Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus (SPiL Plus)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-338020170003&lang=es vol. 53 num. lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Using multimodal pedagogies in writing centres to improve student writing</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper focuses on the affordances of multimodal pedagogies in writing centre environments to improve student writing. Writing centres have the potential to function as change agents, contributing towards changing the dominant attitudes to language and texts. Multimodal pedagogies encourage the use of a range of modes (such as talk, writing, music and images) and a range of resources (including multilingual, experiential, embodied and technology-enriched resources). This paper explores how consultants and students use a range of modes and ensembles of modes to develop thinking and learning in a multilingual and diverse higher education context. The dual role of consultants, being both 'reproducers' and 'interrogators' of academic discourse, is touched upon, and the importance of 'recognising' and drawing on the 'brought-along' resources in the training of consultants is highlighted. The unique nature of one-on-one consultations in the tertiary environment is explored, as well as the ways in which this pedagogical space can be enhanced through the use of multimodal pedagogies. To this end, the paper examines talk as an important mode in improving writing. It also interrogates working on the screen versus the page, the affordances of mind mapping, and the balancing of creativity and constraints in the writing consultation. The aim is to theorise a multimodal approach to improving student writing through the examination of practice. The contention is that multimodal pedagogies can acknowledge consultants and students as agentive, resourceful and creative meaning-makers. This is particularly relevant in a context in which autonomous and decontextualised models of student support persist and students continue to be constructed as 'lacking' in resources. <![CDATA[<b>The value of Actor-Network Theory and an ethnographical research strategy in exploring educational interpreting at Stellenbosch University</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Namate die sosiale wending in vertaalstudie toenemend inslag gevind het, het navorsers begin fokus op die menslike agente betrokke by vertalings, en op die sosiale voorwaardes wat in die reële wêreld geld. Navorsers het al hoe meer die waarde begin insien van meer prosesgeoriënteerde navorsing in vertaalstudie. Die Franse sosioloog Bruno Latour se Akteur-Netwerk-Teorie (oftewel ANT) laat die navorser die objek van navorsing nie as substantiewe verskynsel beskou nie, maar as 'n netwerk van verhoudinge deur 'n studie te maak van die betrokke mense én objekte (akteurs en aktante) en die wisselwerking tussen hulle. Binne hierdie teoretiese raamwerk is etnografie of 'n etnometodologie besonder gepas omdat dit die navorser nader bring aan die beleefde ervaring. Opvoedkundige tolking, of mondelinge tolking in klaskamers vir niegehoorgestremde studente, is 'n innoverende toepassing van tolking, en ook 'n grootliks onontginde kennisveld. Dit is as taalmodus by die nuwe Taalbeleid van die Universiteit Stellenbosch (US 2016) ingesluit ter wille van die praktiese uitvoerbaarheid van meertaligheid. In die praktyk is opvoedkundige tolking egter dikwels onderhewig aan onrealistiese verwagtinge, en die waarde daarvan in 'n opvoedkundige konteks bly kontensieus. Empiriese navorsing in getolkte klasse binne 'n raamwerk van ANT kan moontlik lig werp op die wisselwerking tussen die onderskeie faktore in opvoedkundige tolking en hoe hulle funksioneer. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die waarde van ANT na aanleiding van data wat gedurende veldwerk in 36 getolkte lesings aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch ingesamel is. Dit toon hoe 'n etnometodologie binne die teoretiese raamwerk van ANT die navorser in staat stel om verder en dieper te beskryf; om gebeure, verwantskappe, verskynsels en situasies wat tot nog toe onvertel was, aan die lig te bring. Uiteindelik kan hierdie bevindings waardevol wees vir taalimplementering aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch en die soeke na prakties uitvoerbare meertaligheidspraktyke aan Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite.<hr/>As the social turn in translation studies progressively gained acceptance, researchers started focusing on the human agents involved in translation, and on the social conditions that apply in the real world. Researchers have increasingly come under the impression of the value of more process-oriented research in translation studies. French sociologist Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (or ANT) allows the researcher to consider the object of study not as a substantive phenomenon, but as a network of relationships by studying both the humans and objects (actors and actants) involved, as well as the interaction between them. Within this theoretical framework, ethnography or an ethnomethodology is particularly useful in bringing the researcher closer to the lived experience. Educational interpreting, or verbal class-based interpreting for students who are not hearing-impaired, is an innovative application of interpreting and constitutes a largely unexplored field of study. It has been included as a language option in the new Language Policy of Stellenbosch University (SU 2016) to facilitate practicable multilingualism. In reality, however, educational interpreting is often subject to unrealistic expectations, and its value in an educational context remains contentious. Empirical research in interpreted lectures within a framework of ANT may possibly shed light on how the various factors at play in educational interpreting interact and operate. This article examines the value of ANT with reference to data that were collected in 36 interpreted lectures at Stellenbosch University. It shows how an ethnomethodology within the theoretical framework of ANT broadens and deepens the researcher's understanding and uncovers previously untold events, relationships, phenomena and situations. Ultimately, these findings may prove useful for language implementation at Stellenbosch University and the pursuit of practicable multilingualism at South African universities. <![CDATA[<b>The interplay between theory and praxis in developing a curriculum centred on translanguaging</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word die praktyk van transtaling ondersoek binne die konteks van 'n akademiesegeletterdheidsmodule wat in 2016 in Engels aangebied is vir Afrikaanssprekende eerstejaarstudente in Konstruksie-ekonomie. Die navorsing is gedoen met die oog op 'n beskrywing van die sistematiek van die praktyke wat gevolg is, en die moontlike waarde van 'n beskrywende model vir toekomstige kurrikulumontwikkeling. Eerstens word 'n oorsig gegee oor linguistiese en toegepaste linguistiese teorieë wat die gebruik van die eerste taal in die tweedetaalklas ondersteun. Dit word gevolg deur 'n bespreking van die onderskeid tussen leerdergesentreerde en dosentgesentreerde transtaling, wat as vertrekpunt dien vir die ponering van 'n pedagogiese raamwerk vir transtaling. Die empiriese gedeelte van die artikel beskryf 'n gevallestudie van beperkte omvang, wat gerig was op die transtalingsvookeure en -praktyke van eerstejaarstudente in Konstruksie-ekonomie. Die data, wat deur middel van voor- en na-intervensie-vraelyste ingesamel is, is sowel kwantitatief as kwalitatief ontleed. Dit blyk dat die studente reeds voor die aanvang van die module positief ingestel was teenoor die gebruik van sistematiese transtaling, en dat hulle houding tydens die intervensie positief gebly het. Gedurende die intervensie is dosentgesentreerde transtaling gebruik vir funksies soos klasbestuur, verduideliking van grammatika en woordbetekenis, sowel as vir kommunikasie met individuele studente. Leerdergesentreerde transtaling het veral plaasgevind gedurende interpersoonlike kommunikasie met medestudente en die dosent, asook beplanning en onderhandeling in kleingroepe. Die ontleding van die data het twee aspekte van die pedagogiek van transtaling uitgelig wat nog nie voldoende aandag in die literatuur gekry het nie, naamlik die verskil en die onderlinge verband tussen transtaling en vertaling; en die soms eensydige fokus op transtaling in die rigting van die T1, teenoor die inverse: transtaling in die rigting van die T2. Op grond van die navorsingsbevindinge word 'n kurrikulummodel voorgestel wat as basis kan dien vir die beplanning van transtaling in kontekste waar nuwe vakkonsepte tesame met 'n tweede taal as akademiese taal aangeleer word. Hierdeur word die toegepaste linguïstiek se fokus op sowel teorie as empirie in die ontwerp van oplossings vir praktiese taalprobleme beklemtoon.<hr/>This article investigates the practice of translanguaging in the context of a group of Afrikaans-speaking first-year Construction Economics students enrolled for an academic literacy module in English, in 2016. The research was conducted with a view to describe the systematics of the practices followed, and the possible value of a descriptive model for future curriculum development. First, an overview is provided of linguistic and applied linguistic theories that support first-language usage in a second-language classroom. This is followed by a discussion of the difference between learner-centred and lecturer-centred translanguaging, which serves as a departure point for advancing a pedagogic framework for translanguaging. The empirical part of the article describes a case study of limited scope aimed at the translanguaging preferences and practices of first-year Construction Economics students. The data collected through pre-and post-intervention questionnaires were analysed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. It would seem that even prior to the commencement of the module, students were positively inclined towards using systematic translanguaging, and their attitude towards the intervention remained positive. During the intervention, lecturer-centred translanguaging was used for functions such as classroom management, clarifying grammar and vocabulary, and communicating with individual students. Learner-centred translanguaging took place particularly during interpersonal communication with fellow students and the lecturer, and for planning and discussions in small groups. Analysing the data highlighted two aspects of the pedagogics of translanguaging that previously did not receive adequate attention in the literature, namely the difference and interrelationship between translanguaging and translation; and the sometimes unilateral focus on translanguaging in the direction of the L1, compared to the inverse, translanguaging in the direction of the L2. Based on the research findings, a curriculum model is proposed, which could serve as a basis for planning translanguaging in contexts where new subject concepts are acquired together with the acquisition of a second language as academic language. This highlights the fact that applied linguistics focuses both on theoretical and on empirical methods in designing solutions to practical language problems. <![CDATA[<b>The road to optimal academic literacies support: Striving for better alignment between theory and practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Een van die Universiteit Stellenbosch (US) Taalsentrum se waardevolste bydraes sedert die ontstaan daarvan is 'n verbeterde belyning tussen teorie en praktyk vir die fasilitering van akademiese geletterdhede (AG). 'n Dekade gelede het die taalmatige ondersteuning wat die US aan veral eerstejaars verleen het, nog uit generiese modules bestaan waarvolgens studente tekste gelees en geproduseer het na gelang van dosentevoorkeur. Sedertdien het die literatuur 'n aansienlike verskuiwing in die rigting van ingebedde modules teweeg gebring. In hierdie sin beteken ingebed dat studente in elke vakgebied slegs met temas, tekste en genres te doen kry wat op die spesifieke vakgebied van toepassing is. Alhoewel Taalsentrumpersoneel aanvanklik traag was om hierdie verskuiwing te aktualiseer, meestal weens die ekonomie van skaal, het hulle die afgelope paar jaar vakspesifieke en pasklaar kursusse vir studente in die meeste US-fakulteite ontwikkel en gefasiliteer. Hierdie soort herkurrikulering word nie altyd na waarde geskat nie aangesien die verskil in impak moeilik is om kwantitatief te meet. In die meeste gevalle moet Taalsentrumpersoneel ook met personeel van US-fakulteite saamwerk wat neig om vaardighede in AG in 'n laerstatuskategorie (sagte vaardighede) as wetenskapvaardighede (harde vaardighede) te plaas. Hierdie studie ondersoek een so 'n geval van samewerking tussen die Taalsentrum en die Departement Chemie en Polimeerwetenskap aan die US, die sogenaamde Pet Ionic Compound (PIC)-projek. Innovasiefondssteun is verkry ten einde die uitkomste van AG en dié van die Departement Chemie en Polimeerwetenskap in die vakgebied chemie op so 'n manier te integreer dat optimale sukses vir studente in die verlengde graadprogram nagestreef kon word. Hierdie artikel doen verslag oor die impak van sodanige samewerking vir die afgelope drie iterasies van die projek en poog om 'n bydrae te lewer tot die literatuur oor die uitwerking van teoretiese begronding op die praktyk van AG. Verskillende studente- en dosentetekste is deur middel van oop kodering ontleed om die impak van hierdie projek op studente se waargenome kennis van chemie, asook hulle ontwikkeling met betrekking tot AG kwalitatief te meet. Die artikel probeer verder ekspliseer dat alhoewel hierdie soort samewerking tyd en inspanning verg, dit die moeite werd geag behoort te word indien studenteen dosentesukses daardeur geoptimaliseer kan word.<hr/>One of the Stellenbosch University (SU) Language Centre's most valuable contributions since its inception has been the endeavour of striving towards better alignment between theory and practice for the facilitation of academic literacies. A decade ago, SU's language support to mainly first-year students used to be generic modules according to which texts were read and produced by students in line with the preferences of lecturers. Since then, literature has documented a significent shift in the direction of embedded modules, meaning that students only deal with themes and genres applicable to their specific discipline. Although Language Centre staff were initially slow in actualising this shift, mainly because of the economy of scale, over the past few years they have developed and facilitated subject-specific and purpose-made modules in most SU faculties. The time and effort spent on this kind of reconceptualisation is not always estimated in its true value, as the full impact thereof is difficult to measure quantitatively. Moreover, in most instances Language Centre staff have to collaborate with SU faculty staff who tend to categorise academic literacy skills as lower category skills (soft skills), compared to scientific skills (hard skills). This study focuses on one such a case of collaboration between the Language Centre and the Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science at SU, the so-called Pet Ionic Compound (PIC) project. Innovation fund support was obtained in order to integrate the outcomes of academic literacies and those of the Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science in the field of chemistry in such a way as to ensure improved learning for students in extended degree programmes. This article reports on the impact of such collaboration over the past three iterations of the project and aims to supplement the literature on the effect of theoretical grounding on academic literacies practice. Various student and lecturer documents were analysed through open coding to undertake a qualitative measurement of the impact of this specific project on students' perceived knowledge of chemistry and their academic literacies development. The article also endeavours to explicate that although this kind of collaboration requires time and effort, such collaboration should be encouraged in an attempt to optimise student and lecturer success. <![CDATA[<b>Equitable multilingualism? The case of Stellenbosch University Writing Laboratory</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article reflects on Stellenbosch University Writing Lab's pedagogical approach to multilingualism and inclusivity within the complex and political nature of multilingual language policies at a South African university. The Writing Lab has always been promoted as a facility for all students, not just those in need of 'remedial' support. This was a departure from earlier academic literacies models that tended to view students from nondominant language groups in terms of deficits. Academic literacies research has pointed to the shortcomings of these earlier approaches and to the value conflicts that arise from them. We, in contrast, argue that Carter's (2009) writing centre paradox provides a dynamic rhetorical space in which to explore issues around South African multilingualism and inclusivity in higher education, and for this reason we do not wish to resolve the paradox. Instead, we use it to critically appraise our type of equitable multilingualism and maintain and honour multivocality. We also argue that South African writing centres enjoy a somewhat different trajectory from that of many other academic literacies spaces by virtue of the one-to-one pedagogy and mutualistic approach we follow at these writing centres. This has allowed us simultaneously more agency and less agency and we need to use this paradoxical position strategically in our institutions. Using the Writing Lab as a case study, we reflect on the ways in which the Writing Lab gives life to its ethos of being a multilingual and inclusive space for academic transformation within the institution's language policy. To support our reflections, we draw on descriptions of the organisational structure of the Lab, feedback received from strategic role players and observations of interactions performed in the various Lab spaces. We also consider the Writing Lab in terms of South African writing centre scholarship to see how the Lab's philosophy and ethos compare with the ideals. <![CDATA[<b>Language policy review and the unplanning of Afrikaans at the University of the Free State</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Taalontplanning is 'n onderwerp wat nie dikwels in die taalbeplanningsliteratuur voorkom nie. Van die enkele studies op die terrein ondersoek weliswaar die reëlmatige 'ontdoening' van vorige 'doenings'-aksies, maar dié studies konsentreer op taalkorpusbeplanning. Die skynbare verskraling van Afrikaans se posisie as hoëronderwystaal van Suid-Afrika laat die vraag ontstaan of ontdoeningsaksies met betrekking tot taalstatus- en taalfunksiebeplanning ook as taalontplanning beskou kan word. Omdat die onderhawige geval met ingrypende taalbeleidshersienings verbind kan word, ondersoek hierdie studie die verband tussen beleidshersiening - soms die agilleshiel van universiteite genoem - en taalontplanning. Die kollig val op die Universiteit van die Vrystaat (UV) se uitfasering van Afrikaans as hooftaal sedert 2015. Daar word in die aangebode studie gesteun op 'n analise van gedokumenteerde bewyse van taalbeleidshersiening aan die UV sedert die dringende noodsaak daaraan in 2008 deur twee nasionaal-gegenereerde eksterne verslae uitgewys is. Na aanleiding van voorskrifte omtrent beleidshersiening vervat in die UV se 2005-metabeleid en voorskrifte omtrent spesifiek taalbeleidswysigings vervat in die 2003- institusionele taalbeleid word uitstaande momente in taalbeleidshersiening aan hierdie instelling saaklik behandel. Die studie bevind dat beleidskontinuïteit 'n sleutelbegrip is om te kan onderskei tussen twee duidelike fases in taalbeleidshersiening aan die UV, 'n post-2008 tydperk waarin sodanige kontinuïteit nagestreef word, ofskoon relatief ingrypende wysigings desondanks deurgevoer word, teenoor die tydperk vanaf 2015 waarin taalbeleidskontinuïteit doelbewus verbreek word. Dit blyk dat die verskyning van 'n interne transformasieverslag teen die einde van 2014 'n sleutelrol gespeel het om hierdie koerswysiging te bewerkstellig en daarmee die weg help voorberei het vir die georkestreerde stigmatisering van parallelmediumonderrig (en deur assosiasie daarmee ook Afrikaans). So kon 'n intellektuele klimaat geskep word om met ontdoeningsaksies op gang te kon kom waardeur die ontplanning van Afrikaans aan die UV taalbeleidsmatig geïnstitusionaliseer kon word.<hr/>Language unplanning is a topic that seldom features in language planning literature. Studies in the field that investigate the regular 'undoing' of previous language planning actions largely concentrate on language corpus planning. The apparent attenuation of the position of Afrikaans as higher education language of South Africa leads to questions whether the undoing of language status and function planning could also be considered as unplanning language. As the given case could be linked to radical language policy reviews, this study investigates the relation between policy review - sometimes called the Achilles heel of universities - and language unplanning. The spotlight falls on the phasing out of Afrikaans as main language at the University of the Free State (UFS) since 2015. Essentially this study relies on an analysis of documented evidence of language policy review at the UFS, since the urgency of this was pointed out in 2008 by two nationally generated external reports. Based on the UFS's 2005 meta-policy requirements concerning policy review and its 2003 language policy requirements on language policy review, significant moments related to language policy review at this institution are discussed briefly. The study finds that policy continuity is a key concept in differentiating between two distinctive phases in language policy review at the UFS, a post-2008 period during which language policy continuity is pursued, although relatively radical changes are implemented notwithstanding, compared to the period from 2015, when language policy continuity was deliberately negated. It transpired that an internal transformation report released at the end of 2014 played a key role to effect this turn of the tide, paving the way for the orchestrated stigmatisation of parallel-medium teaching (and, by implication, also Afrikaans). Consequently, an intellectual climate could be cultivated that inspired undoing actions through which the unplanning of Afrikaans at the UFS could be institutionalised by means of a revised language policy. <![CDATA[<b>The loyalty of the literary reviser: Author, source text, target text or reader?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The processes of revision and translation, according to Mossop (2010:112-113), can address the problem of conflicting interests, goals and needs by taking different approaches. Translation, he suggests, should seek to achieve a balance between loyalty to the source text author and to the target text readers, whereas revision should serve the interests of the future readers of the text. As a result, revising activities will steer away from a linguistic or a text-based approach in order to prioritise the needs of the reader. The question, however, is whether revisers in literary translation processes do follow the suggested approach and prioritise the needs of the target readers. An empirical analysis of the metatextual discourse among the agents involved in three different literary translation processes seeks to answer this question. During the course of this analysis, a second question presents itself, namely whether self-revision and other-revision (Mossop 2010:167, 174) should be discerned as two distinct types of revision or whether this distinction could be refined. The results of the subsequent analysis give rise to the presumption that such a binary projection of the act of revision can be contested. It is instead suggested that revision can be plotted on a continuum, with self-revision by the translator as the one end and revision by others as the other end. The analysis of three Afrikaans novels translated into English by the same award-winning translator suggests that self-revision by the translator may find itself moving away from true self-revision (a process that is not influenced by feedback from agents other than the translator) initially to a second phase of self-revision that is shaped by revision by others (e.g. the author, reviser and editor). <![CDATA[<b>Assessing spoken-language educational interpreting: Measuring up and measuring right</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article, primarily, presents a critical evaluation of the development and refinement of the assessment instrument used to assess formally the spoken-language educational interpreters at Stellenbosch University (SU). Research on interpreting quality has tended to produce varying perspectives on what quality might entail (cf. Pöchhacker 1994, 2001; Kurz 2001; Kalina 2002; Pradas Marcías 2006; Grbic 2008; Moser-Mercer 2008; Alonso Bacigalupe 2013). Consequently, there is no ready-made, universally accepted or applicable mechanism for assessing quality. The need for both an effective assessment instrument and regular assessments at SU is driven by two factors: Firstly, a link exists between the quality of the service provided and the extent to which that service remains sustainable. Plainly put, if the educational interpreting service wishes to remain viable, the quality of the interpreting product needs to be more than merely acceptable. Secondly, and more important, educational interpreters play an integral role in students' learning experience at SU by relaying the content of lectures. Interpreting quality could potentially have serious ramifications for students, and therefore quality assessment is imperative. Two assessment formats are used within the interpreting service, each with a different focus. The development and refinement of the assessment instrument for formal assessments discussed in this article have been ongoing since 2011. The main aim has been to devise an instrument that could be used to assess spoken-language interpreting in the university classroom. Complicating factors have included the various ways in which communication occurs in the classroom and the different sociocultural backgrounds and levels of linguistic proficiency of users. The secondary focus is on the nascent system of peer assessment. This system and the various incarnations of the peer assessment instrument are discussed. Linkages (and the lack thereof) between the two systems are briefly described. <![CDATA[<b>From thematic to alphabetic to thematic ordering in dictionaries - interaction between theory and practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Vroeë woordeboeke is gekenmerk deur 'n tematiese ordening. Dit is eers later in die leksikografiese praktyk dat die alfabetiese ordening 'n dominante rol begin speel het, alhoewel die tematiese benadering steeds in bepaalde woordeboeksoorte gehandhaaf is. Die hedendaagse leksikografiese praktyk toon 'n nuwe benadering tot makrostrukturele ordening met 'n hibridiese aanbod van opeenvolgende makrostrukture waarin sowel die alfabetiese as die tematiese beginsels 'n ordeningsrol speel. Hierdie artikel gee aandag aan die ontwikkeling van die leksikografiese praktyk en die motivering vir 'n tematiese ordening in die vroeë woordeboeke. Voorts word die oorgang na 'n oorwegend alfabetiese ordening beskryf. Ontwikkeling in die teoretiese leksikografie en die wisselwerking tussen teorie en praktyk lei tot verskillende aanpassings in die makrostrukturele aanbod. Naas die streng alfabetiese ordening is daar tans ook die kronkelordening waar 'n horisontale ordening van lemmata tot artikelniste en artikelneste lei. Hierdie ordening kom veral in gedrukte woordeboeke voor. Morfologiese en semantiese redes speel 'n rol in die aanpassings van die makrostrukturele ordening. Benewens suiwer alfabetiese en suiwer tematiese woordeboeke is daar vandag talle woordeboeke met 'n hibridiese ordening. In die makrostruktuurreeks van 'n enkele woordeboek is sommige tekste alfabeties en ander tematies georden. Hierdie aanpassings word nie lukraak gedoen nie, maar wel ter erkenning van die gebruikersperspektief wat 'n dominante rol in die leksikografiepraktyk speel. Vernuwende makrostrukturele benaderings om spesifieke gebruikersgroepe in spesifieke gebruiks- en gebruikersituasies ten beste te kan help in hulle woordeboekraadpleging word aan die hand van bestaande woordeboeke bespreek. Die belang daarvan dat 'n woordeboek 'n goeie teoretiese basis moet hê, dien as uitgangspunt en die aanpassings in die leksikografiepraktyk word vanuit hierdie teoretiese benadering verklaar.<hr/>Early dictionaries were characterised by a thematic ordering. Alphabetical ordering came to play a dominant role only later in lexicographic practice, although thematic ordering has been maintained in certain dictionaries. Modern-day lexicographic practice reflects a new approach to macrostructural ordering with a hybrid product of successive macrostructures in which both alphabetical and thematic principles have an ordering role to play. This article focuses on the development of the lexicographic practice and the reasoning behind a thematic ordering in early dictionaries. Subsequently the transition to a predominantly alphabetical ordering is described. Developments in theoretical lexicography and the interaction between theory and practice resulted in various adaptations in the macrostructural product. Apart from strict alphabetical ordering, modern-day sinuous ordering involves horizontal ordering of lemmata, leading to article niching and article nesting. This type of ordering mostly prevails in printed dictionaries. Morphological and semantic reasons have a role to play in adaptations in the macrostructural ordering. In addition to purely alphabetical and purely thematic dictionaries, there are many dictionaries these days that offer a hybrid ordering. In the macrostructural series of a single dictionary, certain texts are ordered alphabetically, while others are ordered thematically. These changes are not done in a haphazard way but according to the user perspective, which plays a dominant role the lexicographic practice. Innovative macrostructural approaches to optimise dictionary consultation for specific target user groups in specific user situations and situations of use are discussed in the context of existing dictionaries. The importance of a dictionary having a sound theoretical foundation serves as a point of departure. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluating four readability formulas for Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es For almost a hundred years now, readability formulas have been used to measure how difficult it is to comprehend a given text. To date, four readability formulas have been developed for Afrikaans. Two such formulas were published by Van Rooyen (1986), one formula by McDermid Heyns (2007) and one formula by McKellar (2008). In our quantitative study the validity of these four formulas was tested. We selected 10 texts written in Afrikaans - five articles from a popular magazine and five documents used in government communications. All characteristics included in the four readability formulas were first measured for each text. We then developed five different cloze tests for each text to assess actual text comprehension. Thereafter, 149 Afrikaans-speaking participants with varying levels of education each completed a set of two of the resulting 50 cloze tests. On comparing the data on text characteristics to the cloze test scores from the participants, the accuracy of the predictions from the four existing formulas for Afrikaans could be determined. Both Van Rooyen formulas produced readability scores that were not significantly correlated with actual comprehension scores as measured with the cloze tests. For the McKellar formula, however, this correlation was significant and for the McDermid Heyns formula the correlation with the cloze test scores almost reached significance. From the outcomes of each of these last two formulas, about 40% of the variance in cloze scores could be predicted. Readability predictions based only on the average number of characters per word, however, performed considerably better: about 65% of the variance in the cloze scores could be predicted just from the average number of characters per word. <![CDATA[<b>It may be copyrighted, but it still needs help: Improving research questionnaires by means of intralingual translation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Clear research questionnaires ultimately help to ensure the reliability and comparability of the data that they gather (Fowler 1992; Lenzner 2012; Moroney and Cameron 2016). This paper explores the intersection of best practices in the fields of questionnaire design and intralingual translation as a means to ensure clarity and comprehensibility in research questionnaires. The questionnaire design perspective on comprehensibility (as represented by the 2010, 2011 and 2012 studies by Lenzner and colleagues, and work done by Knáuper et al. (1997) and Krosnik (1991)) essentially requires intralingual translation for questionnaires that do not meet the clarity requirement. To illustrate how intralingual translation in the form of plain language practice can operationalise comprehensibility (Nisbeth Jensen 2015), a short case study is presented. It chronicles a case of interlingual translation that has evolved into an intralingual translation endeavour. A client had a copyrighted medical research questionnaire, originally in American English, translated into Afrikaans and isiXhosa. Initially, the language service provider was not allowed any interventions in the source text. Testing of this questionnaire and its translations then revealed that the questionnaires were incomprehensible to their respondents. In this paper, the intralingual interventions required to improve comprehensibility of the questionnaire are classified in terms of the four parameters that Zethsen (2009) has identified in this regard, namely knowledge, time, culture and space. In addition, a fourfold text assessment checklist for ensuring clarity in questionnaires is proposed. This checklist may prove valuable for highlighting areas in questionnaires that need intralingual translation -whether used as motivation for a client or as a starting point for an intralingual intervention itself. <![CDATA[<b>'Hopeful' directions for writing centres in South Africa: From safe spaces to transitional sites of articulating practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es I shall orientate the discussion of the directions of writing centres in South Africa around two beginnings. The first is the 1995 conference at the University of the Western Cape at which representatives from universities across the country discussed the new (in South Africa) idea of the writing centre and its local, varied applicability, and the second is the continuing student protests since 2015, which demand a re-theorising of the role of writing centres. This re-theorising requires a revisiting of explicitly anti-exclusionary practice and the theory of what we do when we listen. Using the work of Lisa Delpit (1995) and her reflections on how the American system of education has failed the majority of African Americans and other 'outside' groups, I shall investigate her understanding of listening and connectedness for greater pedagogic inclusiveness. Then through considering the work of Nancy Grimm (1999), I shall discuss the theory of the transitional space, which resonates with Delpit's conclusions and which explicitly seeks not to normalise or erase difference but rather to find its articulation. Lastly, I shall evoke James Baldwin as a master articulator of difference, as a writer who expresses a fluidity of subjectivity and as a cultural alternative to explicitly ideological and political responses to a time of crisis. The current resurgence of Baldwin studies and the success of the recent documentary based entirely on Baldwin's words (Peck 2017) suggest the appeal of Baldwin's voice now as someone who moves us beyond labels and makes us see each other and see ourselves as others see us. <![CDATA[<b>Key quality management steps in the translation industry and academic translation offices</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Taaldienste soos vertaling, redigering en tolking is van kardinale belang in 'n meertalige samelewing en aan 'n hoëronderriginstelling waar die taaldiversiteit van sy personeel en studente erken word. Die vertaling van eksamenvraestelle is 'n voorbeeld van hoërisikovertaling, aangesien 'n onakkurate vertaling studentesukses negatief kan beïnvloed. Foute wat in die vertaling van toetse begaan is (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg en Marais 2011) beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van kwaliteitbestuur in vertaling. Kwaliteit is egter 'n relatiewe begrip en word op verskillende maniere in die vertaalteorie en in die vertaalbedryf geïnterpreteer. In die vertaalteorie word kwaliteit hoofsaaklik gelykgestel met die assessering van die vertaalproduk, terwyl die fokus in die vertaalbedryf eerder op die produksieproses van die vertaling val om voldoende kwaliteit te verseker (Chesterman en Wagner 2002). Ek het vyf kwaliteitstandaarde vir die vertaalbedryf ontleed en die kernstappe in die kwaliteitbestuurproses in hierdie artikel beskryf. Daardie kwaliteitstandaarde is die Europese EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), die Kanadese CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), die internasionale ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), die Amerikaanse ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), en die internasionale ISO 17100 Translation services -Requirements for translation services (2015). Verskille en ooreenkomste tussen die siening van kwaliteit in die vertaalbedryf en in die vertaalteorie word uitgewys. In hierdie artikel word die gevolgtrekking gemaak dat akademiese vertaalkantore as gevolg van groot finansiële druk nie al die kernstappe vir kwaliteitbestuur kan toepas nie: Hulle word genoop om die risiko's en beskikbare hulpbronne teen mekaar op te weeg om die verlangde kwaliteit met slegs die nodige hulpbronne te lewer.<hr/>Language services such as translation, editing and interpreting are crucial in a multilingual society and at a higher education institution that acknowledges its staff and students' language diversity. The translation of examination papers is an example of high-stakes translation, as an inaccurate translation may negatively affect student success. Errors made in the translation of test papers (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg and Marais 2011) point to the necessity of quality management of translations. Yet quality is a relative concept with varied interpretations in translation theory and the translation industry. In translation theory, quality is primarily equated with the assessment of the translated product, whereas the translation industry places more emphasis on the process of producing the translation in order to ensure sufficient quality (Chesterman and Wagner 2002). This contribution describes the key steps in the quality management process based on my analysis of the five quality standards for the translation industry. Those quality standards are the European EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), the Canadian CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), the international ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), the American ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), and the international ISO 17100 Translation services - Requirements for translation services (2015). Similarities and dissimilarities between the interpretation of quality in the translation industry and translation theory are identified. The article concludes that, due to substantial financial pressure, academic translation offices are unable to implement all the key quality management steps: Instead, they are compelled to weigh up the risks and available resources in order to deliver the desired quality with the minimum resources required. <![CDATA[<b>Narrative impact: How stories change minds</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Taaldienste soos vertaling, redigering en tolking is van kardinale belang in 'n meertalige samelewing en aan 'n hoëronderriginstelling waar die taaldiversiteit van sy personeel en studente erken word. Die vertaling van eksamenvraestelle is 'n voorbeeld van hoërisikovertaling, aangesien 'n onakkurate vertaling studentesukses negatief kan beïnvloed. Foute wat in die vertaling van toetse begaan is (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg en Marais 2011) beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van kwaliteitbestuur in vertaling. Kwaliteit is egter 'n relatiewe begrip en word op verskillende maniere in die vertaalteorie en in die vertaalbedryf geïnterpreteer. In die vertaalteorie word kwaliteit hoofsaaklik gelykgestel met die assessering van die vertaalproduk, terwyl die fokus in die vertaalbedryf eerder op die produksieproses van die vertaling val om voldoende kwaliteit te verseker (Chesterman en Wagner 2002). Ek het vyf kwaliteitstandaarde vir die vertaalbedryf ontleed en die kernstappe in die kwaliteitbestuurproses in hierdie artikel beskryf. Daardie kwaliteitstandaarde is die Europese EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), die Kanadese CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), die internasionale ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), die Amerikaanse ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), en die internasionale ISO 17100 Translation services -Requirements for translation services (2015). Verskille en ooreenkomste tussen die siening van kwaliteit in die vertaalbedryf en in die vertaalteorie word uitgewys. In hierdie artikel word die gevolgtrekking gemaak dat akademiese vertaalkantore as gevolg van groot finansiële druk nie al die kernstappe vir kwaliteitbestuur kan toepas nie: Hulle word genoop om die risiko's en beskikbare hulpbronne teen mekaar op te weeg om die verlangde kwaliteit met slegs die nodige hulpbronne te lewer.<hr/>Language services such as translation, editing and interpreting are crucial in a multilingual society and at a higher education institution that acknowledges its staff and students' language diversity. The translation of examination papers is an example of high-stakes translation, as an inaccurate translation may negatively affect student success. Errors made in the translation of test papers (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg and Marais 2011) point to the necessity of quality management of translations. Yet quality is a relative concept with varied interpretations in translation theory and the translation industry. In translation theory, quality is primarily equated with the assessment of the translated product, whereas the translation industry places more emphasis on the process of producing the translation in order to ensure sufficient quality (Chesterman and Wagner 2002). This contribution describes the key steps in the quality management process based on my analysis of the five quality standards for the translation industry. Those quality standards are the European EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), the Canadian CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), the international ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), the American ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), and the international ISO 17100 Translation services - Requirements for translation services (2015). Similarities and dissimilarities between the interpretation of quality in the translation industry and translation theory are identified. The article concludes that, due to substantial financial pressure, academic translation offices are unable to implement all the key quality management steps: Instead, they are compelled to weigh up the risks and available resources in order to deliver the desired quality with the minimum resources required. <![CDATA[<b>Principles and challenges of programme planning at a language centre serving two Swiss universities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Taaldienste soos vertaling, redigering en tolking is van kardinale belang in 'n meertalige samelewing en aan 'n hoëronderriginstelling waar die taaldiversiteit van sy personeel en studente erken word. Die vertaling van eksamenvraestelle is 'n voorbeeld van hoërisikovertaling, aangesien 'n onakkurate vertaling studentesukses negatief kan beïnvloed. Foute wat in die vertaling van toetse begaan is (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg en Marais 2011) beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van kwaliteitbestuur in vertaling. Kwaliteit is egter 'n relatiewe begrip en word op verskillende maniere in die vertaalteorie en in die vertaalbedryf geïnterpreteer. In die vertaalteorie word kwaliteit hoofsaaklik gelykgestel met die assessering van die vertaalproduk, terwyl die fokus in die vertaalbedryf eerder op die produksieproses van die vertaling val om voldoende kwaliteit te verseker (Chesterman en Wagner 2002). Ek het vyf kwaliteitstandaarde vir die vertaalbedryf ontleed en die kernstappe in die kwaliteitbestuurproses in hierdie artikel beskryf. Daardie kwaliteitstandaarde is die Europese EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), die Kanadese CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), die internasionale ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), die Amerikaanse ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), en die internasionale ISO 17100 Translation services -Requirements for translation services (2015). Verskille en ooreenkomste tussen die siening van kwaliteit in die vertaalbedryf en in die vertaalteorie word uitgewys. In hierdie artikel word die gevolgtrekking gemaak dat akademiese vertaalkantore as gevolg van groot finansiële druk nie al die kernstappe vir kwaliteitbestuur kan toepas nie: Hulle word genoop om die risiko's en beskikbare hulpbronne teen mekaar op te weeg om die verlangde kwaliteit met slegs die nodige hulpbronne te lewer.<hr/>Language services such as translation, editing and interpreting are crucial in a multilingual society and at a higher education institution that acknowledges its staff and students' language diversity. The translation of examination papers is an example of high-stakes translation, as an inaccurate translation may negatively affect student success. Errors made in the translation of test papers (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg and Marais 2011) point to the necessity of quality management of translations. Yet quality is a relative concept with varied interpretations in translation theory and the translation industry. In translation theory, quality is primarily equated with the assessment of the translated product, whereas the translation industry places more emphasis on the process of producing the translation in order to ensure sufficient quality (Chesterman and Wagner 2002). This contribution describes the key steps in the quality management process based on my analysis of the five quality standards for the translation industry. Those quality standards are the European EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), the Canadian CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), the international ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), the American ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), and the international ISO 17100 Translation services - Requirements for translation services (2015). Similarities and dissimilarities between the interpretation of quality in the translation industry and translation theory are identified. The article concludes that, due to substantial financial pressure, academic translation offices are unable to implement all the key quality management steps: Instead, they are compelled to weigh up the risks and available resources in order to deliver the desired quality with the minimum resources required. <![CDATA[<b>Vriendskap teenoor vyandskap in taalbeplanning vir die Universiteit Stellenbosch: Die bydrae van Leon de Stadler</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Taaldienste soos vertaling, redigering en tolking is van kardinale belang in 'n meertalige samelewing en aan 'n hoëronderriginstelling waar die taaldiversiteit van sy personeel en studente erken word. Die vertaling van eksamenvraestelle is 'n voorbeeld van hoërisikovertaling, aangesien 'n onakkurate vertaling studentesukses negatief kan beïnvloed. Foute wat in die vertaling van toetse begaan is (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg en Marais 2011) beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van kwaliteitbestuur in vertaling. Kwaliteit is egter 'n relatiewe begrip en word op verskillende maniere in die vertaalteorie en in die vertaalbedryf geïnterpreteer. In die vertaalteorie word kwaliteit hoofsaaklik gelykgestel met die assessering van die vertaalproduk, terwyl die fokus in die vertaalbedryf eerder op die produksieproses van die vertaling val om voldoende kwaliteit te verseker (Chesterman en Wagner 2002). Ek het vyf kwaliteitstandaarde vir die vertaalbedryf ontleed en die kernstappe in die kwaliteitbestuurproses in hierdie artikel beskryf. Daardie kwaliteitstandaarde is die Europese EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), die Kanadese CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), die internasionale ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), die Amerikaanse ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), en die internasionale ISO 17100 Translation services -Requirements for translation services (2015). Verskille en ooreenkomste tussen die siening van kwaliteit in die vertaalbedryf en in die vertaalteorie word uitgewys. In hierdie artikel word die gevolgtrekking gemaak dat akademiese vertaalkantore as gevolg van groot finansiële druk nie al die kernstappe vir kwaliteitbestuur kan toepas nie: Hulle word genoop om die risiko's en beskikbare hulpbronne teen mekaar op te weeg om die verlangde kwaliteit met slegs die nodige hulpbronne te lewer.<hr/>Language services such as translation, editing and interpreting are crucial in a multilingual society and at a higher education institution that acknowledges its staff and students' language diversity. The translation of examination papers is an example of high-stakes translation, as an inaccurate translation may negatively affect student success. Errors made in the translation of test papers (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg and Marais 2011) point to the necessity of quality management of translations. Yet quality is a relative concept with varied interpretations in translation theory and the translation industry. In translation theory, quality is primarily equated with the assessment of the translated product, whereas the translation industry places more emphasis on the process of producing the translation in order to ensure sufficient quality (Chesterman and Wagner 2002). This contribution describes the key steps in the quality management process based on my analysis of the five quality standards for the translation industry. Those quality standards are the European EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), the Canadian CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), the international ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), the American ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), and the international ISO 17100 Translation services - Requirements for translation services (2015). Similarities and dissimilarities between the interpretation of quality in the translation industry and translation theory are identified. The article concludes that, due to substantial financial pressure, academic translation offices are unable to implement all the key quality management steps: Instead, they are compelled to weigh up the risks and available resources in order to deliver the desired quality with the minimum resources required. <![CDATA[<b>Die ontwikkeling van 'n gestruktureerde indiensontwikkelings-program vir opvoedkundige tolke aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-33802017000300018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Taaldienste soos vertaling, redigering en tolking is van kardinale belang in 'n meertalige samelewing en aan 'n hoëronderriginstelling waar die taaldiversiteit van sy personeel en studente erken word. Die vertaling van eksamenvraestelle is 'n voorbeeld van hoërisikovertaling, aangesien 'n onakkurate vertaling studentesukses negatief kan beïnvloed. Foute wat in die vertaling van toetse begaan is (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg en Marais 2011) beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid van kwaliteitbestuur in vertaling. Kwaliteit is egter 'n relatiewe begrip en word op verskillende maniere in die vertaalteorie en in die vertaalbedryf geïnterpreteer. In die vertaalteorie word kwaliteit hoofsaaklik gelykgestel met die assessering van die vertaalproduk, terwyl die fokus in die vertaalbedryf eerder op die produksieproses van die vertaling val om voldoende kwaliteit te verseker (Chesterman en Wagner 2002). Ek het vyf kwaliteitstandaarde vir die vertaalbedryf ontleed en die kernstappe in die kwaliteitbestuurproses in hierdie artikel beskryf. Daardie kwaliteitstandaarde is die Europese EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), die Kanadese CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), die internasionale ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), die Amerikaanse ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), en die internasionale ISO 17100 Translation services -Requirements for translation services (2015). Verskille en ooreenkomste tussen die siening van kwaliteit in die vertaalbedryf en in die vertaalteorie word uitgewys. In hierdie artikel word die gevolgtrekking gemaak dat akademiese vertaalkantore as gevolg van groot finansiële druk nie al die kernstappe vir kwaliteitbestuur kan toepas nie: Hulle word genoop om die risiko's en beskikbare hulpbronne teen mekaar op te weeg om die verlangde kwaliteit met slegs die nodige hulpbronne te lewer.<hr/>Language services such as translation, editing and interpreting are crucial in a multilingual society and at a higher education institution that acknowledges its staff and students' language diversity. The translation of examination papers is an example of high-stakes translation, as an inaccurate translation may negatively affect student success. Errors made in the translation of test papers (Drugan 2013; Van Dyk, Van Rensburg and Marais 2011) point to the necessity of quality management of translations. Yet quality is a relative concept with varied interpretations in translation theory and the translation industry. In translation theory, quality is primarily equated with the assessment of the translated product, whereas the translation industry places more emphasis on the process of producing the translation in order to ensure sufficient quality (Chesterman and Wagner 2002). This contribution describes the key steps in the quality management process based on my analysis of the five quality standards for the translation industry. Those quality standards are the European EN 15038 Translation services - Service requirements (2006), the Canadian CAN/CGSB 131.10 Translation services (2008), the international ISO/TS 11669 Translation projects - General guidance (2012), the American ASTM F2575 Standard guide for quality assurance in translation (2014), and the international ISO 17100 Translation services - Requirements for translation services (2015). Similarities and dissimilarities between the interpretation of quality in the translation industry and translation theory are identified. The article concludes that, due to substantial financial pressure, academic translation offices are unable to implement all the key quality management steps: Instead, they are compelled to weigh up the risks and available resources in order to deliver the desired quality with the minimum resources required.