepaardgaande met die ontwikkeling en gebruik van nuwe, doeltreffende medisyne, het die vraag vir kankerversorging verhoog. Buitepasiënt chemoterapie-klinieke is ingewikkelde fasiliteite as gevolg van die wye verskeidenheid van kanker tipes en behandelingsprotokolle wat onderhewig is aan beperkte hulpbronne. Hierdie artikel adresseer die bedryfsbeplanningprobleem wat deur hierdie klinieke ervaar word. Hierdie probleem sluit in die optimale toedienning van die aanvanklike behandeling aan nuwe pasiënte in tandem met die teenwoordigheid van bestaande pasiënte. 'n Tweeledige benadering is voorgestel om die begindae van 'n groep nuwe pasiënte se behandeling te optimiseer. In die eerste stadium word 'n sisteemdinamika simulasiemodel, wat uit bestaande literatuur aangepas is, gebruik om die kritiese dae vir die nuwe pasiënte te bepaal, met ander woorde die laaste geleentheid wanneer 'n nuwe pasiënt met behandeling moet begin. Die optimale begindae word dan bepaal met 'n gemengde heelgetalprogrammeringsmodel. Die resultate toon dat die optimale begindae effektief geprioritiseer en evalueer kan word deur middel van simulasie en wiskundige programmering. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of acetone as a post-production finishing technique on entry-level material extrusion part quality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Entry-level material extrusion artefacts persistently suffer from questionable weakened end-product production quality, according to industrial standards. These limitations can be addressed by the development of improved finishing techniques that may narrow the gap between low-cost and high-end production methods in additive manufacturing. In doing so, the technology may become available to a larger spectrum of prosumers who previously were reluctant to use entry-level technology because of these limitations. This article describes the effect that acetone has as a post-production finishing technique for low-cost artefact production. Through a series of quantitative investigations, the study provides evidence that acetone reduces the tensile strength, increases polymer ductility, and significantly reduces the surface profile roughness of thermoplastics such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The potential cost and waste reduction for entry-level manufactured products can then be identified.<hr/>Intreevlak materiaal ekstrusie modelle word tans, volgens industriële standaarde, deur verswakte eindproduk produksie-kwaliteit benadeel. Hierdie tekortkominge kan deur die ontwikkeling van verbeterde afwerkingstegnieke aangespreek word. Sodoende kan die gaping tussen intree- en hoë-vlak laagvervaardiging vernou word. Meer gebruikers wat voorheen onwillig was om die tegnologie as gevolg van tekortkominge te gebruik, kan nou toegang verkry daartoe. Die artikel bespreek die impak wat asetoon as post-produksie afrondingsmiddel vir lae-koste produksie kan bewerkstellig. Deur 'n reeks kwantitatiewe ondersoeke bewys die artikel dat asetoon die treksterkte van akrylonitrilbutadienestyrene (ABS) verswak, die polimeriseer-baarheid daarvan versterk, en die oppervlak profiel ruheid drasties verminder. Potensiële koste en afvalvermindering kan dus hierdeur vir intreevlak vervaardigde produkte geïdentifiseer word. <![CDATA[<b>An assessment of the innovativeness of firms in Nigeria's petroleum sector</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A firm's level of innovativeness is regarded as an indicator of its creativity, competitiveness, and performance. An understanding of the processes that lead to innovativeness is therefore crucial to scholars and practitioners. This makes innovativeness assessment a necessity, especially for firms. Perplexingly, there are few innovativeness studies on resource-intensive industrial sectors, such as petroleum, in African countries. This paper is a contribution to filling the knowledge gap. The study used item means to analyse data from a cross-sectional survey. The findings show that, while overall the petroleum firms were barely innovative, they performed better in terms of the non-technological aspects of innovativeness.<hr/>'n Firma se vlak van innovasie word as 'n aanduiding van sy kreatiwiteit, kompeterendheid en vertoning geag. Die begrip van die prosesse wat lei tot innovasie is dus krities vir navorsers en praktisyne. Dit maak innovasie assessering 'n noodsaaklikheid, veral vir firmas. Tog is daar min studies wat die innovasievlak in hulpbron intensiewe industrieë, soos die petroleum-industrie, in Afrika. Hierdie artikel probeer om dié leemte aan te spreek. Die studie het data van 'n deursnitpeiling gebruik en die bevindinge toon dat, alhoewel petroleumfirmas beswaarlik innoverend was, hulle beter gevaar het in terme van die nie-tegnologiese fasette van innovasie. <![CDATA[<b>The factors that affect public participation for effective municipal service delivery: A case of ward committees</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study sought to determine the factors that affect public participation (PP) for effective municipal service delivery by interviewing ward committee members in the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality in South Africa. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and factor analysis and structural equation modelling were done. Seven factors were grouped as (1) facilitation of service delivery (SD) factors (i.e., public participation; accountability and transparency; people centeredness; communication; gender representation; and healthy relationships) and (2) factors that impede service delivery (i.e., power struggles). Region, race, and knowledge of the Batho Pele principles determined the perception of SD. The facilitation factors of PP for effective SD should be encouraged, while power struggles must be minimised for effective SD in South Africa.<hr/>Hierdie studie het gepoog om die faktore wat die publiek se deelname in munisipale dienslewering bepaal deur onderhoude met raadslede in die Ekurhuleni Metropool Stadsraad in Suid-Afrika te voer. Data is versamel deur 'n gedeeltelik gestruktureerde meningspeiling. Daarmee saam is faktoranalise en strukturele vergelykingsmodellering uitgevoer. Sewe faktore is saam gegroepeer as (1) diensleweringfasiliteringsfaktore (die publiek se deelname, aanspreeklikheid en deursigtigheid, mens-gesentreerdheid, kommunikasie, geslag verteenwoordiging en gesonde verhoudings) en (2) faktore wat dienslewering belemmer (magstryde). Gebied, ras en kennis van die Batho Pele-beginsels het die persepsie van dienslewering bepaal. Die fasiliteringfaktore van die publiek se deelname vir doeltreffende dienslewering moet aangemoedig word, terwyl magstryde geminimeer moet word vir effektiewe dienslewering in Suid-Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>Titanium powders used in powder bed fusion: Their relevance to respiratory health</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study aimed to characterise three titanium powders used in powder bed fusion in terms of particle size, shape, and elemental composition for comparison with safety data sheet (SDS) information, and their relevance to additive manufacturing (AM) operators' respiratory health. Thoracic (< 10 μm) and respirable (< 4 μm) particles were present in the virgin and used powders. If inhaled, these particles have the potential to cause adverse health effects. Discrepancies in particle size and elemental composition compared with what was declared in the SDSs were found. The SDSs provided insufficient information, which places AM operators' health at risk. Recommendations for promoting AM operator health are provided.<hr/>Hierdie studie se doel was om titaanpoeiers wat tydens poeierlaagsamesmelting gebruik word te karakteriseer volgens partikel grootte, vorm, en materiaal element samestelling vir vergelyking met 'n veiligheidsdatavel (VDV) en die relevansie daarvan op die respiratoriese gesondheid van die additiewe vervaardigingsoperateur. Torakale (< 10 μm) en respireerbare (< 4 μm) partikels was in nuwe en herbruikte poeiers teenwoordig, en indien ingeasem word kan dit tot ongewensde gesond-heidseffekte lei. Teenstrydighede is in die partikel groottes en element samestelling teenoor wat in die VDV'e verklaar word, gevind. VDV'e verskaf nie genoegsame inligting nie, en hou dus 'n gesondheidsrisiko vir die operateur in. Aanbevelings vir die bevordering van die operateur se gesondheid word verskaf. <![CDATA[<b>An introduction to, and discussion of, the implementation of the advanced amalgamated agile manufacturing system</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The paradigm of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs) is still relatively new in implementation, even though research into the subject has been ongoing for over 15 years. Many supporting technologies are needed to make RMSs feasible, including the addition of flexible fixturing. This paper investigates and discusses the effect of adding flexible fixturing to the reconfigurable paradigm, and proposes solutions to problems that are inherent in RMSs and in the addition of flexible fixturing.<hr/>Die paradigma van herkonfigureerbare vervaardigingstelsels (HVS) is nog relatief nuut in implementering, selfs al is navorsing hieroor vir meer as 15 jaar aan die gang. Baie ondersteunende tegnologieë is nodig om die HVS lewensvatbaar te maak, onder andere die toevoeging van buigsame montering. Hierdie artikel ondersoek en bespreek die effek wat die toevoeging van buigsame montering op die herkonfigureerbare paradigma het en stel oplossings vir probleme wat inherent aan HVS en die toevoeging van buigsame montering is, voor. <![CDATA[<b>Some aspects of the use and usefulness of quantitative risk analysis tools in project management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Central to project management is risk management - and the need to develop better and more specific tools to manage risk. This is driven by the desire to reduce uncertainty and risk on projects. Quantitative tools such as Monte Carlo simulation are sometimes used to analyse risk, but it is not clear how widespread, accepted, or useful such tools are for practising project personnel. This research was undertaken to gain feedback from practising project and risk management personnel about the use of risk management tools. Special attention was given to the levels of use of quantitative risk management tools and the benefits gained from their use. A conceptual framework was created linking the factors that affect tool use to the actual tool use levels, and ultimately to project performance. Research questions reported on in this paper addressed levels of tool use, factors that affect tool usage, and the benefit aspect of tool use on project performance. Data were gathered via an on-line questionnaire that was statistically analysed, and a number of hypotheses were tested. The results of this study show that the levels of use of both qualitative and quantitative risk management tools are low compared with general project management tools. Correlations were found between a number of factors that affect tool use.<hr/>Sentraal tot projekbestuur is risikobestuur - en die behoefte om beter en meer spesifieke metodes te ontwikkel om risiko beter te bestuur. Dit word gedryf deur onsekerheid en risiko op projekte te verminder. Kwantitatiewe tegnieke, word soms gebruik om risiko te analiseer, maar dit is nie duidelik hoe wydverspreid, aanvaar, en nuttig sulke tegnieke is vir die beoefening deur projekpersoneel nie. Hierdie studie is onderneem om terugvoer te verkry van praktiserende projek- en risikobestuurspersoneel ten opsigte van die gebruik van risikobestuursmetodes. Spesiale aandag is gegee aan die benuttingsvlakke van kwantitatiewe risikobestuursmetodes en die voordeel daarvan. 'n Konseptuele raamwerk is geskep wat faktore wat die gebruik van hulpmiddels skakel met die werklike vlakke vir die gebruik van instrumente, en uiteindelik skakel met projekprestasie. Navorsingsvrae waaroor in hierdie artikel verslag gelewer word, het betrekking op die gebruiksvlakke van instrumente en metodes, faktore wat die gebruik van instrumente en metodes beïnvloed, en die voordele-aspek van die gebruik van instrumente en metodes op projekprestasie beïnvloed. Data is ingesamel via 'n aanlyn vraelys, statisties ontleed, en 'n aantal hipoteses is getoets. Die resultate van hierdie studie toon dat die benutting vlakke van beide kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe risikobestuurinstrumente en metodes laag is in vergelyking met algemene projekbestuursinstrumente. <![CDATA[<b>Principles of social cost-benefit analysis of public road projects followed in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article discusses the most pertinent principles that underlie the preferred social cost-benefit analysis methodology to evaluate public road projects in South Africa. The 'cost' component of the analysis is the once-off investment cost sacrificed to establish a facility, and the 'benefit' component is the recurring reduction of disutility emanating from the operation, maintenance, and use of a facility. To determine future road-user benefits, the article develops a social surplus criterion that is termed 'socio-economic user surplus'. A procedure is provided of the way that social cost-benefit analysis should be supplemented by the application of equity weighting, with a view to indicating both the expected allocative efficiency and distributive efficiency of a proposed road project. Lastly, the article discusses why the economic impacts that may stem from economically justified road projects are not considered in a social cost-benefit analysis.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word die mees tersaaklike beginsels bespreek wat die metodiek van sosiale kostevoordeelontleding om openbare padprojekte in Suid-Afrika te evalueer, onderlê. Die 'koste'-komponent van die ontleding is die eenmalige investeringskoste wat opgeoffer word om 'n fasiliteit te vestig. Die 'voordeel'-komponent van die ontleding is die herhalende vermindering van buitewerkstelling wat uit die bedryf, instandhouding, en gebruik van 'n fasiliteit spruit. Wat toekomstige padgebruikersvoordele betref, ontwikkel die artikel 'n sosiale surplusmaatstaf genaamd 'sosio-ekonomiese gebruikersurplus'. 'n Prosedure word voorsien waarvolgens sosiale kostevoordeelontleding met billikheidsweging aangevul behoort te word, om sowel toewysingsdoeltreffendheid as verdelings-doeltreffendheid van 'n voorgestelde pad projek te toon. Laastens bespreek die artikel waarom die ekonomiese impakte wat uit ekonomies geregverdigde padprojekte kan spruit nie in sosiale kostevoordeelontleding oorweging geniet nie. <![CDATA[<b>Fuzzy logic control for varied inspection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Varied inspection is an on-line dynamic inspection method in which the amount of inspection performed fluctuates, based on production needs. A two-level control architecture of fuzzy controllers was used to perform varied inspection. The research was the application of varied inspection into three manufacturing subsystems: transfer lines, assembly, and disassembly. The results from each simulation showed that varied inspection could be used to meet production cycle aims while reducing manufacturing lead time. Varied inspection was compared with 100 per cent inspection to determine the significance of varied inspection compared with traditional quality control methods.<hr/>Gevarieerde inspeksies is 'n aanlyn dinamiese inspeksie metode waar die aantal inspeksies wat uitgevoer word wissel op grond van die produksiebehoeftes. 'n Tweevlakkige beheer argitektuur van wasige beheerders is gebruik om die gevarieerde inspeksie uit te voer. Hierdie navorsing ondersoek gevarieerde inspeksies in drie vervaardigingsubstelsels: oordraglyne, monteerwerk, en de-monteerwerk. Die uitslae van die simulasie toon dat die gevarieerde inspeksie effektief was om die doeleindes van die produksie siklus te verwesenlik. Die navorsing dra ook by tot die vermindering van die vervaardiging leityd. Gevarieerde inspeksie is ook met 100 per sent inspeksie vergelyk, om die invloed van gevarieerde inspeksie in teenstelling met tradisionele gehaltebestuurmetodes te bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>A guide for integrating total quality management and physical asset management in the food industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The integration of an organisation's asset management and total quality management systems has become important in addressing operational challenges in the food industry. This paper proposes a guideline for implementing these systems through an integrated approach that aims to improve product quality. The grounded theory methodology is used to develop a theory based on expert opinions in the South African food and engineering industries. The results are presented in a model in which systems integration is identified as the central phenomenon for improving food quality. Analysis and interpretation of the model is presented in the form of a guideline for managers.<hr/>Die integrasie van 'n organisasie se batebestuur en totale kwaliteitsbestuurstelsels het belangrik geword om operasionele uitdagings in die voedselindustrie te adresseer. Hierdie artikel stel 'n riglyn voor vir die implementering van hierdie stelsels deur middel van 'n geïntegreerde benadering, met die doel om produkkwaliteit te verbeter. Deur middel van die grondteoriemetodiek word 'n teorie ontwikkel wat gebaseer is op kundiges se opinie binne die Suid-Afrikaanse voedsel- en ingenieursindustrieë. Die resultate word voorgestel in 'n model waar stelselintegrasie dien as die sentrale fenomeen vir voedselkwaliteit-verbetering. Analise en interpretasie van die model word voorgelê in die vorm van 'n riglyn vir bestuurders. <![CDATA[<b>Innovation profile from the perspective of technology roadmapping practitioners in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this paper is to derive the innovation profile in developing countries, such as South Africa, from a technology roadmapping practitioner's point of view. The specific research questions that are addressed are i) what are the main priorities for innovation in South Africa? and ii) what are the actual or perceived innovation competitive advantages for South Africa? A mixed methodology research is used that combines online quantitative surveys, qualitative interviews, and document analysis. The quantitative survey was conducted with researchers and practitioners involved with technology roadmaps in South Africa. Through the realism research philosophy that combines both inductive and deductive approaches, an analytical inference is made through the five propositions that have managerial and policy implications for the technology roadmapping community in developing countries.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die innovasieprofiel wat in ontwikkelende lande soos Suid-Afrika in gebruik is, uit die oogpunt van 'n tegnologiepadkaartpraktisyn af te lei. Die spesifieke navorsingsvrae wat aangespreek word, is i) "Wat is die belangrikste prioriteite vir innovasie in Suid-Afrika?" en ii) "Wat is die werklike of waargenome innovasie mededingendheid voordele vir Suid-Afrika? 'n Gemengde metodologie-navorsing is gebruik wat aanlyn kwantitatieweopnames, kwalitatiewe onderhoude, en dokument-analise kombineer. Die kwantitatiewe opname is uitgevoer met navorsers en praktisyns wat betrokke is by tegnologiepadkaarte in Suid-Afrika. Deur die realisme navorsingsfilosofie wat beide induktiewe en deduktiewe benaderings kombineer, is 'n analitiese inferensie gemaak deur die vyf stellings wat bestuurs- en beleidsimplikasies vir die tegnologiepadkaart gemeenskap in ontwikkelende lande het. <![CDATA[<b>A strategic model of macro-economic and supply chain factors that influence the decision-making process of SA retailers when expanding their footprint in African countries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As part of the era of globalisation, the foreign market expansion of retailers is a trend that draws the attention of economists and researchers alike, and is an ever-expanding field of scholarly review. Africa is no exception to the process of globalisation, and as the local South African retail market becomes saturated with increasing levels of competition, large retailers are gradually experiencing more pressure to expand their footprint into other African countries. Foreign market expansion is a business decision that requires a structured analytical framework to assist in the decision-making efforts of potential foreign investors. Models can be synthesised to assess and prioritise which market, country, or region to enter next; what the opportunities and risk of such a move will be; and what the business case would look like in terms of cost and benefit. Only a limited amount of literature discusses this topic in the specific context of South African retailers, creating an opportunity for further research. This paper presents a strategic decision-support model to assist South African retailers in making well-informed decisions about which sub-Saharan African market to enter next. A holistic approach is taken that covers various disciplines, including supply chain management, economics of development, and financial management.<hr/>Die uitbreiding na buitelandse markte as deel van die globaliseringsera, is 'n tendens wat die aandag van ekonome en navorsers trek en is 'n studieveld waarop deskundiges toenemend fokus. Afrika is geen uitsondering in die globaliseringsproses nie, en soos die plaaslike Suid-Afrikaanse kleinhandel 'n versadigingspunt in mededingingsvlakke bereik, word groot kleinhandelaars gedwing om hulle in ander Afrika-lande te vestig. Uitbreiding na buitelandse markte is 'n besigheidsbesluit wat op 'n analitiese raamwerk baseer moet word ten einde beleggers te help in hulle besluitnemings-proses. Modelle kan saamgestel word om vas te stel watter mark, land of streek vervolgens n prioriteit behoort te wees vir besigheidsuitbreiding; watter geleenthede en risiko so n skuif inhou; en wat die besigheidsplan ten opsigte van koste en voordele inhou. Daar is beperkte navorsing oor dié onderwerp in die Suid-Afrikaanse kleinhandelskonteks, wat n gaping skep vir verdere navorsing. Hierdie artikel bied 'n strategiese besluitondersteunings-model om Suid-Afrikaanse kleinhandelaars te help om n ingeligte besluit te neem na watter sub-Sahara Afrika mark hulle volgende moet uitbrei. 'n Holistiese benadering word voorgehou wat verskeie dissiplines soos voorsieningskettingbestuur, ontwikkelingsekonomie en finansiële bestuur insluit. <![CDATA[<b>A performance evaluation of competitive focuses in the furniture industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this article is to assess the strategic performance of manufacturing of a company in the furniture industry located in Southern Brazil. We used a cybernetic approach to conduct the study and a tree-like structure formed by five competitive priorities weighted by the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The difference between importance and performance informs if the operation is successful or if it fails. The most significant failures are the time to implement modifications in products, the dependability of suppliers, small capacity to change the production volume and mix, and the lack of after-sales services to meet customers' requirements.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die strategiese vervaardigingvertoning van 'n maatskappy in die meubelindustrie in die suide van Brasilië te assesseer. 'n Kubernetiese benadering is tydens die studie gevolg en gebruik om die boomagtige struktuur deur die vyf mededingende prioriteite geweeg deur die analitiese hiërargieproses te vorm. Die verskil tussen die belangrikheid en vertoning bepaal of die bedryf sukses behaal en of dit misluk. Die mees noemenswaardige mislukkings is die tyd wat dit neem om veranderinge in produkte te implementeer, die betroubaarheid van verskaffers, lae kapasiteit om die produksievolume te verander en te meng en die tekort aan na-verkope kliëntediens. <![CDATA[<b>Structural model to assess the relationship of manufacturing practices to delivery time in supply chains</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The literature suggests that companies today evaluate the delivery time of their products/services to improve their performance in supply chains, which has great importance due to the global competition and trends in the current markets. In response, this paper analyses the effects that manufacturing practices have on the delivery time in a supply chain. A survey was conducted relating to the export activities applied in maquiladoras companies located in Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). In the form of a questionnaire that was distributed to managers, supervisors, and operators. The questions were associated with manufacturing practices dimensions: 1) just in time (JIT), 2) total productive maintenance (TPM), 3) total quality management (TQM), along with a fourth dimension of delivery time. Five hypotheses were raised to determine the causal relationships between the dimensions analysed in a structural equation model (SEM) and tested using the partial least squares (PLS) technique integrated into the WarpPLS 4.0 software. The findings revealed that JIT has a positive and strong effect on delivery time. In addition, TQM and TPM have positive effects on JIT, enabling the timely delivery of products and better customer satisfaction. Additionally, respondents considered the implementation of manufacturing practices in the processes to be appropriate.<hr/>Die literatuur toon dat maatskappye deesdae die lewertyd van hulle produkte of dienste beoordeel om sodoende hul voorsieningsketting vertoning te verbeter. Dit is baie belangrik as gevolg van globale mededinging en tendense in die markte. Hierdie artikel analiseer die effek wat vervaardigingspraktyke op die lewertyd in 'n voorsieningsketting het. 'n Peiling is van stapel gestuur na die uitvoeraktiwiteite van maatskappy in Ciudad Juarez (in Meksiko). Die meningspeiling is aan bestuurders, toesighouers en operateurs versprei. Die vrae is geassosieer met vervaardigingspraktyke, naamlik 1) net-in-tyd, 2) totale produktiewe instandhouding, 3) totale gehaltebestuur tesame met lewertyd as n vierde dimensie. Vyf hipotese is geformuleer om die oorsaaklike verhoudings tussen die vier dimensies te bepaal. Die dimensies is met behulp van n strukturele vergelykingmodel analiseer en getoetse met die parsiële kleinste vierkante tegniek wat in die WarpPLS 4.0 sagteware geïntegreer is. Die bevindings toon dat net-in-tyd n sterk positiewe invloed op lewertyd het. Verder het beide totale gehalte bestuur en totale produktiewe instandhouding n positiewe invloed op net-in-tyd. Dit bewerkstellig die tydige lewer van produkte en verbeterde kliëntbevrediging. Verder het respondente die implementering van vervaardigingspraktyke as gepas gereken. <![CDATA[<b>Enterprise risk management implementation challenges: A case study in a petrochemical supply chain</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Organisations have adopted various risk management approaches to minimise or eliminate the negative impact of risk. One such approach is enterprise risk management (ERM). However, implementation challenges can render such approaches less effective. The purpose of this single case study was to explore the ERM implementation challenges in the supply chain of a petrochemical firm. Semi-structured interviews were used as a data collection method. The findings indicated that misalignment exists in the organisation between the respective key stakeholders responsible for, or influential in, ERM implementation. The study found that rigid implementation of ERM without appropriate adaptation to suit the needs and strategy of a complex supply chain of a petrochemical business impacts on its success.<hr/>Verskeie risikobestuursbenaderings is deur organisasies aanvaar om die negatiewe impak van risiko's te verminder of uit te skakel. Een sodanige benadering is onderneming risiko bestuur (ORB). Implementering uitdagings kan egter sulke benaderings minder effektief maak. Die doel van hierdie enkel gevallestudie was om die ORB-implementering uitdagings in die voorsieningsketting van 'n petrochemiese firma te verken. Die data-insamelingsmetode wat gebruik was is semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude. Die bevindinge toon dat daar in die organisasie 'n wanbelyning bestaan tussen die onderskeie sleutelbelanghebbendes wat verantwoordelik is vir, of invloedryk is in, ORB-implementering. Die studie het bevind dat die sukses van die ORB-implementering beïnvloed word, indien die implementering nie met die gepaste aanpassing van die behoeftes en strategie van 'n komplekse voorsieningsketting van 'n petrochemiese onderneming gepaard gaan nie. <![CDATA[<b>A decision-making framework for implementing digitalisation in the South African tooling industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902018000400020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this paper, a decision-making framework for implementing the concept of digitalisation within the South African tool, die, and mould-making (TDM) industry context is developed and employed. The purpose of this framework is to answer the following question: "Which digital technologies currently available on the market can be employed to improve the efficiency of shop-floor operations in the South African TDM industry?" An exhaustive literature study of existing digital technologies is conducted. Thereafter, TDM processes requiring digitalisation are identified through knowledge engineering. Based on the system requirements analysis, digital technologies relevant to the South African TDM context are then proposed.<hr/>'n Besluitnemingsraamwerk vir implementering van die konsep van digitalisering binne die Suid-Afrikaanse matrysmaak industrie is ontwikkel en toegepas. Die doel van hierdie raamwerk is om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: "Watter digitale tegnologieë, wat nou beskikbaar is, kan gebruik word om die rendement van werkswinkel bedrywighede in die Suid-Afrikaanse matrysmaak industrie te verbeter?" n Omvattende literatuurstudie van bestaande digitale tegnologieë is van stapel gestuur. Daarna is matrysmaak prosesse wat kan baat by digitalisering identifiseer. Op grond van die sisteemvereistes analise is digitale tegnologieë relevant tot die Suid-Afrikaanse matrysmaak konteks dan voorgestel.