Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Industrial Engineering]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-789020170002&lang=en vol. 28 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Note from the editor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The power of one: Benford's law</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The concept of Benford's law, also known as the first-digit phenomenon, has been known to mathematicians since 1881. It is counter-intuitive, difficult to explain in simple terms, and has suffered from being described variously as 'a numerical aberration', 'an oddity', 'a mystery' - but also as 'a mathematical gem'. However, it has developed into a recognised statistical technique with several practical applications, of which the most notable is as a fraud detection mechanism in forensic accounting. This paper will briefly discuss and demonstrate the special numerical characteristics of Benford's law. It will attempt to investigate the law's possible application to the detection of data manipulation and data tampering that might exist in papers published in engineering and scientific journals. Firstly, it will be applied to an investigation of the so-called Fisher-Mendel controversy. Secondly, Benford's analysis will be applied to six recently published papers selected from the South African Journal of Industrial Engineering.<hr/>Die konsep van Benford se wet, ook bekend as die eerste-syfer-fenomeen, is bekend aan wiskundiges sedert 1881. Dit is teen-intuïtief, moeilik om te verduidelik op 'n eenvoudige wyse, en gaan gebuk onder verskeie beskrywings soos ''n numeriese afwyking', ''n koddigheid', ''n misterie', maar ook as ''n wiskundige juweel'. Dit het nietemin ontwikkel in 'n erkende statistiese tegniek met vele praktiese toepassings, waarvan die gebruik as 'n bedrog betrappingsmeganisme in forensiese rekeningkunde noemenswaardig is. Hierdie artikel sal die spesiale numeriese karakteristieke van Benford se wet bespreek en demonstreer. Dit sal die wet se moontlike gebruik om datamanipulering en -vervalsing wat mag bestaan in ingenieurs- en wetenskaplike publikasies te identifiseer. Eerstens sal dit toegepas word om die sogenaamde Fisher-Mendel kontroversie te ondersoek. Tweedens sal dit gebruik word om ses artikels wat onlangs gepubliseer is in die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Bedryfsingenieurwese aan 'n Benford analise te onderwerp. <![CDATA[<b>Concentrated solar power (CSP) innovation analysis in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en South Africa aims to generate 42 per cent of its electricity from renewable energy technology sources by 2030. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the major renewable energy technologies that have been prioritised by South Africa, given the abundant solar resources available in the region. Seven CSP plants have been, or are being, built; three of them are already connected to the national grid. However, the impacts of this technology on South African research, development, and innovation have not been investigated to date. This paper thus analyses the CSP technologies in South Africa in terms of the existing technology adoption models and diffusion strategies, used by government and its agencies, to improve the development and deployment of these technologies. It is found that CSP has been treated generally like other renewable energy technologies through the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP), although a tariff plan for CSP plants of the future has been made. No specific technology diffusion or adoption model for CSP was found; so this paper explores how it can be developed.<hr/>Suid-Afrika het ten doel om 42 persent van sy elektrisiteit uit hernubare energie tegnologie bronne te genereer teen 2030. Gekonsentreerde sonkrag (CSP) is een van die grootste hernubare tegnologie energieë wat reeds geprioritiseer is deur Suid-Afrika, as gevolg van 'n oorvloedige son hulpbron beskikbaar in die streek. Sewe CSP aanlegte is, of word, gebou en drie van hulle is reeds gekoppel aan die nasionale netwerk. Maar die impak van hierdie tegnologie op Suid-Afrikaanse navorsing, ontwikkeling en innovasie is tot dusvêr nie ondersoek nie. Hierdie artikel voer dus 'n ontleding van die CSP tegnologie in Suid-Afrika uit in terme van die bestaande tegnologie aanneming modelle en verspreiding strategieë, wat gebruik word deur die regering en sy agentskappe, om die ontwikkeling en implementering van hierdie tegnologie te verbeter. Dit is bevind dat CSP, in die algemeen, behandel word soos ander hernubare energie tegnologie deur middel van die Hernubare Energie Onafhanklike Krag Verskaffer Aankoop Program (REIPPPP), hoewel 'n tarief plan vir CSP aanlegte van die toekoms wel gemaak is. Geen spesifieke tegnologie diffusie of aanneming model vir CSP is gevind nie, en hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe dit ontwikkel kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Process capability index-based control chart for variables</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper proposes a process capability index-based control chart for variables using the Downton estimator with a specified Cp value. The proposed chart is able to address the issue of control and capability simultaneously. We also provide a control chart constant to construct the process capability index-based control chart. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the application of the proposed chart, and the effect of non-normality is discussed. The result shows that the proposed control chart performs better in monitoring and assessing processes, and eliminates the usual two-stage procedure reflected in the literature.<hr/>'n Prosesvermoë indeksgebaseerde beheerkaart word voorgestel vir veranderlikes met gebruik van die 'Downton' beramer met 'n gespesifiseerde Cp waarde. Die voorgestelde beheerkaart kan die kwessie rondom die beheer en vermoë gelyktydig aanspreek. 'n Beheerkaartkonstante word ook verskaf om die prosesvermoë indeksgebaseerde beheerkaart te skep. 'n Numeriese voorbeeld word voorgehou om die toepassing van die voorgestelde beheerkaart te illustreer. Die effek van nie-normaliteit word ook bespreek. Die resultaat toon dat die voorgestelde beheerkaart beter vertoon in die monitering en assessering van prosesse en dit elimineer die gewone twee stap prosedure wat in die literatuur gevind word. <![CDATA[<b>Single- and multi-objective ranking and selection procedures in simulation: A historical review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ranking and selection (R) procedures form an important research field in computer simulation and its applications. In simulation, one usually has to select the best from a number of scenarios or alternative designs. Often, the simulated processes have a stochastic nature, which means that, to distinguish alternatives, they must exhibit significant statistical differences. R procedures assist the decision-maker with the selection of the best alternative with high confidence. This paper reviews past and current R procedures. The review traces back to the 1950s, when the first R procedure was proposed, and discusses the various R procedures proposed since then to the present day, presenting a cursory view of the research in the area. The review includes studies in both the single-objective and the multi-objective domains. It presents the research trend, discusses specific issues, and gives recommendations for future research in both domains.<hr/>Rangorde- en keuseprosedures (R) vorm 'n belangrike navorsingsveld in rekenaarsimulasie en -toepassings. Simulasiestudies vereis gewoonlik dat die beste kandidaat van 'n aantal scenarios of alternatiewe ontwerpe gekies moet word. Die gesimuleerde prosesse is gewoonlik van 'n stogastiese aard, en hulle moet statisties-beduidend verskil ten einde onderskeid te kan tref. R prosedures ondersteun die besluitnemer om die beste alternatief met groot vertroue te kies. Hierdie artikel verskaf 'n resensie van vroeë en huidige R prosedures. Die ondersoek strek terug tot in die 1950s toe die eerste R prosedures voorgestel is, en bespreek die verskeie R prosedures wat sedertdien ontwikkel is, terwyl 'n oorsigtelike blik op die navorsingsveld gegee word. Die resensie sluit studies in beide enkel- en multidoelwitdomein in. Dit bespreek navorsingsneigings en spesifieke kwessies, en maak voorstelle vir verdere navorsing in beide domeins. <![CDATA[<b>A transportation model for an effective disaster relief operation in the SADC region</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper reviews some challenges faced by humanitarian logistics and supply chain organisations in the transportation of resources, evacuees, and emergency supplies for disaster relief operations in the SADC region. To identify the appropriate transportation to assist in the region, three models were reviewed and proposed: A typical transportation problem, a genetic algorithm based on a spanning tree, and a linear optimisation using Excel Solver. Reviewing the literature revealed that both man-made and natural disasters have caused over ninety thousand fatalities and affected millions just over the past three decades. A further review shows that most disaster deaths are the result of poor infrastructure, especially in populated areas. This presents a challenge to relief organisations in their efforts to provide on-time relief to victims in pre- and post-disaster periods. Although each proposed transportation problem has particular complexities, each of them could assist the region to decrease the relief operation response time and cost. This paper provides the reader with a greater understanding of the challenges faced by the humanitarian supply chain in the SADC region. This paper proposes a conceptual model based on an actual empirical case.<hr/>Hierdie artikel hersien sommige van die uitdagings wat deur humanitêre logistieke- en voorsieningskettingmaatskappye ervaar word met betrekking tot die vervoer van hulpbronne, ontruiming van vlugtelinge en noodgevalvoorrade vir rampverligting in die Suider-Afrikaanse ontwikkelingsgemeenskap. Om die gepaste vervoertegniek te identifiseer, word drie modelle ondersoek en voorgestel, naamlik 'n tipiese vervoerprobleem, 'n genetiese algoritme gebaseer op 'n uitstrekkende boom en 'n lineêre optimisering. 'n Literatuurstudie het gevind dat beide mensgemaakte- en natuurrampe meer as negentigduisend sterftes veroorsaak het, terwyl dit miljoene geaffekteer het in die afgelope drie dekades. 'n Verdere ondersoek toon ook dat die meeste rampsterftes as gevolg van swak infrastruktuur is, veral in bevolkte areas. Dit skep 'n uitdaging vir rampverligtingorganisasies in hul poging om betyds verligting aan slagoffers te bring. Alhoewel die voorgestelde vervoerprobleme spesifieke kompleksiteite bevat, kon elkeen gebruik word om die streek by te staan om verligtingsaksies se reaksietyd en koste te verminder. 'n Konspetuele model gebaseer op empiriese data word voorgestel. <![CDATA[<b>Framework for identifying the most likely successful underprivileged tertiary study bursary applicants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this paper, a decision support system framework is proposed that may be used to assist a tertiary bursary provider during the process of allocating bursaries to prospective students. The system identifies those in an initial pool of applicants who are expected to be successful tertiary students, to facilitate final selection from a shortlist of candidates. The working of the system is based on various classification models for predicting whether bursary applicants will be successful in their respective tertiary studies. These model predictions are then combined in a weighted fashion to produce a final prediction for each student. In addition, a multi-criteria decision analysis method is used to assign each of the applicants to a ranking level. In this way, the system suggests both a predicted outcome for each candidate and a ranking according to which candidates may be compared. The practical working of the system is demonstrated in the context of real data provided by an industry partner, and the success rate of the system's recommendations is compared with that of the industry partner.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word 'n raamwerk vir 'n besluitsteunstelsel daargestel wat gebruik kan word om 'n tersiêre beursvoorsiener gedurende die beurstekenningsproses aan voornemende studente by te staan. Die stelsel identifiseer aansoekers uit 'n aanvanklike poel vir wie daar 'n verwagting bestaan dat hulle suksesvolle tersiêre studente sal wees, om sodoende die finale seleksieproses uit 'n kortlys te fasiliteer. Die werking van die stelsel berus op verskeie klassifikasiemodelle vir die voorspelling van sukses van aansoekers tydens hul voorgenome tersiêre studies. Hierdie modelvoorspellings word dan op 'n geweegde wyse gekombineer om 'n oorkoepelende voorspelling vir elke student daar te stel. Daar word ook van 'n multi-kriteria besluitnemingsmetode gebruik gemaak om elkeen van die aansoekers aan 'n rangorde vlak toe te ken. Op hierdie wyse lewer die stelsel beide 'n voorspelling aangaande die verwagte sukses van elke kandidaat en 'n ranglys waarvolgens kandidate met mekaar vergelyk kan word. Die praktiese werkbaarheid van die stelsel word aan die hand van werklike data wat deur 'n industrie-vennoot verskaf is, gedemonstreer, en die sukseskoers van die stelsel se aanbevelings word met dié van die industrie-vennoot vergelyk. <![CDATA[<b>Water resource infrastructure implications of a green economy transition in the Western Cape province of South Africa: A system dynamics approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Western Cape Province government in South Africa has established the transition to a green economy as a high priority. The sustainable use of water resources has been identified as a critical necessity for such a green economy transition. The research summarised in this paper conceptualised the factors that relate to water resources, and that influence the transition to a green economy in the Western Cape Province. Subsequently, a system dynamics model was developed to evaluate the impact of key strategic interventions of the green economy transition. The results from the model show that the Province could possibly experience extreme water shortages in the near future if a business-as-usual scenario continues. However, with sufficient investment and effective management, the water demand of the Province can be met.<hr/>Die Wes-Kaapse Provinsiale regering in Suid-Afrika het die oorgang na 'n groen ekonomie as 'n hoë prioriteit gestel. Die volhoubare gebruik van waterbronne is geïdentifiseer as 'n noodsaaklikheid vir so 'n groen ekonomie oorgang. Hierdie navorsing som die faktore wat verband hou met waterbronne, en wat die oorgang na 'n groen ekonomie in die Wes-Kaap Provinsie kan beïnvloed op. Daarna is 'n stelsel dinamika model ontwikkel om die impak van die belangrikste strategiese ingrypings van die groen ekonomie oorgang te evalueer. Die resultate van die model toon dat die provinsie moontlik uiterste watertekorte in die nabye toekoms as ervaar indien die huidige gebruiklike scenario voortduur. Maar met voldoende investering en doeltreffende bestuur, kan die vraag n water in die Provinsie bevredig word. <![CDATA[<b>An approach to improving marketing campaign effectiveness and customer experience using geospatial analytics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article discusses a case study in which a South African furniture and household goods retailer wishes to improve its marketing campaigns by employing location-based marketing insights, and also to prioritise customer satisfaction. This paper presents two methods used in an exploratory exercise with the aim of improving the retailer's business in these ways. The methods of customer profiling and identifying geographical customer clusters summarise how the retailer's strategic marketing strategies and customer experience can be improved. The methods presented in this article rely on the use of spatial data to solve the business problems.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bespreek 'n gevallestudie waarin 'n Suid-Afrikaanse meubel-en-huishoudelike goedere handelaar beoog om hul bemarkingsveldtogte te verbeter deur plek-gebaseerde bemarkingsinsigte, en verder, om kliënt-tevredenheid te prioriteseer. Hierdie artikel stel twee metodes voor, wat toegepas word in 'n verkennende oefening met die doel om die kleinhandelaar se besigheid te verbeter. Die skepping van kliënteprofiele en die identifikasie van geografiese-gebaseerde kliëntebondels wys hoe die kleinhandelaar se bemarkingstrategië en kliënt-tevredenheid verbeter kan word. Die metodes in hierdie artikel maak gebruik van ruimtelike data om die kleinhandelaar se besigheidsprobleme op te los. <![CDATA[<b>Technology profiling for emerging commercial cotton farmers in the Makhathini Region</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This research article profiles cotton technology in the Makhathini region, focusing on the extent to which it is available to support farmers Although Makhathini Farmers have produced cotton for more than 10 years at a subsistence level, and despite using the related technology extensively, the farmers' mission remains to produce cotton commercial. The technology mentioned in the study is available worldwide, as well as locally. The technology accessed is readily available to the local farmers. Representatives of 13 Farmers' Associations were interviewed and a response rate of 13/13 (100 percent) was obtained. The findings indicate overwhelming use of technology by the farmers. Yet an issue that is unresolved is why farmers are not producing at a commercial level despite the aid of technology.<hr/>'n Profiel van die katoen tegnologie gebruik in die Makhatini streek word aangespreek in hierdie navorsingsartikel. Die fokus van die artikel is gerig op die mate van ondersteuning beskikbaar aan die boere in die streek. Die klein boere verbou die afgelope 10 jaar katoen in die streek. Die verbouing van katoen is meer gerig op oorlewings boerdery, maar dit is 'n oogmerk van die boere om in die toekoms katoen op 'n kommersiële vlak te verbou. Die tegnologie waarna verwys word in die artikel is globaal sowel as plaaslik van toepassing in die verbouing van katoen en is vrylik beskikbaar aan die boere in die streek. Gestruktureerde onderhoude is met boere van 13 plaaslike boere verenigings gevoer en die navorser het daarin geslaag om 'n 100 persent terugvoer reaksie hiermee te verkry. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat boere in die streek tegnologie gebruik in die verbouing van katoen. Die onbeantwoorde vraag is dan waarom die verbouing van katoen nie op 'n kommersiële vlak plaasvind nie. <![CDATA[<b>The application of business process mining to improving a physical asset management process: A case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Business process planning and control is important for effectively managing and improving processes relating to the management of physical assets. This is especially true when processes affect the uptime and value creation by physical assets. This article presents a case study where an asset management process is analysed using a technique called 'process mining', with which it is possible to investigate the process as it is being performed in the real world. By applying process mining instead of a traditional mathematical approach, real-world issues can be identified and corrected to improve the effectiveness of the given process. A process model is first constructed to investigate process execution patterns, after which dotted charts are used to identify problem areas within the process and to propose possible areas for improvement.<hr/>Besigheidsprosesbeplanning en -beheer is belangrik vir die doeltreffende en die verbetering van prosesse wat verband hou met die bestuur van fisiese bates. Dit is veral waar wanneer prosesse beïnvloed word deur die operasionele tyd en waardeskepping van die fisiese bates. Hierdie artikel bied 'n gevallestudie aan waar 'n batebestuur proses ontleed word met behulp van 'n tegniek genaamd prosesmyn. Met prosesmyn, is dit moontlik om die proses te ondersoek soos dit uitgevoer word in die werklikheid. Deur die toepassing van prosesmyn in plaas van 'n tradisionele wiskundige benadering te volg, kan regte wêreld kwessies geïdentifiseer en reggestel word om die doeltreffendheid van die gegewe prosesse te verbeter. 'n Proses model word eers gebou om die uitvoering van die proses te ondersoek, en daarna word kolkaarte gebruik om probleemareas te identifiseer binne die proses vir moontlike verbetering. <![CDATA[<b>Using Monte Carlo simulation to create a ranked check list of risks in a portfolio of railway construction projects</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en When introducing quantified risk assessments at a South African state-owned freight company, a skills gap was found during the identification and quantified risk analysis. To help with risk identification, a checklist of risks for railway construction projects was developed. The basis of this checklist was 38 individual railway construction project risk registers that were collated into a single risk register. After the risks had been cleaned up and classified, a Monte Carlo simulation using @Risk software was done that produced a ranked check list of risks. This list of risks is valuable because subject matter experts developed it, and can be used as a risk identification checklist by stakeholders in similar projects. The simulation results also showed that project scope is an influencing factor on the ranking of risks.<hr/>Tydens die bekendstelling van gekwantifiseerde risikowaardebepalings by 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervoermaatskappy in staatsbesit, is daar 'n tekort aan vaardighede gevind tydens risiko-identifisering en 'n gekwantifiseerde risiko-analise. Om hierdie probleem te beredder, is 'n lys van spoorbaankonstruksie risikos ontwikkel. Die basis van hierdie lys was 38 individuele spoorbaankonstruksie projek risiko registers wat opgeneem is in 'n enkele risiko register. Na afloop hiervan is die risiko register skoongemaak, geklassifiseer, en 'n Monte Carlo-simulasie met behulp @Risk sagteware gedoen wat 'n ranglys van risikos geproduseer het. Hierdie ranglys wys dat die projek omvang 'n invloed het op die posisie van risikos in die ranglys. <![CDATA[<b>Diffusion of a quality management system: A case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The diffusion of a quality management system (QMS) to improve business performance depends upon the quality management strategy used. The aim of Eskom's QMS strategy was to create a sustainable quality drive throughout the company to improve customer and stakeholder satisfaction. This research project's objective is to determine how the diffusion of a QMS can improve the electricity supply industry in the Western Cape division of the electricity sector in South Africa. A quantitative research methodology was employed in the study. The responses to a survey questionnaire were analysed and conclusions were drawn. The research finding is that diffusion of a QMS improves the electricity industry by positively affecting attitudes towards the challenge of securing a sustainable long-term energy supply; improving processes and practices; engendering a quality culture; and contributing towards continual improvement. At the same time, certain barriers to the implementation of a sustainable QMS were identified.<hr/>Die verspreiding van 'n kwaliteitbestuurstelsel (KBS) om die maatskappy se prestasie te verbeter hang af van die kwaliteit bestuurstrategie. Die doel van Eskom se KBS strategie was om 'n volhoubare gehalte inisiatief deur die hele maatskappy te skep ten einde die kliënt en belanghebbendes se tevredenheid te verbeter. Die doel van hierdie navorsingsprojek is om te bepaal hoe die verspreiding van 'n KBS die elektrisiteitsvoorsieningsbedryf in die Wes-Kaap afdeling van die elektrisiteit sektor in Suid-Afrika kan verbeter. 'n Kwantitatiewe navorsingsmetodologie is in die studie gebruik. Die resultate van 'n meningsopname vraelys was ontleed en gevolgtrekkings is gemaak. Die navorsing bevinding is dat diffusie van 'n KBS verbeter die elektrisiteitsbedryf deur ingesteldhede positief te beïnvloed teenoor die uitdaging van die verkryging van 'n volhoubare langtermyn energievoorsiening; die verbetering van prosesse en praktyke; die kweek van 'n kwaliteit kultuur; en by te dra tot voortdurende verbetering. Terselfdertyd, word sekere hindernisse tot die implementering van 'n volhoubare KBS geïdentifiseer. <![CDATA[<b>A decision support system framework for localisation investment selection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Formulating localisation strategies is crucial to ensuring the development of local suppliers, which in turn results in job creation, increased export earnings, and local and national economic growth. The aim of this article is to present a generic decision support system (DSS) to guide localisation decision-making. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to develop the model, which is then applied to a biometric identity management system (BIMS) case study that places the study within the context of the tool, die and mould-making (TDM) industry of South Africa.<hr/>Die formulering van lokaliseringstrategieë is van kardinale belang om die ontwikkeling van plaaslike verskaffers te verseker, wat op sy beurt lei tot werkskepping, verhoogde uitvoerverdienste, en plaaslike en nasionale ekonomiese groei. Die doel van die artikel is om 'n generiese besluit ondersteunings stelsel (BOS) vir lokalisering besluitneming aan te bied. Multi-kriteria besluitneming analise (MKBA) word gebruik om die lokalisering besluit ondersteuning stelsel te ontwikkel. Die model is van toepassing op 'n biometriese identiteit bestuur stelsel (BIMS) gevallestudie, wat die studie plaas binne die konteks van die 'tool, die and mould-making' (TDM) bedryf van Suid-Afrika.