Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Industrial Engineering]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-789020170001&lang=en vol. 28 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Note from the editor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Factors that impact knowledge dissemination in projects</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Knowledge dissemination, as part of the knowledge exchange process, is particularly challenging in any project environment due to the temporary nature of projects. Although several studies in the earlier literature studied the factors that influence knowledge exchange, very few examined them from the 'knowledge push' perspective. This study aims, therefore, to highlight the critical factors that impact knowledge dissemination in a project environment. This empirical research found ten critical factors, such as individual experience, trust, source credibility, shared understanding, motivation, and articulability. These individual factors seem to have a dominant influence on knowledge dissemination from the view point of the knowledge source.<hr/>Kennisverspreiding, as deel van die kennis uitruilproses, is besonders uitdagend in enige projek omgewing as gevolg van die tydelike aard van die projekte. Alhoewel verskeie studies in die literatuur die faktore wat kennis uitruiling bei'nvloed, bestudeer het, is daar min studies wat dit vanuit 'n "kennisuitstoot" perspektief oorweeg. Hierdie artikel lig dus om die kritiese faktore wat kennis verspreiding in 'n projek omgewing bei'nvloed, uit. Hierdie empiriese navorsing het tien faktore identifiseer, onder andere individuele ervaring, vertroue, bronbetroubaarheid, gedeelde verstaan, motivering en artikuleerbaarheid. Hierdie individuele faktore blyk om 'n dominante invloed op die kennis verspreiding vanuit die oogpunt van kennisbron te he. <![CDATA[<b>Microstructural and thermal stability of selective laser melted 316l stainless steel single tracks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en To remove residual stresses, an as-built SLM object is usually post-treated. This treatment can affect the microstructure, changing the final mechanical characteristics. This investigation is focused on the microstructural characterisation of 316L austenitic stainless steel in as-built and annealed conditions. The SLM microstructure was relatively stable up to 900°C, when cell boundaries start to disappear. At higher temperatures, an insignificant grain coarsening was detected. These microstructural changes caused a gradual drop in the hardness. The obtained result is background for the future development of post-treatment regimens to achieve a high level in the final mechanical properties of SLM objects.<hr/>Om die res-spannings in 'n lasergesinterde metaalvoorwerp te verwyder, word die voorwerp gewoonlik na die tyd behandel. Hierdie behandeling kan die mikrostruktuur beïnvloed, wat kan lei tot n verandering in die meganiese eienskappe. Hierdie ondersoek fokus op die mikrostruktuur karakterisering van 316L austenitiese vlekvrye staal in die soos-vervaardige en uitgegloeide toestande. Die lasergesinterde metaal mikrostruktuur was relatief stabiel tot 900°C, waarna alle selgrense begin verdwyn het. By hoër temperature is onbeduidende grein vergrowwing bespeur. Hierdie mikrostruktuur veranderinge veroorsaak 'n geleidelike afname in die hardheid van die voorwerp. Dié resultaat skep die basis vir verdere ontwikkeling van die behandeling skedules om 'n hoë vlak in die finale meganiese eienskappe van lasergesinterde metaalvoorwerpe te verkry. <![CDATA[<b>Analysis of policy options for projects in the electricity sector in sub- Saharan Africa: a system dynamics approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Many projects in the electricity energy sector in Africa's sub-Saharan region experience delays and challenges to quality, leading to frequent power outages that slow overall economic activity and frustrate investor confidence in the region. This paper presents the systemic methods employed to evaluate the dynamic consequences of policies in electricity energy sector projects in the region. The model uses the Vensim software to carry out the simulations. A range of illustrative scenarios are provided and analysed, and the paper compares and contrasts these different scenarios. The results show that there is merit in improving project management competence in the region. A shortage of commissioning engineers also emerged as a major problem in the projects, leading to multitasking as the few existing commissioning engineers move from one project to another. To address this weakness, the study proposes that contracting firms be compelled to employ a higher proportion of commissioning engineers.<hr/>Baie projekte in die elektrisiteit energiesektor in die sub-Sahara-Afrika streek ervaar kwaliteit uitdagings en vertragings, wat lei tot gereelde kragonderbrekings. Dit verlangsaam die algehele ekonomiese aktiwiteit en frustreer beleggersvertroue in die streek. Hierdie artikel bied die sistemiese metodes wat gebruik is om die dinamiese gevolge van beleid in die elektrisiteit energiesektor projekte in die streek te evalueer. Die model maak gebruik van die Vensim sagteware om die simulasies uit te voer. 'n Verskeidenheid van illustratiewe scenario's word aangebied en ontleed, en die verskillende scenario's word vergelyk en kontrasteer. Die resultate wys dat daar meriete is in die verbetering van projekbestuur kundigheid in die streek. Die tekort aan ingenieurs wat die projekte kan uitvoer, is ook uitgewys as 'n groot problem, waar die van die ingenieurs verwag word om met 'n multi-taak benadering tussen die projekte te beweeg. Om dit te adresseer, word daar voorgestel dat die kontrakteurs 'n groter hoeveelheid van die ingenieurs moet indiens neem. <![CDATA[<b>Multi-criteria grey relational approach to evaluating reconfigurable manufacturing configurations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In response to highly dynamic markets, manufacturing industries need alternative feasible manufacturing strategies. The strategy currently adopted is to reconfigure the existing manufacturing system. The conditions to reconfigure existing configurations change from time to time. An attempt is made to identify and apply an approach to evaluate these configurations. The paper proposes a grey relational decision-making approach. The approach takes into account multiple performance measures. The ProModel 6.2 simulation platform is adopted to examine the performance of each feasible alternative manufacturing configuration.<hr/>Vervaardigingsindustrieë het alternatiewe, uitvoerbare vervaardig-ing-strategieë nodig om by die hoogs dinamiese markte aan te pas. Die huidige strategie is om die bestaande vervaardigingstelsel te herkonfigureer. Die omstandighede om bestaande konfigurasies te herkonfigureer verander met tyd. 'n Poging word gemaak om 'n benadering te identifiseer en toe te pas om hierdie konfigurasies te evalueer. 'n Grys-verwante besluitmakingsbenadering word voorgestel. Die benadering neem veelvuldige vertonings-maatstawwe in ag. Die ProModel 6.2 simulasie platform is gebruik om die vertoning van elke uitvoerbare alternatiewe vervaardiging konfigurasie te ondersoek. <![CDATA[<b>The use of macro-ergonomic work system designs to reduce musculoskeletal disorders and injury risk in training</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Training based on competency is a government effort to improve employee candidates' job competence. The Technical Implementation Unit of the Technopark Ganesha Sukowati Sragen is a training centre in the Sragen Regency. Ergonomic issues have still not received attention in some training programmes. The work system design is constructed to support the achievement of the agency's vision and mission, using the macro-ergonomic analysis and design approach (MEAD). Research results show that the key variance is the installation of embroidery hoops, which is difficult and time-consuming. Integration of the work system with ergonomic designs is necessary to create a pleasant training environment and to improve job competence. The new designs include adjustable seats, embroidery hoops tables with a foot rest, improved lighting, facemasks, earplugs, and a drinking water facility. The workshop layout is designed to follow the work process. The trainees also participated in stretching exercises before training began. A t-test was conducted with the same research design and the same subject, and the results showed a reduction of up to 60.39 per cent in musculoskeletal disorders and a reduction of up to 22.2 per cent in the risk of injury<hr/>Opleiding met bevoegdheid as basis is 'n regeringspoging om die werknemer kandidate se werksvertoning te verbeter. Die Tegniese Implementeringseenheid van die Technopark Ganesha Sukowati Sragen is 'n opleidingsentrum in die Sragen regentskap in Indonésie. Ergonomiese kwessies het nog nie aandag in sommige opleidings-programme gekry nie. Die werkstelsel is ontwerp om die sukses van die agentskap se visie en missie te ondersteun deur gebruik te maak van die makro-ergonomiese analise- en ontwerpbenadering. Navorsingresultate toon dat die sleutel variansie die installasie van borduurhoepels is, omdat dit moeilik en tydrowend is. Integrasie van die werksisteem met ergonomiese ontwerpe is nodig om 'n aangename opleidingsomgewing te skep en sodoende werkbevoegdheid te skep. Die nuwe ontwerp sluit verstelbare sitplekke, tafels met 'n voetrus, verbeterde beligting, gesigmaskers, oorpluisies en drinkwater in. Die werkswinkel uitleg is ontwerp om die werkproses te volg. Die vakleerlinge het ook in strekoefeninge deelgeneem voor opleiding 'n aanvang geneem het. 'n T-toets is uitgevoer met dieselfde navorsingsontwerp en dieselfde proefpersoon. Die resultate toon 'n vermindering van tot 60.39 persent in spier-skelet afwykings en 'n vermindering van tot 22.2 persent in die risiko dat n besering gaan plaasvind. <![CDATA[<b>A decision support system for strategic, tactical and operational visit planning for on-the-road personnel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The use of a decision support system (DSS) for efficiently optimising and managing field workers' visits is discussed. This tool was designed after years of consulting experience and algorithmic research. It includes not only an innovative memetic algorithm to solve very large problems with realistic features and constraints, but also analytic tools and mapping capabilities to compare scenarios. As practitioners, we include some insights from case studies done at strategic, tactical, and operational decision levels. The system solves scenarios at all three decision levels simultaneously, not sequentially. The empirical studies highlight some misconceptions that are present in industry in planning visits for on-the-road personnel activities.<hr/>Die gebruik van 'n besluitnemingsondersteuningstelsel om veldwerkers te bestuur en optimeer word beskou. Die stelsel is ontwikkel na jare se ondervinding as konsultante en navorsing oor algoritmes. Dit sluit nie net 'n innoverende memetiese algoritme in om baie groot probleme op te los nie, maar bevat ook analitiese funksies en 'n vermoë om scenario's met mekaar te vergelyk. As praktisyns sluit ons insigte in van gevallestudies wat ons gedoen het op strategiese, taktiese, en operasionele vlakke. Die stelsel los scenario's op al drie besluitnemingsvlakke gelyktydig, nie sekwensieel nie, op. Die empiriese studies lig 'n aantal wanopvattings uit wat in die praktyk oor die beplanning van reisende personeelaktiwiteite bestaan. <![CDATA[<b>The dynamics of regional economic integration: a system dynamics analysis of pathways to the development of value chains in the southern African customs union</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Despite progress towards improved cooperation within the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), it can be argued that real economic integration is still lacking. Cross-border value chain (VC) development has been proposed as a potential enabler of regional economic integration. This article draws on a systems thinking process to explore the dynamic process of regional economic integration and value chain development. Through an inductive approach, we consider pathways for value chain development using the agro-processing and automotive sectors within SACU as case studies. The outcome of the dynamic hypothesis is to inform a framework for strategic decision-making to support policy action towards developing cross-border value chains in SACU.<hr/>Ten spyte van vooruitgang in beter samewerking binne die Suider-Afrikaanse Doeane-Unie (SADU), kan dit aangevoer word dat ware ekonomiese integrasie nog ontbreek. Die ontwikkeling van oorgrens-waardekettings word beskou as 'n moontlike drywer van plaaslike ekonomiese integrasie. Hierdie artikel maak gebruik van 'n stelseldenke proses om die dinamiese proses van streekswye ekonomiese integrasie en waardeketting ontwikkeling te ondersoek. Ons gebruik 'n induktiewe benadering om roetes tot waardeketting ontwikkeling deur middel van gevallestudies in landbou-verwerking en die motorsektor, te ondersoek. Die uitkoms van die dinamiese hipotese is om 'n raamwerk te ontwikkel om strategiese besluitneming en beleidsaksie vir die ontwikkeling van oorgrens-waardekettings in SADU te ondersteun. <![CDATA[<b>Facility location of organ procurement organisations in Indian health care supply chain management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In health care supply chain management, particularly in the area of organ transplantation, organ procurement and the transplantation network play an important role. The organ procurement organisation (OPO) should coordinate so that organs are prepared and transported to the recipients when donors become available. The scarcity of organ supply leads to life-challenging issues for the organ recipient. In this research, the importance of the location of OPOs to coordinate with the transplant centres in India is considered, and a solution is provided by facilitating the identification of locations where organs can be procured and distributed to the nearest transplant location. The location of the distribution centres of organs are identified, based on the p-median model. This model minimises the weighted distance of the organ recipients. Initially, the demand or the population density of organ recipients with respect to particular location is recognised. Then, based on the p-median model, the location of OPOs is effectively identified. Experimental analysis proves that the proposed model performs well in facilitating the location of OPOs. The robustness of the proposed work is validated using a sensitivity analysis of the differences in the selection of OPOs when the estimated demand for organs varies.<hr/>Orgaanverkryging en die oorplantingsnetwerk speel 'n belangrike rol in die voorsieningkettingbestuur van gesondheidsorg. Die orgaan verkrygingsorganisasie moet koordineer dat organe voorberei en vervoer word na ontvangers soos wat skenkers beskikbaar word. Die skaarsheid gekoppel aan orgaanverskaffing lei tot lewensgevaarlike situasies vir die orgaanontvanger. Die belangrikheid van die ligging van orgaan verkrygingsorganisasies word oorweeg en n oplossing word verskaf deur die liggings waar organe verkry en versprei kan word na die naaste oorplantingsentrum te identifiseer. Die ligging van die verspreidingsentrums word deur middel van die p-mediaan model identifiseer. Die model minimeer die geweegde afstand tot by die orgaanontvangers. Eksperimentele analise bewys dat die voorgestelde model daarin slaag om die orgaan verkrygings-organisasies se liggings te fasiliteer. Die robuustheid van die voorgestelde model is gevalideer deur middel van 'n sensitiwiteits-analise van die verskille in die seleksie van orgaan verkrygings-organisasies wanneer die geskatte vraag na organe wissel. <![CDATA[<b>Lean applications: a survey of publications with respect to South African industry </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en South African industry faces immense global competition from developed countries such as Germany probably because of the adoption of lean manufacturing techniques by the latter. This study is a survey on publications concerning implementation and adoption of lean manufacturing in South Africa. To assess South Africa with regards to research publications on lean manufacturing, a benchmark exercise was conducted with Germany for the period 2014 to 2015. The study concludes by highlighting the gaps identified during this survey and recommendations.<hr/>Die Suid-Afrikaanse industrie staar hewige globale mededinging vanaf ontwikkelde lande soos Duitsland in die gesig, waarskynlik as gevolg van die aanneming van lenige vervaardigingstegnieke deur die laasgenoemde. Hierdie navorsing is 'n beskouing van die publikasies oor die implementering en aanneming van lenige vervaardiging in Suid-Afrika. Om Suid-Afrika te beoordeel aan die hand van navorsingsuitsette met lenige vervaardiging as die onderwerp, is 'n maatstaf oefening uitgevoer met soortgelyke publikasies in Duitsland in die periode van 2014 tot 2015. Die navorsing lig die gapings so geidentifiseer uit en maak aanbevelings hieroor. <![CDATA[<b>Industry 4.0 learning factory didactic design parameters for industrial engineering education in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en To manage the impact of Industry 4.0 on industrial engineering (IE) education curriculum requirements, realistic teaching and learning infrastructure such as a learning factory are required. This paper scans the literature to determine Industry 4.0's principles and interactions with IE and a learning factory, surveys relevant universities by questionnaire to determine its current status and practices, and formulates didactic design parameters for an Industry 4.0 learning factory to support IE education in South Africa, making use of existing models of cyber-physical systems and learning factory morphology. In other results, the technical universities are discovered to be more positively disposed, in general terms, to developing an Industry 4.0 learning factory than are the traditional programmes which, with one exception, prefer computational facilities. Of ten universities that offer IE, only one - a traditional programme - has made significant progress towards creating an Industry 4.0 learning factory.<hr/>Om die impak van Industrie 4.0 op die bedryfsingenieurswese (BI) kurrikulum te bestuur vereis realistiese onderrig en leer infrastruktuur, soos 'n "leer-fabriek". In hierdie artikel is 'n literatuur studie uitgevoer om die beginsels van Industrie 4.0 te bepaal en die interaksies daarvan met BI en 'n "leer-fabriek", 'n vraelys is aan relevante universiteite gerig om die universiteit se huidige status en praktyke in hierdie verband te bepaal, en didaktiese ontwerp parameters vir 'n Industrie 4.0 "leer-fabriek" word geformuleer binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. Hierdie formulering maak gebruik van bestaande modelle van kuber-fisiese stelsels en "leer-fabriek" morfologie. Verdere resultate toon dat universiteite van tegnologie meer positief gesind is as tradisionele universiteite, wat (met die uitsondering van een geval) berekenings-fasiliteite verkies. Van die tien universiteite wat BI aanbied, het slegs een ('n tradisionele universiteit) noemenswaardige vordering gemaak tot die oprig van 'n Industrie 4.0 "leer-fabriek". <![CDATA[<b>Supporting high-technology systems during periods of extended life-cycles by means of integrated logistics support</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The business environment is constantly changing. For organisations to gain competitive advantage, they require innovative methods to achieve future business goals. The capital assets of an organisation, such as its high-technology, complex systems, typically have long life-cycles, and are susceptible to obsolescence, requiring multifaceted support. Implementing integrated logistic support principles in supporting such systems improves the organisation's bottom line and reduces the total ownership and life-cycle costs. The research consists of a literature review, a case study analysis, and a questionnaire.<hr/>Die sake-omgewing verander voortdurend. Om 'n kompeterende voordeel te verkry benodig organisasies innoverende metodes om toekomstige besigheidsdoelwitte te behaal. Die kapitaalbates van 'n organisasie, soos hoë-vlak tegnologie en komplekse stelsels het tipies lang leefsiklusse en is geneig om te verouder, wat veelsydige ondersteuning vereis. Die implementering van logistiese ondersteuningsbeginsels in sulke stelsels verbeter die organisasie se winsgrens en verminder die totale eienaarskap- en leefsikluskostes. Hierdie navorsing bestaan uit 'n literatuurstudie, 'n gevallestudie analise en 'n meningsopname vraelys. <![CDATA[<b>Implications for the agriculture sector of a green economy transition in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: a system dynamics modelling approach to food crop production</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Western Cape Provincial government in South Africa has introduced a green economy framework, 'Green is Smart', to create a more sustainable economy. This framework stipulates plans for the Western Cape Province to implement more sustainable farming practices for food crop production. While sustainable farming practices will have benefits for the environment, they will also impact food crop production and will require financial investments from stakeholders. To comprehend fully the problem at hand, and to understand better the implications of a green economy transition for the food crop production system, system dynamics modelling was undertaken. The model's findings highlight that sustainable farming practices will only be financially and environmentally viable if they match the yields of conventional farming practices.<hr/>Die Wes-Kaapse Provinsiale regering in Suid-Afrika het 'n groenekonomie raamwerk, 'Green is Smart', bekendgestel met die doel om 'n meer volhoubare ekonomie te skep. Hierdie raamwerk bepaal planne vir die Wes-Kaapse Provinsie om meer volhoubare voedselproduksie- en boerderypraktyke te implementeer. Terwyl volhoubare boerderypraktyke voordele vir die omgewing het, sal dit ook 'n impak op voedselproduksie hê, en sal finansiële beleggings van belanghebbendes vereis. Om die probleem ten volle te begryp, en om die implikasies van 'n groenekonomie oorgang vir die produksie voedselgewasstelsel beter te verstaan, is stelsel dinamika modellering onderneem. Die model se bevindinge beklemtoon dat volhoubare boerderypraktyke net finansieel en omgewings-vriendelik lewensvatbaar sal wees as dit kompeterend is met opbrengste van konvensionele boerderypraktyke. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring variability among quality management system auditors when rating the severity of audit findings at a nuclear power plant</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A reliable quality assurance (QA) function in the nuclear environment is underpinned by the effective identification of risk, and by effective decision-making processes in relation to the risk identified. The need for competent auditors who are able to remain objective and independent at all times forms a critical component of this process. This exploratory study sought to determine reasons for the noted inconsistency among auditors when rating the severity of audit findings, and to provide recommendations to reduce this variability. The Delphi technique, a structured process to gather information from a panel of experts, was adopted to enable multiple iterations of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, in an attempt to mimic the elements of a sequential exploratory strategy related to a mixed method methodology.<hr/>'n Betroubare gehalteversekeringsfunskie in die kern omgewing word ondersteun deur die effektiewe identifikasie van risiko sowel as doeltreffende besluitnemingsprosesse met betrekking tot die geidentifiseerde risiko. Die behoefte aan bekwame ouditeure wat in staat is om objektief en onafhanklik te bly ten alle tye, is 'n kritieke komponent van hierdie proses. Hierdie verkennende studie het gepoog om die redes vir die bekende teenstrydigheid te bepaal onder ouditeure wanneer die erns van ouditbevindinge beoordeel word; en om aanbevelings om die bekende variasie te verminder te verskaf. Die Delphi-tegniek, 'n gestruktureerde proses vir die insameling van inligting uit 'n paneel van kundiges, is aangeneem om verskeie iterasies van kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe data-insameling en analise in staat te stel, in 'n poging om die elemente van 'n opeenvolgende verkennende strategie na te boots. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment and prediction of industrial workers' fatigue in an overhead assembly job</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This paper intends to predict time-related fatigue experienced among workers involved in the overhead assembly of submersible pumps. Borg's CR-10 scale, the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale (SPFS), and dimensions of the Swedish occupational fatigue inventory (SOFI) were used to assess and predict fatigue. The results of a temporal analysis indicate that fatigue levels in this type of job increase throughout the work at a diminishing rate. Exploratory analysis revealed that Borg's CR-10 scale is more reliable than SPFS in predicting fatigue. It was also observed that the physical discomfort dimension of SOFI is the predominant one for predicting fatigue in the selected task. Older and more experienced groups of workers showed significantly increased fatigue, while body mass index (BMI)-based groups did not show such differences.<hr/>Hierdie artikel poog om die tyd-verwante uitputting wat deur werkers wat dompelpompe oorhoofs monteer te voorspel. Borg se CR-10 skaal, die Samn-Perelli uitputtingskaal en sekere dimensies van die Sweedse arbeidsuitputtingsinventaris is gebruik om uitputting te beoordeel en te voorspel. Die resultate van 'n temporale analise dui daarop dat uitputtingsvlakke in hierdie tipe werk toeneem teen 'n verminderende tempo. Ondersoekende analise toon dat Borg se CR-10 skaal meer betroubaar as die Samn-Perelli skaal is om uitputting te voorspel. Daar is ook waargeneem dat die fisiese ongemak dimensie van die Sweedse arbeidsuitputtingsinventaris die oorheersende dimensie is om uitputting te voorspel vir die spesifieke taak. Ouer en meer ervare groepe werkers het noemenswaardig verminderde uitputting getoon. Daarteenoor het groepe wat volgens die liggaamsmassa-indeks ingedeel is nie sulke verskille aan die lig gebring nie. <![CDATA[<b>Application of lean tools in the supply chain of a maintenance environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Historically, Lean thinking has limited applications in the maintenance environment (that is, a non-manufacturing environment). This article reports on the Lean tools that can be implemented in the maintenance environment. To achieve this, a typical supply chain management of a rolling stock service organisation was used for analysis and validation. The approach was initially to map the current supply chain process through a standard method of value stream mapping so as to identify non-Lean activities. After mapping the current state, other suitable Lean tools for the current supply chain management were applied. Finally, performance Indicators were formulated for continuous review and assessment.<hr/>Tradisioneel word lenige denke nie in die instandhoudingsomgewing (nie-vervaardiging) toegepas nie. In hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen oor lenige metodes wat in instandhoudingstoepassings gebruik kan word. Om dit moontlik te maak, is die bestuur van 'n tipiese voorsieningketting in 'n rollende materiaal diensorganisasie gebruik vir analise en validasie. Aanvanklik is die bestaande voorsieningskettingproses grafies voorgestel deur gebruik te maak van 'n diagram van die waardestroom om sodoende die nie-lenige aktiwiteite te identifiseer. Hierna is ander relevante lenige metodes op die bestaande voorsieningsketting toegepas. Uiteindelik is prestasie indikatore geformuleer om deurlopende hersiening en assessering moontlik te maak. <![CDATA[<b>A multi-objective approach to the assignment of stock keeping units to unidirectional picking lines</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-78902017000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An order picking system in a distribution centre consisting of parallel unidirectional picking lines is considered. The objectives are to minimise the walking distance of the pickers, the largest volume of stock on a picking line over all picking lines, the number of small packages, and the total penalty incurred for late distributions. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective multiple knapsack problem that is not solvable in a realistic time. Population-based algorithms, including the artificial bee colony algorithm and the genetic algorithm, are also implemented. The results obtained from all algorithms indicate a substantial improvement on all objectives relative to historical assignments. The genetic algorithm delivers the best performance.<hr/>'n Stelsel vir die opmaak van bestellings bestaande uit parallelle eenrigting uitsoeklyne in 'n distribusiesentrum word beskou. Die doelwitte is om die loopafstand van die werkers, die grootste volume van voorraad op 'n uitsoeklyn oor alle uitsoeklyne, die aantal klein pakkette, en die totale koste van laat distribusies te minimeer. Die probleem word geformuleer as 'n meerdoelige veelvuldige rugsakprobleem, maar kan nie in 'n realistiese tyd opgelos word nie. Bevolking-gebaseerde algoritmes, insluitend die kunsmatige by-kolonie-algoritme en genetiese algoritme, is ook geïmplementeer. Al die algoritmes verkry 'n beduidende verbetering op historiese toewysings vir al die doelwitte. Die genetiese algoritme vaar die beste.