Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Industrial Engineering]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-789020160003&lang=en vol. 27 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Guest editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The need for a comprehensive energy management information system for industries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Electricity costs in South Africa are increasing rapidly, and the funding hurdle rates for energy conservation incentives are decreasing. Therefore, with rising international competition and increasing operational costs, marginal industries need to focus on energy management strategies where larger savings can be achieved with lower capital expenditure. This paper sketches the need for a comprehensive energy management information system (EMIS). Common industrial energy management pitfalls are identified and energy conservation incentives are outlined. New focus points that improve client awareness and in turn improve the sustainability of energy management interventions are also highlighted. However, benefitting from energy incentives is becoming more complex. Therefore, many clients do not benefit from these incentives unless specialised Energy Service Companies (ESCos) are employed. ESCos, however, require large amounts of data to manage clients' energy effectively. Herein lies the need for a comprehensive EMIS that aids ESCos and their clients with the energy management process. An EMIS was developed and implemented for several industries in South Africa. Data is automatically collected, processed, analysed, and presented on a daily basis. A case study investigates the exorbitant amounts of data and reports that are managed automatically, which further highlights the need for a comprehensive EMIS.<hr/>Die koste van elektrisiteit in Suid-Afrika neem vinnig toe en die befondsing struikelblok vir energiebesparing innovasie is besig om weg te kwyn. Met die toenemende internasionale mededinging en bedryfskostes moet marginale industrieë fokus op energiebestuur-strategieë wat groter besparings kan bewerkstellig met laer kapitaalbesteding. Hierdie artikel skets die behoefte vir 'n omvattende energiebestuur inligtingstelsel. Algemene industriële energiebestuur slaggate word geïdentifiseer en energiebesparings-insentiewe word uiteengesit. Nuwe fokuspunte wat kliënt-bewustheid verbeter en dus die volhoubaarheid van energiebestuur verbeter word uitgelig. Om voordeel te trek uit energiebesparings-insentiewe word meer kompleks en baie kliënte trek nie voordeel daaruit tensy daar van energiediensmaatskappye gebruik gemaak word nie. Energiediensmaatskappye benodig egter groot hoeveelhede data om hul kliënte se energie doeltreffend te bestuur. Die behoefte lê dus in 'n alomvattende energiebestuur inligtingstelsel wat energiediensmaatskappye en hul kliënte kan bystaan. So 'n inligtingstelsel is ontwikkel en geïmplementeer by verskeie industrieë in Suid-Afrika. Data word outonoom bymekaargemaak, geprosesseer, geanaliseer en voorgehou op 'n daaglikse basis. 'n Gevallestudie ondersoek die buitensporige data volumes en verslae wat outonoom genereer word. Dit beklemtoon die behoefte vir n alomvattende energiebestuur inligtingstelsel. <![CDATA[<b>Guiding the development of enterprise design approaches</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Enterprise engineering (EE) is an emerging discipline that aims to address several phenomena in the evolution of an enterprise. Previous research highlighted a particular phenomenon that requires more research - i.e., the inability of the enterprise as a complex socio-technical system to adapt swiftly to rapidly-changing environments. Although there are numerous theoretical design approaches (with their own methodologies, frameworks, and modelling languages), there is little empirical evidence about their effectiveness. Furthermore, research indicates that multiple enterprise design approaches are used concurrently in industry, with each approach focusing on a sub-set of stakeholder concerns. The proliferating design approaches do not necessarily explicate their conditional use in terms of contextual prerequisites and demarcated design scope; and this also impairs their evaluation. This article provides guidance for the construction of design approaches that will enable researchers to contribute to the systematic growth of the EE knowledge base.<hr/>Ondernemingsingenieurswese (OI) is 'n opkomende dissipline wat fokus op fenomene wat verband hou met die evolusie van die onderneming. Vorige navorsing het getoon dat een spesifieke fenomeen addisionele navorsing benodig, naamlik die onvermoeë van die onderneming as 'n komplekse sosio-tegniese stelsel, om aan te pas by 'n dinamies-veranderende omgewing. Alhoewel veelvuldige teoretiese ontwerpbenaderings bestaan (insluitende metodologieë, raamwerke en modelleringstale), is daar 'n gebrek aan empiriese bewyse rakende hul effektiwiteit. Verder toon navorsing dat maatskappye gewoonlik gebruikmaak van 'n kombinasie van ondernemingsontwerpsbenaderings wat elkeen op 'n ander stel belange fokus. Nuwe ontwerpsbenaderings dui egter nie altyd hul beperkte en voorwaardelike bruikbaarheid aan in terme van konteks en omvang nie, en hul evaluasie word derhalwe bemoeilik. Hierdie artikel voorsien riglyne aan navorsers vir die konstruksionele ontwerp van nuwe ontwerpsbenaderings om sodoende die sistematiese ontwikkeling van die OI kennisbasis aan te moedig. <![CDATA[<b>Towards a holistic customer experience management framework for enterprises</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en We have entered the age of the customer where customer choice is the main differentiator between enterprises. Therefore, enterprises need to shift their focus to customer experience management (CEM). A survey conducted within the telecommunications sector indicated a gap between theoretical CEM approaches and their implementation in enterprises. Although a systematic literature review and inductive thematic analysis of CEM literature revealed nine common themes, none of the existing approaches includes all of these themes in a comprehensive way. Based on those nine themes, this paper presents a new holistic framework for CEM that managers and practitioners concerned with improving customer experiences could use.<hr/>Dit is die era van die kliënt - waar kliënte keuse die hoof differensieerder vir ondernemings geword het. Ondernemings moet nou hulle fokus skuif na kliënte-ervaringsbestuur. 'n Studie gedoen in die telekommunikasie sektor het 'n gaping gevind tussen huidige teoretiese benaderings en hoe hulle prakties geïmplementeer word deur maatskappye. 'n Sistematiese literatuurstudie en induktiewe tematiese analise van kliënte-ervaringsbestuur literatuur het nege gemene temas opgelewer. Dit is ook gevind dat geen van die benaderings holisties al nege temas bevat nie. Die artikel stel 'n nuwe benadering voor - 'n holistiese raamwerk vir kliënte-ervaringsbestuur wat deur bestuurders en praktisyne gebruik kan word vir die verbetering van kliënte-ervarings. <![CDATA[<b>Developing design propositions for an open innovation approach for SMEs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper proposes design propositions for an open innovation approach for small and medium-sized enterprises based on the open innovation lifecycle framework. The design propositions direct small- and medium-sized enterprises in implementing, executing, and improving open innovation in their organisations. The design propositions are developed through a synthesis of the literature on open innovation and other implementation and improvement best practices. A design sciences method is followed, using context interaction mechanism outcome logic to conduct a systematic review of the literature on open innovation, and using the open innovation lifecycle framework as boundaries. Twenty-two design propositions are formulated as a result. A case study is also discussed as an initial test of the application of the design propositions.<hr/>Hierdie artikel stel ontwerp proposisies voor vir 'n oop innovasie benadering vir klein en middelslag ondernemings, gebaseer op die oop innovasie lewensiklus raamwerk. Die ontwerp proposisies stuur klein en middelslag besighede in die implementering, uitvoering, en verbetering van oop innovasie in hul organisasies. Die ontwerp proposisies is ontwikkel deur die verwerking van die literatuur oor oop innovasie en ander implementering en verbetering beste praktyke. 'n Ontwerp wetenskap metode is gevolg, met die gebruik van konteks interaksie meganisme uitkoms logika om 'n sistematiese hersiening van die literatuur op oop innovasie te doen met die gebruik van die open innovasie lewensiklus raamwerk as perke. Hierdeur is 22 ontwerp proposisies formuleer. 'n Gevallestudie word ook bespreek as 'n aanvanklike toets van die toepassing van die ontwerp proposisies. <![CDATA[<b>The industrial engineering identity: from historic skills to modern values, duties, and roles</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Over the past 100 years, engineering has sub-divided into tens of disciplines in an attempt to deal with the different problems arising from the wide spectrum of human endeavours. One particular field, however, arose from problems relating to industry, interdisciplinary integration, growth, balance, and connectedness. This field is known as industrial engineering (IE). Yet the IE identity and role, although useful, often remains vague. This article presents a review of the factors that made IE what it is today, as well as the fields differentiating the skills. It begins with a brief historical overview of the factors that shaped IE. More importantly, though, the article focuses on the modern identity (made up of the values, roles, and duties) of industrial engineers in the 21st century. This is done by showing that the long-standing cliché of industrial engineers being 'jacks of all trades and masters of none' has actually become 'connected to all trades and masters of some' due to a significant evolution of skills and identity. An industrial engineering identity (IE-ID) tree model is developed by extracting concepts and elements from existing identity models to give structure to the IE-ID model. The model is then populated with questions and answers arising from the literature review. To conclude, the future utility of such a model is anticipated.<hr/>Oor die afgelope 100 jaar, is ingenieurswese verdeel in tientalle dissiplines, in 'n poging om verskillende probleme te hanteer wat voorspruit uit 'n wye reeks menslike ondernemings. Een van hierdie velde het voortgespruit uit probleme wat verband hou met bedrywe, interdissiplinêre integrasie, groei, balans, en gekoppeldheid. Hierdie veld staan bekend as bedryfsingenieurswese (BI). Tog is die bedryfsingenieursidentiteit en -rol steeds nie duidelik nie. Hierdie artikel sluit 'n deeglike ondersoek in na dit wat BI maak wat dit vandag is (asook hulle onderskeidende vaardighede). Dit begin met 'n kort historiese oorsig van die faktore wat BI gevorm het. Meer belangrik nog, fokus hierdie artikel op die moderne identiteit (bestaande uit waardes, rolle, en plig) van bedryfsingenieurs in die 21ste eeu. Dit word gedoen deur te wys dat die cliche dat bedryfsingenieurs 'alles doen, maar niks bemeester nie' uiteindelik, deur n proses van beduidende evolusie van vaardighede en identiteit, sodanig verander het dat hulle nou 'gekoppel is aan alles en heelwat bemeester'. 'n Bedryfsingenieurs identiteit (IE-ID) boom-model is ontwikkel deur konsepte en elemente van bestaande identiteitsmodelle te gebruik om struktuur te verleen aan die IE-ID model. Die model is toe ingekleur aan die hand van vrae en antwoorde wat uit die literatuuroorsig gespruit het. Om af te sluit, word die toekomstige nut van hierdie model geantisipeer. <![CDATA[<b>Towards a framework to guide the evaluation of inclusive innovation systems</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Innovation for inclusive development aims not only to produce products and services for 'base of the pyramid' (BoP) markets, but also to improve innovative capacity and empower those that form part of the BoP. Although a wide range of actors aim to support innovation for inclusive development, they lack proper methods to assess the impact that these projects have. This paper sets out to identify an appropriate method or approach for evaluating systems change brought about by innovation for inclusive development projects. Based on a systematic literature review, a process-level approach is proposed. This approach is focused on the components within a system and the changes that occur in the system functions.<hr/>Inklusiewe innovasie beoog nie net om produkte en dienste aan die basis van die piramide mark te verskaf nie, maar ook om hul te bemagtig en kapasiteit vir innovasie te verhoog. Innovasie rolspelers streef daarna om inklusiewe innovasie te bevorder, maar daar is 'n tekort aan voldoende metodes wat gebruik kan word om die impak van inklusiewe innovasie projekte te evalueer. Die doel van die studie is om 'n toepaslike metode vir die evaluasie van stelsel veranderinge, wat deur inklusiewe innovasie projekte meegebring is, te identifiseer. 'n Proses-vlak metode, wat fokus op die komponente in 'n stelsel en die veranderinge wat plaasvind in die stelsel se funksies, was voorgestel op grond van 'n sistematiese literatuurstudie. <![CDATA[<b>Lean implementation strategies: how are the Toyota Way principles addressed?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Lean manufacturing is widely considered to be a proven organisational improvement philosophy, yet the success rate of lean implementation in industry remains relatively low. Neglect of the human aspect of lean manufacturing is often cited as the leading reason for this, despite the emphasis so clearly placed upon this aspect by the creators of the lean philosophy. This article reviews the extent to which the human dimensions of the lean philosophy, as described in the Toyota Way management principles, have been incorporated in lean implementation strategies. It is found that few of the principles feature prominently in these strategies. Notably absent are those linked to the 'respect for people' pillar, which forms half of the Toyota Way's foundation. This conclusion indicates that the adoption of the lean philosophy runs contrary to the oft-repeated message from its creators that no tenet of the philosophy should be favoured at the expense of another. This may provide valuable insight into the reasons for the high implementation failure rate.<hr/>Alhoewel lenige (lean) vervaardiging algemeen aanvaar word as 'n erkende filosofie vir organisatoriese verbetering, bly die implementeringsukseskoers relatief laag. Dit word dikwels toegeskryf aan die verwaarlosing van die menslike aspek, ten spyte van die klem wat die stigters van die lenige filosofie op hierdie aspek plaas. Hierdie artikel beskou die mate waartoe hierdie menslike aspekte van lenig, soos beskryf in die 'Toyota Way' bestuursbeginsels, vervat is in lenige implementering-strategieë. Daar is gevind dat baie min van die beginsels prominent in die strategieë verskyn. Dit is veral opvallend dat die beginsels wat verband hou met die 'respek vir mense' pilaar, afwesig is alhoewel hierdie pilaar die helfte van die 'Toyota Way' fondasie uitmaak. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat lenige implementeringstrategieë in kontras is met die dikwels herhaalde boodskap van die stigters van die lenige filosofie, dat geen beginsels ten koste van ander uitgesonder mag word nie. Dit mag ook waardevolle insig gee tot die rede vir onsuksesvolle lenige implementering. <![CDATA[<b>Employee flourishing strategic framework</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper produces a preliminary version of a strategic framework for managing employee flourishing. 'Flourishing', a term from positive psychology, describes the experience of 'the good life'. Providing this experience benefits employees. It also motivates them to sustain the enterprise that provides it. This positions employee flourishing as a strategy for long-term enterprise performance, a key concern of industrial engineering. The framework incorporates a systems approach and literature from a variety of bodies of knowledge, including organisational behaviour and human resource management. The framework includes a process, tools, and elements that assist enterprises to manage employee flourishing.<hr/>Hierdie artikel skep 'n voorlopige weergawe van 'n strategiese raamwerk vir die bestuur van werknemerflorering. Florering (Eng. 'flourishing'), is 'n begrip uit die positiewe sielkunde wat ervaring van 'die goeie lewe' omskryf. Florering in die werksplek is tot voordeel van beide werknemers en werkgewers. Werknemers word gemotiveer om die onderneming te onderhou en uit te bou. Op hierdie manier is 'werknemerflorering' 'n strategie vir die onderneming se langtermyn prestasie, 'n sleutel aspek vir bedryfsingenieurwese. Die raamwerk omvat 'n stelselbenadering en inkorporeer literatuur uit verskeie kennisgebiede, insluitende organisatoriese gedrag, en menslike hulpbronbestuur. 'n Proses word daar gestel wat ondernemings van die nodige toerusting en kennis vir die bestuur van werknemerflorering te voorsien.. <![CDATA[<b>Tensile properties and microstructure of direct metal laser-sintered TI6AL4V (ELI) Alloy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing technology used to melt metal powder by high laser power to produce customised parts, light-weight structures, or other complex objects. During DMLS, powder is melted and solidified track-by-track and layer-by-layer; thus, building direction can influence the mechanical properties of DMLS parts. The mechanical properties and microstructure of material produced by DMLS can depend on the powder properties, process parameters, scanning strategy, and building geometry. In this study, the microstructure, tensile properties, and porosity of DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI) horizontal samples were analysed. Defect analysis by CT scans in pre-strained samples was used to detect the crack formation mechanism during tensile testing of as-built and heat-treated samples. The mechanical properties of the samples before and after stress relieving are discussed.<hr/>Direkte lasermetaalsintering is 'n toevoegingsvervaardigingtegniek wat gebruik word om metaalpoeier met 'n hoë drywing laser te smelt. So word doelgemaakte onderdele, ligte strukture of ander ingewikkelde voorwerpe geproduseer. Metaal poeier word gesmelt en gestol op n baan-vir-baan, laag-vir-laag wyse. Die bou rigting kan dus die meganiese eienskappe van die onderdeel beïnvloed. Die meganiese eienskappe en mikrostruktuur van materiaal wat met direkte lasermetaalsintering geproduseer word hang onder andere van die poeier eienskappe, die proses parameters, skandeer strategie en bou geometrie af. Die mikrostruktuur, trekeienskappe en poreusheid van direkte lasermetaalgesinterde Ti6Al4V horisontale monsters is analiseer. n Defekanalise met behulp van CT-skanderings in die vooraf vervormde monsters is gebruik om die kraakvormingsmeganisme tydens die trektoetse te bepaal. Onbehandelde en hittebehandelde monsters is getoets. Die meganiese eienskappe van die monsters word in detail bespreek. <![CDATA[<b>Investigating and evaluating the influence of supply chain structure on supply chain risk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Supply chains are exposed to disruptions resulting from internal or external factors that hinder the performance of one or more of their constituent entities. An exploratory study was conducted to determine whether supply chain structure (SCS) influences supply chain risk (SCR), in the context of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in South Africa. Thematic content analysis was applied to the case data of four Gauteng-based manufacturing SMEs (SMMEs), and summarised in a literature-developed, conceptual structure-risk framework. Results indicate that SCS does influence SCR. Investment in facility infrastructure and supplier relationships appear to be the most influential features. SCS also affects the operational and financial risk of an enterprise. These risks drive the SMEs' strategy and reputation, and consequently drive the corresponding risk dimensions (i.e., strategic and reputation risks). These findings are limited, and should not be generalised to all South African SMEs.<hr/>Voorsieningskettings word blootgestel aan ontwrigtings as gevolg van interne of eksterne faktore wat die vertoning van een of meer van hul samestellende entiteite belemmer. 'n Studie is geloods om te bepaal watter voorsieningskettingstruktuur binne die konteks van klein en middelslag ondernemings in Suid-Afrika, die voorsieningsketting risiko beïnvloed. Tematiese inhoudanalise is toegepas tot 'n gevallestudie van vier Gauteng-gebaseerde vervaardigingsondernemings en is opgesom in 'n literatuur ontwikkelde, konsepsuele struktuur-risiko raamwerk. Resultate toon dat voorsieningskettingstruktuur wel die risiko beïnvloed. Belegging in fasiliteit infrastruktuur en verhoudings met verskaffers blyk die grootste invloed te hê. Voorsieningskettingstruktuur beïnvloed ook die operasionele en finansiële risiko van 'n onderneming. Die risiko's bepaal die ondernemings se strategie en reputasie en dus ook die ooreenstemmende risiko dimensies (met ander woorde strategiese en reputasie risiko's). Hierdie bevindinge is beperk in hul toepassing en moet nie veralgemeen word tot alle Suid-Afrikaanse klein en middelslag ondernemings nie. <![CDATA[<b>Physical properties of sand parts produced using a Voxeljet VX1000 three-dimensional printer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Successful case studies of metal casting applications using sand moulds and cores produced by additive manufacturing (AM) processes have been widely reported in the literature. The layered-based manufacturing process has revolutionised traditional sand moulding methods. This is essentially due to the numerous advantages of AM, including the reduction of design lead time and the ability to manufacture objects with complex geometry in a rapid turnaround time. Locally-available AM processes that are capable of producing sand moulds and cores include laser sintering (LS) and three-dimensional printing (3DP), with the latter AM process growing in dominance over the former. However, a better understanding of the properties of parts produced by AM processes is required in order for the processes to be fully adopted by the foundry industry. Crucial characteristics of 3DP sand parts related to strength, dimensional accuracy, and hardness are not well-known in terms of their magnitude and in comparison with conventionally-moulded sand parts. In this investigation, the physical properties of test specimens produced under standard manufacturing conditions, using a Voxeljet VX1000 machine, were assessed for bend and tensile strength, hardness, friability, and surface finish. The physical properties of the 3DP test specimens were then compared with the properties of laboratory hand-rammed test specimens. The results of the investigation suggest that the properties of AM-fabricated sand parts are inferior to sand parts produced by conventional moulding processes.<hr/>Gevallestudies van metaalgiettoepassings, wat van sand gietvorms en kerns gebruik maak wat met toevoegingsvervaardiging vervaardig word, is al volop gepubliseer. Die laag-gebaseerde vervaardigingsproses het die tradisionele sandgietvorm metodes totaal hervorm. Dit is hoofsaaklik as gevolg van die talryke voordele van toevoegings-vervaardiging. Dit sluit in die verkorting van die ontwerpleityd en die vermoë om ingewikkelde geometrieë in 'n vinnige omkeertyd te vervaardig. 'n Beter verstaan van die eienskappe van die onderdele, wat met toevoegings-vervaardigingtegnieke produseer word, is egter nodig voordat dit deur die gietbedryf aanvaar gaan word. Kritiese eienskappe van driedimensioneelgedrukte onderdele wat nie alombekend is nie is onder andere die sterkte, dimensionele akkuraatheid en hardheid. Die fisiese eienskappe van toetsmonsters is ondersoek vir buig- en treksterkte, hardheid, buigbaarheid, brosheid en oppervlak-afwerking. Die fisiese eienskappe van die toetsmonsters is vergelyk met die eienskappe van laboratorium, handgekompakteerde monsters. Die resultate toon dat die toevoegingsvervaardiging monsters se eienskappe slegter as die van konvensioneel gegiete monsters is. <![CDATA[<b>Solving the dial-a-ride problem using agent-based simulation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The 'dial-a-ride problem' (DARP) requires a set of customers to be transported by a limited fleet of vehicles between unique origins and destinations under several service constraints, including within defined time windows. The problem is considered NP-hard, and has typically been solved using metaheuristic methods. An agent-based simulation (ABS) model was developed, where each vehicle bids to service customers based on a weighted objective function that considers the cost to service the customer and the time quality of the service that would be achieved. The approach applied a preprocessing technique to reduce the search space, given the service time window constraints. Tests of the model showed significantly better customer transit and waiting times than the benchmark datasets. The ABS was able to obtain solutions for much larger problem sizes than the benchmark solutions, with this work being the first known application of ABS to the DARP.<hr/>Die 'bel-'n-rit' probleem' (DARP) vereis dat kliënte, met 'n beperkte vloot van voertuie tot die diensverskaffer se beskikking, tussen unieke oorspronge en bestemmings onder verskeie diens beperkings vervoer word. Die probleem word beskou as NP-hard, en word gewoonlik opgelos met behulp van meta-heuristiese metodes. 'n Agentgebaseerde simulasie (ABS) model is ontwikkel, waar elke voertuig mik om kliënte te bedien, gebaseer op 'n geweegde doelfunksie wat die koste vir die kliënt en die tyd gehalte van die dienslewering in ag neem. Die benadering pas 'n voorafverwerking tegniek toe om die soek spasie, onderhewig aan die diens tyd venster beperkings, te verminder. Simulasie resultate toon noemenswaardige verbeteringe wanneer die kliëntediens transito- en wagtye as maatstaf gebruik word. Die ABS kon oplossings kry vir veel groter probleemgroottes as die maatstaf oplossings. Hierdie werk is die eerste bekende toepassing van ABS om die 'bel-'n-rit' probleem aan te spreek. <![CDATA[<b>A mechanism for the early detection and management of physical asset management strategy execution failure</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Presented at the 27th annual conference of the Southern African Institute for Industrial Engineering (SAIIE), held from 27-29 October 2016 at Stonehenge in Africa, North West, South Africa The purpose of this paper is to present a mechanism that can assist physical asset management (PAM) practitioners and academics with the early detection and management of PAM strategy execution failure. In the pursuit of this objective, case studies were applied to develop the theory related to this topic the methodologies involved in the development of theory through case studies was were applied. The paper commences with a brief literature review of the contemporary literature on general business strategy, strategy execution, and, more specifically, PAM strategy execution failure (PAMSEF). The physical asset management strategy execution enforcement mechanism (PAMSEEM) is presented next. Validation of each one of the components of the PAMSEEM takes place within the context of an organisation that is highly dependent on physical assets (PA) dependent organization. The conclusion reached is that the PAMSEEM, can indeed assist organisations with the early detection and management of PAMSEF.<hr/>In die artikel word 'n meganisme voorgestel wat deur fisiese batebestuur praktisyns sowel as akademici gebruik kan word tydens die vroeë identifikasie en bestuur van fisiese batebestuur strategie uitvoering faling (FBBSUF). In die strewe om hierdie doelwit te bereik word die navorsingsmetodologie wat gebruik word in die skep van teorie deur middel van gevalle studies, toegepas. Die artikel begin met 'n oorsigtelike bespreking van intydse besigheidstrategie en strategie-uitvoerings literatuur en meer spesifiek fisiese batebestuur strategie faling. Die fisiese batebestuur strategie uitvoering afdwingingsmeganisme (FBBSUAM) word hierna voorgestel. Validasie van alle aspekte van die FBBSUAM vind plaas binne 'n organisasie met baie groot investering in fisiese bates. Die gevolgtrekking aan die einde van die studie is dat die FBBSUAM wel organisasies kan help met die vroeë identifikasie en bestuur van FBBSUF. <![CDATA[<b>Influence of heat treatments on the microstructure and tensile behaviour of selective laser melting-produced TI-6AL-4V parts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In industry, post-process heat treatments of Ti-6Al-4V are performed with the aim of improving its tensile behaviour. While heat treatments of wrought Ti6Al4V have been standardised (e.g., Aerospace Material Specification H-81200), heat treatments of selective laser melting (SLM)-produced Ti-6Al-4V lacks research and understanding. Significant concern exists about SLM Ti6-Al-4V's achievable ductility attributed to its martensitic (α') phase. In this research, heat treatments at a range of temperatures are applied to SLM-produced Ti-6Al-4V tensile samples. Microstructural analysis (both optically and through electron backscatter diffraction) was used to identify links between heat treatments and microstructure. Subsequently, uniaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the respective tensile properties of all samples. Correlations in the data show a significant loss in strength with respect to an increase in annealing temperature due to grain growth, while no noticeable trend was observed for fracture strain with regard to annealing temperatures.<hr/>In die bedryf word hittebehandeling aangewend op Ti-6Al-4V met die doel om trek-eienskappe te verbeter. Alhoewel hittebehandeling van bewerkte Ti-6Al-4V gestandaardiseer is (bv. in Aerospace Material Specification H-81200), bestaan daar tekort-kominge in die navorsing en begrip oor die hittebehandeling van selektiewe lasersmelting (SLM) vervaardigde Ti-6Al-4V. Hewige kommer bestaan oor SLM Ti-6Al-4V se bereikbare trekbaarheid weens die materiaal se martensitiese (α') fase. In die studie is hittebehandeling by verskeie temperature aangewend op SLM vervaardigde trekmonsters. Mikrostruktuur analises (deur middel van opties asook elektron terugstrooiing diffraksie) is gebruik om koppels tussen hittebehandeling en mikrostruktuur te identifiseer. Gevolglik is trektoetse aangewend om die trekeienskappe van elke monster te bepaal. Ooreenstemming in data toon 'n noemens-waardige verlies van sterkte met 'n verhoging van hittebehandeling-temperatuur weens 'n groei in kristalgrote, terwyl geen kenmerkende tendens tussen trekvervorming-by-breek met betrekking tot hittebehandeling temperatuur gewaar is nie. <![CDATA[<b>On the impact of different system strategies on the material performance of selective laser melting-manufactured TI6AL4V components</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder-based additive manufacturing process that has gained substantial interest in recent years due to its feasibility of producing geometrically-complex metallic components for end-use in various industries, with or without post-treatment procedures. This paper presents recent research undertaken on different scanning strategies and process parameters with the purpose of providing an overview of the achievable material performance of Ti6Al4V components, and comparing its properties with the conventionally-produced parts. In order to understand their output, differences in the building strategies of the systems studied are analysed, and their influence on the resulting mechanical and metallurgical properties is highlighted.<hr/>Selektiewe lasersmelting is 'n poeiergebaseerde toevoegingsver-vaardigingsproses wat onlangs wesenlike belangstelling gewek het as gevolg van die vermoë om geometries ingewikkelde metaal komponente te produseer sonder dat daar agteraf verdere behandelinge toegepas moet word. Navorsing oor verskillende skandeerstrategieë en proses parameters en hul invloed op die bereikbare materiaaleienskappe van Ti6Al4V komponente word voorgehou. Die materiaaleienskappe word vergelyk met dié van komponente wat met konvensionele tegnieke vervaardig is. Om die uitset beter te verstaan, word verskille in die bou-strategieë van die stelsels bestudeer en analiseer, om sodoende hul invloed op die gevolglike meganiese- en metallurgiese eienskappe te bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Validation of miniaturised tensile testing on DMLS TI6AL4V (ELI) specimens</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a relatively new technology that is developing rapidly. Since DMLS material is created by melting/solidifying tracks and layers from powder, even building geometry can influence the mechanical properties. To certify a material, the testing specimens must be designed and manufactured according to the appropriate standards. Miniaturised tensile DMLS samples could be a good alternative for express quality control, and could reduce the cost of DMLS-specific testing. In this study, as-built and stress-relieved miniaturised tensile DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI) specimens with different surface qualities were investigated. The fracture surfaces and mechanical properties of the mini-tensile specimens were analysed and compared with standard full-sized specimens also manufactured by DMLS. The obtained data showed the applicability of mini-tensile tests for the express analysis of DMLS objects if a correction factor is applied for the calculation of the load-bearing cross-section of the specimen.<hr/>Direkte lasermetaalsintering is 'n nuwe vervaardigingstegniek wat vinnig ontwikkel. Aangesien onderdele met die tegniek vervaardig word deur poeier te smelt en dan weer te laat stol is dit belangrik dat die bougeometrie eweredig is, om sodoende die verlangde meganiese eienskappe te bewerkstellig. Om 'n materiaal te sertifiseer moet toetsmonsters ontwerp en vervaardig word volgens toepaslike standaarde. Miniature trekmonsters wat met direkte lasermetaalsintering vervaardig is, kan 'n goeie alternatief wees om gehaltebeheer te versnel. Hierdie studie gebruik onbehandelde- en spanningsverligte Ti6Al4V monsters met verskillende oppervlakafwerkings. Die kraakoppervlakke en meganiese eienskappe van die miniatuurtoetsmonsters is geanaliseer en vergelyk met standaard, volgrootte monsters ook met direkte lasermetaalsintering vervaardig. Die data toon dat die toepassing van miniatuur trektoetse vir versnelde analise van direkte lasermetaalsintering voorwerpe geldig is wanneer n korreksie faktor toegepas word op die lasdraende deursnee-oppervlak van die monster. <![CDATA[<b>An optimisation-based decision support system framework for multi-objective in-core fuel management of nuclear reactor cores</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The notion of in-core fuel management (ICFM) involves decision making in respect of the specific arrangement of fuel assemblies in a nuclear reactor core. This arrangement, referred to as a reload configuration, influences the efficiency and effectiveness of fuel usage in a reactor. A decision support system (DSS) may assist nuclear reactor operators in improving the quality of their reload configuration designs. In this paper, a generic optimisation-based DSS framework is proposed for multi-objective ICFM, with the intention of serving as a high-level formalisation of a computerised tool that can assist reactor operators in their complex ICFM decisions.<hr/>Binne-kern brandstofbestuur (BKBB) behels die neem van besluite oor die rangskikking van brandstofelemente in 'n kernreaktor. So 'n rangskikking staan bekend as 'n herlaai-konfigurasie en beïnvloed die doeltreffendheid en doelmatigheid van brandstofverbruik in die reaktor. 'n Besluitsteunstelsel (BSS) mag kernreaktor-operateurs help om die kwaliteit van hul herlaaikonfigurasie-ontwerpe te verbeter. In hierdie artikel word 'n generiese optimerings-gebaseerde BSS vir veeldoelige BKBB voorgestel wat ten doel het om as 'n hoë-vlak formalisering van 'n gerekenariseerde toepassing te dien wat operateurs kan bystaan met hul komplekse BKBB-verwante besluite. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of single tracks of 17-4PH steel manufactured at different power densities and scanning speeds by selective laser melting</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In Selective Laser Melting, the initial units produced are single tracks that overlap to create a single layer; from the sequence of layers, a 3D object is manufactured. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend heavily on the properties of each single track and each layer formed by these tracks. This study evaluates the effect of processing parameters on the geometrical characteristics of single tracks manufactured from 17-4PH stainless steel powder. A single-mode continuous-wave ytterbium fibre laser was used to manufacture single tracks at laser powers in the range of 100-300 W with a constant spot size of ~80μm. The single tracks produced were subjected to standard metallographic preparation techniques for further analysis with an optical microscope. Deep molten pool shapes were observed at low scan speeds, while shallow molten pool shapes were observed at high scan speeds. At higher laser power densities, under-cutting and humping effects were also observed. The dimensions of single tracks processed without powder generally decrease with increasing scan speed at constant laser power. However, the geometrical features of the single tracks processed with powder revealed pronounced irregularities believed to be caused by non-homogeneity in the deposited powder layer.<hr/>Selektiewe lasersmelting produseer enkel bane wat mekaar oordek en vorm so 'n enkele laag. Daaropvolgende lae vorm dan 'n drie-dimensionele onderdeel. Die eienskappe van hierdie onderdele word grootliks beïnvloed deur die eienskappe van elke baan en elke laag. Hierdie studie evalueer die effek van die prosesserings-parameters op die geometriese eienskappe van enkel bane wat van 17-4PH vlekvrye staalpoeier vervaardig is. 'n Enkelmodus kontinue-golf ytterbium vesel laser is gebruik om die enkel bane te vervaardig. Die laser drywing het gewissel van 100 tot 300W met 'n konstante kolgrootte van ongeveer 80μm. Die enkel bane is dan aan standaard metallografiese voorbereidingstegnieke onderwerp sodat verdere analise met n optiese mikroskoop kon geskied. Diepgesmelte poel vorms is bespeur teen lae skandeersnelhede, terwyl vlakgesmelte poel vorms by hoë skandeersnelhede gewaar is. By hoër laser drywingsdigthede is ondersnyding en hobbelvorming waargeneem. Die dimensies van die enkel bane wat sonder poeier geprosesseer is, het oor die algemeen afgeneem met 'n toename in skandeersnelheid by konstante laserdrywing. Die geometriese eienskappe van die enkel bane wat wel met poeier geprosesseer is, het noemenswaardige onreëlmatighede aan die lig gebring. Daar word vermoed dat die onreëlmatighede as gevolg van nie-homogene verskynsels in die gedeponeerde poeierlaag is. <![CDATA[<b>Methodology to produce a Water and Energy Stream Map (WESM) in the South African manufacturing industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The increasing demand for water and energy in South Africa, and the capacity constraints and restrictions of both resources, have led to a rapid increase in their cost. The manufacturing industry remains South Africa's third-largest consumer of water and second-largest consumer of national energy. The improvement of water and energy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important theme for both organisational success and national economic sustainability. This paper presents the 'lean based water and energy stream mapping framework' developed for the manufacturing industry, with the specific objective of decreasing its water and energy intensity. As with the traditional value stream mapping tool, the water and energy stream mapping focuses on eliminating water- and energy-specific wastes within a process. Water and energy waste categories that will be used in conjunction with the framework will also be discussed. The key objective of this paper is to detail the process of creating the water and energy stream mapping, and the statistical forecasting methodology used to develop the baseline water and energy demand data. The outcome of the implementation of the framework is the future state water and energy stream mapping, which is effectively a blueprint for increased water and energy efficiency within a studied process.<hr/>Die toenemende vraag, kapasiteit en hulpbron beperkings het gelei tot die styging van water en energie koste in Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsbedryf bly die derde grootste verbruiker van water en die tweede grootste verbruiker van energie in terme van nasionale verbruik. Die verbetering van water en energie doeltreffendheid word al hoe meer belangrik vir beide organisasie sukses en nasionale ekonomiese volhoubaarheid. Hierdie artikel verteenwoordig die lenige water- en energiestroom kartering-raamwerk wat ontwikkel is vir die vervaardigings bedryf met die spesifieke doel om water en energie intensiteit te verlaag. Soos met die tradisionele waardestroomkarteringinstrument, fokus die water- en energiestroom kartering op die uitskakeling van spesifieke vermorsing van water en energie binne 'n proses. Water en energie vermorsing kategorieë wat gebruik gaan word in samewerking met die raamwerk word ook bespreek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om besonderhede oor die proses van die skep van die water- en energiestroom kartering te beskryf, sowel as die statistiese vooruitskatting metodologie wat gebruik is om die basislyn water en energie vraag data vas te stel. Die uitkoms van die implementering van die raamwerk is die toekomstige staat water- en energiestroom kartering, wat effektief 'n bloudruk is vir hoër water en energie doeltreffendheid binne 'n bestudeerde proses. <![CDATA[<b>Suitability of a South African silica sand for three-dimensional printing of foundry moulds and cores</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Applications of three-dimensional printing (3DP) to metal casting include, among other things, the direct manufacturing of foundry moulds and cores in refractory materials such as silica sand. The main properties of silica sand that are essentially related to the traditional moulding and core-making processes are: size distribution, clay content, pH, acid demand, and refractoriness. The silica sand used for 3DP must also be appropriately selected for the layer-based manufacturing process involved in 3DP. Properties such as grain size distribution, grain surface morphology, angularity, flowability, and recoating abilities have a particular importance when determining sand suitability. Because of these extra requirements, only a limited range of available foundry silica sands can be used for 3DP processes. The latter situation explains the scarcity and high cost of suitable silica sands, thus contributing to the relatively high operational costs of the 3DP processes for the production of sand moulds and cores. This research paper investigates the suitability of a locally-available silica sand for use in a Voxeljet VX1000 3DP machine. The local silica sand was assessed and compared with an imported silica sand recommended by the manufacturer of 3DP equipment in terms of foundry characteristics and recoating behaviour. The study shows that, despite the differences between the characteristics of the two silica sands, the local sand could be considered a suitable alternative to imported sand for rapid sand casting applications.<hr/>Die toepassings van driedimensionele drukwerk op die metaalgietproses sluit onder andere die direkte vervaardiging van gietvorms en kerns van vuurvaste materiale, soos silika sand, in. Die hoofeienskappe van silika sand wat verwant is aan die tradisionele gietvorm- en kernvervaardigingsproses is grootte, verspreiding, klei-inhoud, pH, die suur benodig en vuurvastigheid. Die silika sand wat vir driedimensionele druk gebruik word moet ook met inagneming van die laag-gebaseerde vervaardigingsproses gekies word. Eienskappe soos korrelgrootte verspreiding, greinoppervlakmorfologie, hoekigheid, vloeibaarheid en die vermoë om die oppervlak af te werk is van besondere belang. As gevolg van dié vereistes is daar 'n beperkte reeks van silika sandsoorte wat geskik is. Dit dra by tot die hoë bedryfskoste wat met die driedimensionele druk van sandgietvorms en kerns geassosieer word. Die geskiktheid van 'n plaaslik beskikbare silika sand vir gebruik in 'n Voxeljet VX1000 driedimensionele drukker is ondersoek. Die silika sand is geassesseer en vergelyk met ingevoerde silika sand wat deur die drukker se vervaardiger aanbeveel word. Die resultate toon dat, ten spyte van die verskille in die sandsoorte se eienskappe, die plaaslike sand as 'n aanvaarbare plaasvervanger oorweeg kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the link between PPM implementation and company success in achieving strategic goals: an empirical framework</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Organisations are constantly under pressure to innovate and grow by successfully executing their business strategies. The ever-increasing rate of change in technology has implications for product lifecycles, cost pressures, expectations of higher quality, and a larger variety of products and services. These trends result in mounting pressures and a huge increase in complexity, as the drivers of technology must be managed to achieve a competitive advantage. Project portfolio management (PPM) is a solution for unravelling the complexities of multi-projects. In theory, PPM assists an organisation to achieve this competitive advantage through implementing its business strategy, balancing its portfolios, maximising value, and ensuring resource adequacy. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence on the use and success of PPM approaches in South Africa. This article presents a framework that lays the foundation of an empirical study that will aim to explore the link between PPM implementation and company success in achieving strategic objectives. We base our framework on the factors of good practice in PPM, which include 1) single-project-level characteristics and activities; 2) multi-project-level characteristics and activities; 3) the link between projects and strategy process; and 4) availability and quality of project information.<hr/>Maatskappye is alewig onder druk om te innoveer en groei deur die besigheid se strategie suksesvol uit te voer. Met die konstante veranderinge in tegnologie is daar implikasies vir die maatskappy in die vorm van produkte se lewensiklusse, koste, verwagtinge van hoër kwaliteit, en groter verskeidenheid produkte en dienste. Die tendense veroorsaak druk en 'n styging van kompleksiteit om 'n kompeterende voordeel te behaal. Portefeulje projekbestuur is 'n oplossing om die kompleksiteit van multi-projekte te ontrafel en om 'n maatskappy te help om die besigheidstrategie te implementeer, die portefeulje te balanseer, maksimum waarde te behaal, as ook seker te maak daar is genoeg hulpbronne. Daar is 'n tekort aan empiriese werk oor die gebruik en sukses van portefeulje projek bestuur in Suid Afrika. Hierdie artikel ontwikkel 'n raamwerk wat as fondasie dien vir 'n empiriese studie deur die verhouding, tussen portefeulje projekbestuurimplementering en maatskappy sukses faktore te ondersoek. Die basis van die raamwerk sal die volgende faktore van goeie praktyk bevat: 1) enkelprojek-vlak eienskappe en -aktiwiteite; 2) multi-projek-vlak eienskappe en -aktiwiteite; 3) verband tussen projekte en die strategieproses; 4) beskikbaarheid en kwaliteit van projek -informasie. <![CDATA[<b>A simulation approach to reconciling customs and trade risk associated with cross-border freight movements</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Southern Africa critically depends on increased exports to enable economic growth and job creation. Logistical inefficiencies, however, are hampering exports, with cross-border freight delays a key contributor that adds cost and unpredictability to the supply chain, making South Africa an unattractive participant in global just-in-time value chains. The detention of cargo consignments at border posts is intended to reduce the risk of customs duties not being paid and to prevent the smuggling of illegal contraband. These risks must be weighed against the risk to trade caused by unpredictable time delays, and the resulting harmful impact on the economy. The increased use of ICT technologies has been proposed to enable a more attractive compromise between customs and trade risks. This study investigates the impact of the proposed new measures, including the use of technology, on the efficiency of cross-border freight movements. The research approach will combine the analysis of historical electronic transaction data exchanged between customs and consignors, with the simulation of different scenarios for the ICT support of customs processes. The expected impact of the proposed measures on exports within and from the SADC region, and the direct impact on corridor users, are estimated and compared against the estimated cost of the proposed measures. It is shown that implementing the proposed improvements should represent an attractive investment for the regional economy.<hr/>Suider-Afrika is krities afhanklik van verhoogde uitvoer om ekonomiese groei te bevorder. Logistieke tekortkominge beperk uitvoer, en oorgrens vertragings is 'n sleutelfaktor wat koste verhoog en onsekerheid veroorsaak in die lewering van uitvoergoedere. Dit lei daartoe dat Suid Afrika nie 'n aantreklike deelnemer is in globale net-betyds voorsieningskettings. Die risiko verbonde aan die nie-betaling van doeanebelastings moet opgeweeg word teen die ekonomiese koste veroorsaak deur huidige doeanepraktyke. Die voortel is dat 'n uitbreiding in die inligting en kommunikasie tegnologieë 'n meer voordelige kompromie mag inhou. Hierdie studie ondersoek die impak van die nuwe voorstelle en stel nuwe maatreëls voor om die effektiwiteit van die beweging van goedere oor landsgrense te verhoog. Die verwagte impak van die voorgestelde maatreëls op uitvoere vanuit die Suider-Afrikaanse Ontwikkelingsgemeenskap (SADC), sowel as die impak op korridorgebruikers, word kwantitatief bepaal en opgeweeg teen die verwagte koste van implementering. <![CDATA[<b>Implementing a business improvement model based on integrated plant information</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The World Energy Council [1, 2] defines numerous challenges in the global energy arena that put pressure on owners and /operators to operate run existing plant better and more efficiently. As such there is an increasing focus on the use of business and technical plant information and data to make better, more integrated, and more informed decisions on the plant. The research study developed a business improvement model (BIM) that can be used to establish an integrated plant information management infrastructure as the core foundation for of business improvement initiatives. Operational research then demonstrated how this BIM approach could be successfully implemented to improve business operations and provide decision-making insight.<hr/>Die Wêreld Energie Raad [1, 2] definieer talle uitdagings in die wêreld energie arena wat aanleg eienaars en/of operateurs dwing om bestaande proses-aanlegte beter en meer doeltreffend te bestuur. Dit vereis toenemende fokus op besigheids- en tegniese aanleg inligting en data om beter, meer geïntegreerde en meer ingeligte besluite te neem. Die navorsingstudie het 'n besigheids-verbetering model ontwikkel wat gebruik kan word om 'n geïntegreerde aanleg inligting infrastruktuur te skep as die grondslag vir besigheid verbetering inisiatiewe. Operasionele navorsing is dan ook gebruik om prakties te demonstreer hoe hierdie model en benadering suksesvol geïmplementeer kan word om sakebedrywighede en besluitneming insig te verbeter. <![CDATA[<b>An investigation into the barriers to energy efficiency within medium to large manufacturing firms operating withinin the eThekwini municipal area</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Preliminary investigations into the energy efficiency of manufacturing firms operating in South Africa have shown that no previous study of the barriers to energy efficiency has been conducted. This paper sets out to investigate whether there is an energy efficiency gap in medium to large manufacturing firms operating in the eThekwini municipal area. It goes on further to analyse the barriers to energy efficiency in such firms. These barriers are analysed by firm characteristics and across manufacturing sectors. The findings of this research indicate that more can be done to improve the energy efficiency profile within South African manufacturing subsectors. Policy-makers should take these findings into consideration when drafting new policy on energy efficiency.<hr/>Voorlopige ondersoeke oor energiedoeltreffendheid in vervaar-digingsaktiwiteite van maatskappye in Suid-Afrika toon dat daar geen vorige studies bestaan wat fokus op die struikelblokke van toepassing op bestaande energiedoeltreffendheid nie. Hierdie artikel ondersoek 'n energiedoeltreffendheidsgaping wat bestaan binne medium tot groot vervaardigingsmaatskappye binne die eThekwini munisipale gebied. Die ondersoek identifiseer en analiseer gepaardgaande beperkinge wat bestuurders binne sulke maatskappye verhinder om energie doeltreffendheid te implementeer. Die ondersoek en analise strek oor 'n aantal vervaardigingsektore. Die bevindinge van hierdie navorsing dui daarop dat heelwat meer bereik kan word in terme van energie-doeltreffendheid binne die verskeie vervaardigingsubsektore in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie gevolgtrekkings behoort in ag geneem te word deur beleidmakers tydens die opstel van 'n nuwe beleid oor energie-doeltreffendheid. <![CDATA[<b>Two green bottles, standing on a wall: an environmental assessment of two bottle types</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902016000300026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Non-renewable resources are becoming scarce and current Global Warming Potential values are rising. In an effort to promote a successful shift towards a 'greener' planet, governments worldwide are developing policies (such as carbon taxation) to encourage businesses to contribute to the effort. This study analysed the product carbon footprint of the packaging process for 300 ml glass and 500 ml PET containers for a South African soft drink manufacturing business. A review of the academic literature revealed that no similar research had been conducted in South Africa. The Greenhouse Gas protocol was used as the basis for the research method. It was found that the 500 ml PET packaging process draws 100 per cent of its cumulative energy demand from purchased electricity (generated by burning coal); therefore, 500 ml PET containers have 4.5 times less global warming potential per hectolitre than 300 ml glass containers, which have 71 per cent of their emissions resulting directly from coal-fired boilers on site. A dynamic model analysis revealed that packaging in larger containers results in a significant reduction in global warming potential per volume for both glass and PET containers.<hr/>Nie-hernubare hulpbronne verminder en die huidige globale verhittingspotensiaal styg. In 'n poging om 'n suksesvolle oorgang tot n 'groener' planeet te bewerkstellig, ontwikkel regerings wêreldwyd beleide (soos koolstofbelasting) wat besighede aanmoedig om daartoe by te dra. Hierdie studie analiseer die koolstofvoetspoor van die verpakkingsproses van 300ml glas en 500ml PET houers vir 'n Suid-Afrikaanse koeldrankvervaardiger. 'n Literaturstudie het geen soortgelyke navorsing in Suid-Afrika vorendag gebring nie. Die kweekhuisgas protokol is gebruik as die grondslag vir die navorsingsmetode. Daar is gevind dat die totale energie wat deur die 500ml PET† verpakkingsproses gebruik word van aangekoopte elektrisiteit afkomstig is. Die 500ml PET houers het dus 4.5-maal minder globale verhittingspotensiaal as die 300ml glas houers per hektoliter, waarvan 71 persent van hul uitlaatgasse as gevolg van steenkoolaangedrewe ketels op die perseel is. n Sensitiwiteits-analise toon dat die verpakking in groter houers tot n noemenswaardige vermindering in globale verhittingspotensiaal per volume lei vir beide glas en PET houers.