Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Lexikos]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-003920220001&lang=pt vol. 32 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The Effect of Learning Conditions on Collocation Gains: A Case Study of Task-based Dictionary Use Instruction</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt To examine the effect of learning conditions on collocation gains, 88 Chinese EFL students were assigned randomly to one of three different learning conditions, i.e. dictionary use with prior instruction, dictionary use without training, or explicit collocation teaching. They were asked to fill in the missing verb in ten V + N target collocations embedded in sentences. A screen recorder was used to keep track of the students' lookup behaviour in the two conditions involving dictionary use such as every input of the searched word, every move and click of the mouse, every step of collocation search and the time length of dictionary consultation. After completion of the assignment all the students were given corrective feedback to the collocation task and marked their corrections on the test paper. Two weeks later, an unexpected retention test was administered. The study showed that dictionary use following a five-step training session reaped significantly more collocation gains than dictionary use without prior instruction and explicit collocation teaching. Compared with those who used the dictionary without prior training, the students with prior dictionary instruction employed more effective strategies concerning the selection of lookup words and the location and identification of collocation information. They took a more conscientious approach to dictionary use and retrieved more correct target verbs. Apart from lending new support to the continuous appeal for a position of dictionary use instruction in the EFL pedagogy, the study also provides a detailed demonstration of task-based dictionary training applicable to classroom practice.<hr/>Om die invloed van onderwysomstandighede op die aanleer van kollokasies te ondersoek, is 88 Chinese EVT-studente lukraak aan een van drie verskillende onderwysomstandighede onderwerp, nl. woordeboekgebruik met voorafgaande onderrig, woordeboekgebruik sonder enige opleiding, of gebruik met uitvoerige aanwysings vir die aanleer van kollokasies. Hulle is ook gevra om die ontbrekende werkwoord in tien V + N-doelkollokasies wat in sinne gebruik is, in te vul. 'n Skermopnemer is gebruik om die studente se naslaangedrag in die twee onderwysomstandighede wat woordeboekgebruik behels, te monitor, bv. elke keer wanneer die woord wat nageslaan word, ingetik word, elke beweging en klik van die muis, elke stap van die kollokasiesoektog en die tydsduur waarin die woordeboek geraadpleeg is. Ná voltooiing van die opdrag is al die studente korrektiewe terugvoer rakende die kollokasieopdrag gegee en hulle het hul korreksies op die toetsblad aangebring. Twee weke later is 'n onverwagse retensietoets uitgevoer. Die studie het aangetoon dat woordeboekgebruik wat volg op 'n onderrigsessie bestaande uit vyf stappe 'n baie groter invloed op die aanleer van kollokasies gehad het as woordeboekgebruik sonder enige voorafgaande opleiding en uitvoerige aanwysings vir die aanleer van kollokasies. Indien die studente wat die woorde-boek sonder enige opleiding gebruik het, vergelyk word met dié wat voorafgaande onderrig ontvang het, kan gesien word dat laasgenoemde groep effektiewer strategieë rondom die seleksie van naslaanwoorde en die vind en identifisering van kollokasie-inligting toegepas het. Hulle het 'n meer doelgerigte benadering tot woordeboekgebruik gevolg en meer korrekte doelwerkwoorde gevind. Buiten die verlening van nuwe steun aan die volgehoue pleidooi vir woordeboekgebruiksopleiding in die EVT-pedagogie, verskaf hierdie studie ook 'n gedetailleerde voorbeeld van taakgebaseerde woordeboekopleiding wat op die klaskamerpraktyk toegepas kan word. <![CDATA[<b>The Beginnings of Romanian Multilingual Lexicography: Pragmatic Sources and Cultural Influences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Les débuts de la lexicographie multilingue roumaine sont étroitement liés à la parution sur le territoire des Principautés des premiers textes ecclésiastiques traduits de la langue slavonne. Les premiers dictionnaires répondent à des besoins d'ordre pratique, étant conçus comme des annexes à la littérature religieuse, slavonne ou traduite, qui circulait. L'étude réalise une radiographie des premiers projets lexicographiques roumains, avec l'identification des prototypes que ceux-ci enregistrent et la description des ressorts d'ordre pragmatique qui sont à la base des initiatives lexicographiques. Malheureusement, beaucoup de ces travaux n'ont pas été conservés, et d'autres n'ont été préservés que de manière fragmentaire, étant identifiés dans des bibliothèques privées. Dans ces conditions, pour reconstruire la lexicographie roumaine de cette période, nous avons fait appel à deux catégories de sources: les notations et les témoignages des auteurs des premiers projets lexicographiques, respectivement les études faisant référence à la lexicographie du roumain ancien. Comme ils n'avaient pas à la base la conception rigoureuse, scientifique, d'une école lexicographique, les premiers dictionnaires roumains sont l'expression de l'initiative des érudits, reflétant tant leur vision sur le rôle de tels instruments lexicographiques, comme le degré de développement de la langue roumaine à l'époque.<hr/>The beginnings of Romanian multilingual lexicography are deeply rooted in the first religious texts translated from Slavonic on the territory of the Romanian Principalities. The first dictionaries were aimed at fulfilling practical needs, being conceived as annexes to Slavonic or translated religious literature circulating at the time on the Romanian territory. This study provides an analysis of the first Romanian lexicographic projects, identifying their prototypes and describing the pragmatic background that these lexicographic initiatives were based on. Many of these works have sadly been lost, while others have been just partially preserved in private libraries. In these conditions, for the reconstruction of the Romanian lexicography belonging to that specific period, we resorted to two categories of sources: the notations and testimonies of the authors of the first lexicographic projects, and studies on the old Romanian lexicography. As they were not based on the rigorous scientific conception of a proper lexicographie school, the first Romanian dictionaries reflect the initiative of some scholars, revealing both their perspective on the role of such lexicographic tools and the stage of development of the Romanian language at the time. <![CDATA[<b>Improving the Compilation of English-Chinese Children's Dictionaries: A Children's Cognitive Perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Children's dictionaries have existed for more than one thousand years in China, and play an important role in children's learning. However, many of those produced in China are deficient in the selection of the wordlist, in exemplification, and in definition. This paper aims at improving the compilation of English-Chinese children's dictionaries (ECCDs) from a children's cognitive perspective. Children's dictionaries should not only be an abridgement or simplification of dictionaries for adults, because their target user group is immature, uninformed and untrained children. Informed by some innovations in current English learner's dictionaries, this paper proposes that the making of ECCDs needs to be improved in the following aspects. Firstly, instead of lexicographers' intuition, the selection of headwords should be based on an English corpus for Chinese children. Secondly, the words used in examples should be congruent with children's limited cognitive and learning abilities. Thirdly, a multifaceted method of explanation should be provided in order to assist children in understanding the meaning of headwords. <![CDATA[<b>Turning Bilingual Lexicography Upside Down: Improving Quality and Productivity with New Methods and Technology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This is a report from the real world. It informs about the outcome of a project, which the author conducted during a months-long research stay at the Danish company Ordbogen where he integrated its research and development (R) team. The first part of the project was to test machine translation and find out to what extent it is usable in the compilation of bilingual lexicographical databases. The hypothesis was that the technology was not yet mature. But surprisingly, it turned out that the accuracy rate is already so high that it is worth considering how to implement it. The second part of the project aimed at further developing an idea formulated by Fuertes-Olivera et al (2018) on how to invert a dictionary without losing semantic content. The new vision is to compile a monolingual L2 database, bilingualize it to an L2-L1 database using machine translation, and then invert the relationship between L2 lemmata and L1 equivalents using the L1 definitions of the L2 lemmata as the axis. The third part of the project was to test this idea using a specially designed ad hoc program. The program automatically uploads relevant data from existing lexicographical databases, translates L2 definitions and example sentences into L1, suggests adequate L1 equivalents, and eventually inverts the relationship between the two languages. It worked, but the methodology still needs further refinement to be implementable on a large scale. The report concludes by listing some of the remaining challenges and defining the new role of the lexicographer in this type of project.<hr/>verslag uit die praktyk Daar word verslag gelewer oor die uitkoms van 'n projek, wat die outeur gedurende 'n maandelange navorsingstydperk by die Deense maatskappy Ordbogen aangevoer het waartydens hy die navorsings- en ontwikkeling- (N)-span geïntegreer het. Die eerste deel van die projek het die toets van masjienvertaling behels en om die bruikbaarheid daarvan in die saam-stel van tweetalige leksikografiese databasisse te bepaal. Die hipotese was dat die tegnologie nog nie gevorderd genoeg was nie. Dit het egter, verrassend genoeg, geblyk dat die akkuraatheidsyfer reeds so hoog was dat dit die moeite werd was om die implementering daarvan te oorweeg. Die tweede deel van die projek het die verdere ontwikkeling van 'n idee, geformuleer deur Fuertes-Olivera et al. (2018) oor die omskakeling van 'n woordeboek sonder verlies van semantiese inhoud, ten doel gehad. Die nuwe visie is om 'n eentalige L2-databasis saam te stel, dan met behulp van masjienvertaling te omskep in 'n L2-L1-databasis, en daarna die verhouding tussen L2-lemmata en L1-ekwivalente om te skakel deur die L1-definisies van die L2-lemmata as die spil te gebruik. Die derde deel van die projek was die toets van hierdie idee met 'n spesiaal ontwerpte ad hoc-program. Hierdie program laai outomaties relevante data vanuit leksikografiese databasisse, vertaal L2-definisies en -voorbeeldsinne in L1, stel gepaste L1-ekwivalente voor, en skakel uiteindelik die verhouding tussen die twee tale om. Dit was geslaagd, maar die metodologie moet nog verder verfyn word voordat dit op groot skaal geïmplementeer kan word. Die verslag word afgesluit met die lys van sommige van die oorblywende uitdagings en met die definiëring van die nuwe rol van die leksikograaf in hierdie tipe projek. <![CDATA[<b>Differentiated Treatment of Cultural Items in Lexicographical Products: A Necessary Adaptation to the Digital Environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The paper focuses on the lexicographical treatment of cultural objects. It argues that second-language learning requires second-culture learning and that digital technologies call for new solutions to both old and new challenges. As an example, it takes traditional Chinese musical instruments and starts with a critical analysis of their treatment in five Chinese-English dictionaries for both foreign learners and native speakers. It continues with some reflections on media convergence and its consequences for lexicography and reaches the conclusion that the one-size-fits-all dictionary must be replaced with a variety of lexicographical products on different platforms. Lexicographers' focus must therefore move from the dictionary to the database that supports these products. This leads to a discussion of equivalent and explanation types and the need to prepare four different database fields for equivalents and two for explanations. To exemplify this, the paper presents a lexicographical database with equivalents, explanations, and other types of culturally relevant items. It then uses a few examples to show how these lexicographical items stored in the database can be selectively employed on different platforms and adapted to specific user needs. The paper links directly to sound files and video clips with some of the discussed instruments. Finally, the paper provides some conclusions and perspectives for further improving the cultural dimension of learners' lexicography.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word daar op die leksikografiese hantering van kultuurobjekte gefokus. Daar word aangevoer dat die aanleer van 'n tweede taal die aanleer van 'n tweede kultuur vereis en dat digitale tegnologie nuwe oplossings vir beide ou en en nuwe uitdagings vra. As voorbeeld word tradisionele musiekinstrumente gebruik en daar word eerstens 'n kritiese analise van hul hantering in vyf Chinees-Engelse woordeboeke vir beide vreemdetaalleerders en moedertaalsprekers gedoen. Daarna word verslag gedoen oor mediakonvergensie en die gevolge daarvan vir die leksi-kografie, en die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat die universeel-geskikte woordeboek met 'n ver-skeidenheid leksikografiese produkte op verskillende platforms vervang moet word. Daarom moet die fokus van die leksikograaf verskuif van die woordeboek na die databasis wat hierdie produkte ondersteun. Dit lei tot 'n bespreking van ekwivalente en verklarende tipes en die behoefte daaraan om vier verskillende databasisvelde vir ekwivalente en twee vir verklarings te skep. Ter illlustrasie word 'n leksikografiese databasis met ekwivalente, verklarings, en ander tipe kultuurrelevante items aangebied. Daarna word 'n paar voorbeelde gebruik om aan te toon hoe hierdie leksikogra-fiese items wat in die databasis gestoor word, selektief op verskillende platforms gebruik kan word en vir spesifieke gebruikersbehoeftes aangepas kan word. Hierdie artikel is direk gekoppel aan klanklêers en videogrepe van die bespreekte instrumente. Laastens verskaf die artikel 'n paar gevolgtrekkings en perspektiewe om die kulturele dimensie van aanleerdersleksikografie te ver-beter. <![CDATA[<b>The Mental Lexicon in Lexicography: The <i>Diccionarios Valladolid-UVa</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article analyzes the possibility of making dictionaries that take into consideration the mental lexicon, i.e. words do not work in isolation; instead, they are dynamic constructs that are activated, stored, processed and retrieved gradually. For that, it proposes several general lexicographical and methodological ideas and illustrates them referring to their implementation in the Diccionarios Valladolid-UVa: (a) dictionary types are a thing of the past; (b) words are not only holistic products but also processes that are always on the move; consequently their descriptions in dictionaries must be as complete and precise as possible; (c) dictionaries must be equipped with dynamic search system, e.g. systems for allowing human and machine-users search and retrieve a la carte, e.g. in a speaking situation; (d) there must be a huge number of words and other data types for describing each meaning and usage of each lemma, thus favoring the creation of patterns and the learning process associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI); (e) designing and making online dictionaries is a cooperative process in which lexicographers and several types of experts must participate; (f) the main task of lexicographers is the preparation of lexicographical data, which can be used in many different forms, formats and usages, being the making of dictionaries one of them.<hr/>Valladolid-UVa. Hierdie artikel analiseer die moontlikheid om woordeboeke wat die kogni-tiewe leksikon in ag neem, te skep, m.a.w. woorde funksioneer nie in isolasie nie; inteendeel, hulle is dinamiese konsepte wat geleidelik geaktiveer, gestoor, geprosesseer en onttrek word. Met hier-die doel in gedagte word verskeie algemene leksikografiese en metodologiese idees aangebied en ge'illustreer deur na hul toepassing in die Diccionarios Valladolid-UVa te verwys: (a) woordeboek-tipes behoort tot die verlede; (b) woorde is nie net holistiese prdukte nie, maar ook prosesse wat gedurig beweeg; gevolglik moet hul beskrywings in woordeboeke so volledig en presies moontlik wees; (c) woordeboeke moet toegerus word met dinamiese soekstelsels, bv. stelsels wat soektogte en onttrekkings deur menslike en masjien-gebruikers a la carte toelaat soos in 'n gespreksituasie; (d) daar moet 'n groot aantal woorde en ander datatipes vir die beskrywing van elke betekenis en gebruik van 'n lemma wees om sodoende die skep van patrone en die aanleerproses wat met Kuns-matige Intelligensie (KI) geassosieer word, te steun; (e) die ontwerp en skep van aanlyn woordeboeke is 'n koõperatiewe proses waaraan leksikograwe en verskeie soorte kundiges moet deelneem; (f) die hooftaak van leksikograwe is die voorbereiding van leksikografiese data, wat in baie verskil-lende vorms, formate en toepassings gebruik kan word, met die skep van woordeboeke as een daarvan. <![CDATA[<b>Corpus-based Headword Selection Procedures for LSP Word Lists and LSP Dictionaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In compiling both Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) word lists for foreign language learners and LSP dictionaries, the headword-selection process is of paramount importance. LSP word lists and LSP dictionaries will function effectively if they contain appropriate terms and register items, i.e. the lexical items that end users need. In this paper, we first present corpus-based LSP word lists, with special emphasis on how they were compiled. In the process, the make-up and size of the specialised corpus are important, as is the choice of the headword selection methods used. Among the possible criteria are word frequency, keyness, specialised occurrence, range, and dispersion, as well as some non-corpus linguistic methods that are more rarely applied. A greater variety of methods is used for compiling headword lists for LSP dictionaries, and of the corpus linguistic methods, frequency is typically solely applied. The article compares headword selection procedures for LSP word lists and LSP dictionaries before discussing how they can mutually inform one another.<hr/>In die samestelling van beide Taal vir Spesifieke Doeleindes-(TSD-)woor-delyste vir vreemdetaalleerders en TSD-woordeboeke is die lemmaseleksieproses van kardinale belang. TSD-woordelyste en TSD-woordeboeke sal effektief funksioneer indien hulle toepaslike terme en registeritems, m.a.w. die leksikale items wat eindgebruikers benodig, bevat. In hierdie artikel word korpusgebaseerde TSD-woordelyste eerste bespreek, met besondere klem op hul samestelling. In hierdie proses is die samestelling en grootte van die gespesialiseerde korpus, asook die keuse van die lemmaseleksiemetodes wat gebruik word, belangrik. Onder die moontlike kriteria is woordfrekwensie, sleutelstatus, gespesialiseerde voorkoms, omvang en verspreiding, asook enkele nie-korpus-linguistiese metodes wat minder gereeld toegepas word. 'n Groter verskeiden-heid metodes is gebruik vir die samestelling van lemmalyste vir TSD-woordeboeke, en van die korpuslinguistiese metodes is slegs frekwensie tipies toegepas. Lemmaseleksieprosedures vir TSD-woordelyste en TSD-woordeboeke word in die artikel vergelyk voordat daar bespreek word hoe hulle mekaar wedersyds van inligting kan voorsien. <![CDATA[<b>Review of Mariusz Piotr Kaminski. Defining with Simple Vocabulary in English Dictionaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In compiling both Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) word lists for foreign language learners and LSP dictionaries, the headword-selection process is of paramount importance. LSP word lists and LSP dictionaries will function effectively if they contain appropriate terms and register items, i.e. the lexical items that end users need. In this paper, we first present corpus-based LSP word lists, with special emphasis on how they were compiled. In the process, the make-up and size of the specialised corpus are important, as is the choice of the headword selection methods used. Among the possible criteria are word frequency, keyness, specialised occurrence, range, and dispersion, as well as some non-corpus linguistic methods that are more rarely applied. A greater variety of methods is used for compiling headword lists for LSP dictionaries, and of the corpus linguistic methods, frequency is typically solely applied. The article compares headword selection procedures for LSP word lists and LSP dictionaries before discussing how they can mutually inform one another.<hr/>In die samestelling van beide Taal vir Spesifieke Doeleindes-(TSD-)woor-delyste vir vreemdetaalleerders en TSD-woordeboeke is die lemmaseleksieproses van kardinale belang. TSD-woordelyste en TSD-woordeboeke sal effektief funksioneer indien hulle toepaslike terme en registeritems, m.a.w. die leksikale items wat eindgebruikers benodig, bevat. In hierdie artikel word korpusgebaseerde TSD-woordelyste eerste bespreek, met besondere klem op hul samestelling. In hierdie proses is die samestelling en grootte van die gespesialiseerde korpus, asook die keuse van die lemmaseleksiemetodes wat gebruik word, belangrik. Onder die moontlike kriteria is woordfrekwensie, sleutelstatus, gespesialiseerde voorkoms, omvang en verspreiding, asook enkele nie-korpus-linguistiese metodes wat minder gereeld toegepas word. 'n Groter verskeiden-heid metodes is gebruik vir die samestelling van lemmalyste vir TSD-woordeboeke, en van die korpuslinguistiese metodes is slegs frekwensie tipies toegepas. Lemmaseleksieprosedures vir TSD-woordelyste en TSD-woordeboeke word in die artikel vergelyk voordat daar bespreek word hoe hulle mekaar wedersyds van inligting kan voorsien. <![CDATA[<b>An Investigation of Corpus Contributions to Lexicographic Challenges over the Past Ten Years</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This study explores the role of corpus linguistics in addressing lexicographic challenges over the past ten years. It examines 25 studies published from 2012 to 2021 that employed corpus solutions to solve lexicographic problems. Challenging tasks are either relevant to the macrostructure or the microstructure of dictionaries. In the past decade, lexicographers made extensive use of corpus tools to create dictionaries and improve existing ones. This effort included compiling general and specialized headword lists, identifying idiom variations, detecting collocational patterns, identifying and ordering words senses and differentiating polysemous words and near-synonyms. Frequency, keyword extraction, and word sketches are among the most effective aids for lexicographers. According to the investigated studies, almost all dictionaries may benefit from corpus tools at the macro and microstructure levels.<hr/>Hierdie studie ondersoek die rol van die korpuslinguistiek in die benadering tot leksikografiese uitdagings oor die afgelope tien jaar. Dit ondersoek 25 studies wat vanaf 2012 tot 2021 gepubliseer is. Uitdagende take is 6f relevant tot die makrostruktuur 6f tot die mikrostruktuur van woordeboeke. In die afgelope dekade het leksikograwe uitgebreid gebruik gemaak van korpusgereedskap om woordeboeke te skep en bestaandes te verbeter. Dit het die samestelling van algemene en gespesialiseerde lemmalyste, die identifise-ring van idioomvariasies, die bepaling van kollokasionele patrone, die identifisering en ordening van woordbetekenisse en die onderskeiding van polisemiese woorde en ampersinomieme ingesluit. Frekwensie, sleutelwoordonttrekking en woordbeskrywings is van die mees effektiewe hulpmiddels vir leksikograwe. Volgens die studies wat ondersoek is, kan byna alle woordeboeke baat by korpusgereedskap op makro- sowel as mikrostruktuurvlakke. <![CDATA[<b>The Treatment of Parts of Speech in Dictionaries of Lexicography</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Ziel des Beitrags ist es, zu beschreiben und zu analysieren, wie drei Wörterbücher zur Lexikographie, nämlich Lexicography. A Dictionary of Basic Terminology (1998) von Igor Burkhanov, Dictionary of Lexicography (2001) von Reinhard R.K. Hartmann und Gregory James und Wörterbuch zur Lexikographie und Wörterbuchforschung/Dictionary of Lexicography and Dictionary Research (2010-2020) von Herbert Ernst Wiegand et al., Wortarten behandeln. Es wird untersucht, ob die entsprechenden Einträge nur grammatische oder auch lexikographische Informationen enthalten, und ob sie mit anderen Artikeln mit lexikographiebezogenem Inhalt vernetzt sind. WortartArtikel mit Informationen zur Lexikographie werden anschließend unter qualitativem Aspekt erörtert. Der Artikel schließt mit einigen allgemeinen Bemerkungen zur Beschreibung von lexikographieexternen Begriffen in Wörterbüchern zur Lexikographie. Der Autor postuliert, dass sowohl die Wortart-Artikel als auch alle anderen Einträge zu Termini von außerhalb der Lexikographie, z.B. aus dem Bereich der Lingusitik, lexikographische Informationen enthalten. Es ist nämlich nicht die Funktion dieser Artikel, analoge Artikel aus Fachwörterbüchern zu betreffenden Disziplinen zu ersetzen und den gleichen Inhalt zu bieten. In Wörterbüchern zur Lexikographie sollte stets die Lexikographie im Mittelpunkt stehen und die Beschreibungsperspektive prägen.<hr/>The aim of the article is to present and analyse how three dictionaries of lexicography, i.e. Lexicography. A Dictionary of Basic Terminology (1998) by Igor Burkhanov, Dictionary of Lexicography (2001) by Reinhard R.K. Hartmann and Gregory James and Wörterbuch zur Lexikographie und Wörterbuchforschung/Dictionary of Lexicography and Dictionary Research (2010-2020) by Herbert Ernst Wiegand et al, treat parts of speech. It is examined whether the entries contain only grammatical or also lexicography-related information. Then, the interconnectedness of the articles on parts of speech and other lexicographic content is scrutinised. Subsequently, entries with lexicography-related information are examined qualitatively. The article concludes with some general remarks on the description of lexicography-external terms in dictionaries of lexicography. The author postulates that both the part-of-speech articles and all other entries on terms from outside lexicography, e.g. from the field of linguistics, contain lexicographic information. It is not the function of these articles to replace analogous articles from specialised dictionaries on the disciplines concerned, and to offer the same content. In dictionaries on lexicography, lexicography should always be the focus and shape the descriptive perspective. <![CDATA[<b>Text-based Use of a Thesaurus in an Afrikaans language and teaching context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die onderwerp van die artikel is die ontsluitingsmoontlikhede van tesourusgebruik in 'n Afrikaanse taalonderrigkonteks in die skoolklaskamer. Die tesourus is een van die oudste naslaanwerke in die geskiedenis van leksikografie; tog word dit nie in die aantal navor-singsartikels rakende die onderwerp gereflekteer nie. 'n Tesourus blyk nie 'n algemene fokuspunt van leksikografiese navorsing of opvoedkundige leksikografiese navorsing te wees nie. In 'n poging om die gaping in die literatuur te oorbrug, word daar oor die doel en leksikografiese funksie van 'n tesourus besin, veral in 'n taalonderrigkonteks. Die taalonderrigkonteks word vervolgens belig met verwysing na voorgestelde tesourusgebruik in skoolkurrikuladokumente, aangesien dit rigtinggewend is vir onderrigraamwerke in skole. Teksgebaseerde tesourusgebruik in die taalonderrigkonteks word aanbeveel en gemotiveer teen die agtergrond van 'n ondersoek na 'n tesourus en tematiese woordeboekafdelings. Aanbevelings vir enkele verbeterings tot leksikografiese produkte word vanuit 'n opvoedkundige leksikografiese perspektief gemaak ten einde optimale gebruik van 'n tesourus in 'n taalonderrigkonteks te verseker.<hr/>The topic of the article articulates and explores possibilities for the use of a thesaurus in the language and teaching context of the school classroom. Although the thesaurus is one of the oldest reference works in the history of lexicography, that fact is not reflected in the number of research articles on the topic. A thesaurus does not seem to be a general focus point of lexicographic research, nor be it of pedagogical lexicography. To address the gap in literature, the purpose and lexicographic functions of a thesaurus, especially in a language education context, are foregrounded. The language education context is illuminated with reference to the prescribed use of the thesaurus in school curricula documents, as they dictate the teaching policy in public schools. Text-based use of a thesaurus is recommended and is illustrated against the background of an investigation of a thesaurus and thematic dictionary sections. Recommendations for improvement of lexicographical products are made from a pedagogical lexicographic perspective to ensure optimal use of a thesaurus in a language education setting. <![CDATA[<b>Stigmatised Dictionaries Housing a Stigmatised Variety of English: The Use of Korean English Online Dictionaries as a Teaching Tool within the EFL Classroom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper adopts a practice-based focus, explaining how online dictionaries can be used as pedagogic tools for teachers within the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. A discussion is provided of online dictionaries which are created by, broadly speaking, 'laypeople', and not professional lexicographers; and the vocabulary in question pertains to expanding circle Englishes, such as those tied to the Far East, with Korean English presented here as representative of this circle. However, online dictionaries, notably the variety described here, are often viewed negatively, based on judgements made regarding their accuracy, and lacking the prestige of being compiled by professional lexicographers. Further, varieties of English which reside outside the context of standard inner-circle varieties (e.g. American English), are often regarded as incorrect and/or inferior to the standard variety spoken by native speakers of English; indeed, the standard inner-circle variety is often regarded as the standard. However, this paper seeks to demonstrate how both online dictionaries and expanding circle Englishes have a role to play in the EFL classroom. In doing so, this can help to address broader issues tied to linguistic prejudice and hegemony, providing a more equal approach to language, to include its online compilation.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word daar op die praktykgefokus: Daar word uiteengesit hoe aanlyn woordeboeke as pedagogiese hulpmiddels vir onderwysers in die Engels-as-Vreemde Taal- (EVT)-klaskamer gebruik kan word. Aanlyn woordeboeke wat oor die algemeen geskep word deur 'leke', en nie professionele leksikograwe nie, word bespreek, en die tersaaklike woordeskat het betrekking op die uitbreidende kring van Engels, soos die wat verbind word met die Verre Ooste, met Koreaanse Engels wat hier aangebied word as verteenwoordigend van hierdie kring. Aanlyn woordeboeke, veral die soorte wat hier beskryf word, word egter dikwels, gebaseer op oordele rakende hul akkuraatheid en weens die gebrek aan prestige aangesien hulle nie saamgestel word deur professionele leksikograwe nie, as negatief beskou. Boonop word die varieteite van Engels wat buite die konteks van die standaard binnekring varieteite (bv. Amerikaanse Engels) val, dikwels beskou as onjuis en/of minderwaardig aan die standaard varieteit wat deur moedertaalsprekers van Engels gebruik word. Die standaard binne-kring-varieteit word inderdaad dikwels beskou as die standaard. In hierdie artikel word daar egter gepoog om te demonstreer hoe beide aanlyn woordeboeke en die uitbreidende kring van Engels in die EVT-klaskamer 'n rol kan speel. Sodoende kan wyer kwessies rakende linguistiese vooroordeel en oorheersing aangespreek word om 'n meer gelyke benadering tot taal te verskaf wat die aanlyn samestelling daarvan kan insluit. <![CDATA[<b>A Prototype Afrikaans Online Dictionary for Academic Editing Purposes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die nagraadse studente aan hoeronderwysinstellings in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks het volgens Van Aswegen (2007: 1141) onvoldoende akademiese skryfvaardighede en 'n tekort aan navorsingsvaardighede; daarom groei die aanvraag na die diens van redigeerders wat spesifiek akademiese tekste redigeer. Die redigeerders van Afrikaanse akademiese tekste onder-vind egter probleme met naslaanbronne (stylgidse of standaardiseringsbronne) wat hulle kan gebruik om konsekwentheid in die akademiese tekste te verseker. Gevolglik het hierdie redigeerders 'n behoefte aan 'n Afrikaanse woordeboek wat spesiaal gerig is op die behoeftes van akademiese redigeerders (Blom 2020: 18).'n Model vir die ontwerp van 'n aanlyn Afrikaanse akademiese redigeerwoordeboek (Blom se 2018-woordeboekmodel) is opgestel as die eerste deel van 'n groter projek wat daarop gemik is om 'n volledige aanlyn Afrikaanse akademiese redigeerwoordeboek saam te stel. Ten einde Blom se 2018-woordeboekmodel te implementeer om 'n volledige woordeboek saam te stel, moet 'n prototipewoordeboek ontwikkel word en dan getoets word deur sy teikengebruikers (akademiese redigeerders). In hierdie artikel is die beginsels van die funksieteorie (Fuertes-Olivera en Tarp 2014), Gouws (2014a; 2014b; 2018a; 2018b; 2018c; 2018d) se aanpassings van die algemene leksikografieteorie en bruikbaarheidsteoriee (ISO-standaard 9241 (1998a)(1998b)(2006)) gebruik om die genoemde prototipe-Afrikaanse akademiese redigeerwoordeboek saam te stel. Hierdie geintegreerde teorie maak die samestelling van 'n gebruikersvriendelike prototipewoordeboek moontlik, wat in 'n opvolgstudie deur herhaalde bruikbaarheidstoetse met die eind- of teikengebruikers as toetsdeelnemers geevalu-eer sal word.<hr/>The academic writing and research skills of postgraduate students at higher education institutions in the South African context are inadequate (Van Aswegen 2007: 1141), and therefore there is a growing demand for the services of editors of specifically academic texts. The editors of Afrikaans academic texts, however, experience problems in terms of reference sources (style guides or standardisation sources) that they can use to ensure consistency in the academic texts. Consequently, these editors have a need for an Afrikaans dictionary that is specially aimed at the needs of academic editors (Blom 2020: 18). A model for the design of an Afrikaans online dictionary for academic editing purposes (Blom's 2018 dictionary model) was set up as the first part of a larger project that aims to compile a complete online Afrikaans academic editing dictionary. In order to implement Blom's 2018 dictionary model to compile a complete dictionary, a prototype dictionary must be developed and then tested by its target users (i.e. academic editors). In this article the principles of the function theory (Fuertes-Olivera and Tarp 2014), Gouws' (2014a; 2014b; 2018a; 2018b; 2018c; 2018d) adaptations of the general lexicography theory and usability theories (ISO-standard 9241 (1998a)(1998b)(2006)) were used to compile the said prototype Afrikaans academic editing dictionary. This integrated theory enables the compilation of a user-friendly prototype dictionary that will be evaluated through repeated usability testing with the end or target users as test participants in a follow-up study. <![CDATA[<b>The Influence of Grammatical Gender on the Sequence of Near-synonyms in Serbian Dictionaries in Contrast to English Thesauri</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt It has been noticed that Serbian dictionaries of synonyms do not provide a clear insight into the lexical relations among the words bearing similar meaning (Prcic 2010). Therefore, we have devised the multi-faceted approach to the research which incorporates the collocational, componential, and contrastive analysis of the descriptive adjectives hrabar, -a, -o, in Serbian, and its English counterpart brave. Specific emphasis has been given to the presence of grammatical gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) in Serbian in contrast to natural gender in English. Electronic databases and electronic corpora are used for the analysis of the most frequent collocational framework of the chosen samples. The results of the research employed illustrate how semantic (and grammatical) aspects of words are reflected onto and within their collocational range indicating idiomatic meaning of the adjectives analysed in both languages. Furthermore, the analysis applied has shown that the most frequent collocations of the adjective hrabar, -a, -o, have varied depending on the grammatical gender implied (masculine, feminine, neuter), as well as the sequence of its near-synonyms. The same changes have not occurred in English due to its lack of grammatical gender.<hr/>Daar is opgemerk dat Serwiese sinoniemwoordeboeke nie 'n duidelike insig verskaf in die leksikale verwantskappe tussen die woorde wat soortgelyke betekenisse dra nie (Prcic 2010). Daarom het ons die veelvlakkige benadering tot die navorsing gevolg wat die kollokasionele, kom-ponensiêle, en kontrastiewe analise van die deskriptiewe adjektiewe hrabar, -a, -o, in Serwies, en die Engelse ekwivalent daarvan, brave, inkorporeer. Spesifieke Idem is geplaas op die aanwesigheid van grammatikale gender (manlik, vroulik, onsydig) in Serwies in teenstelling met natuurlike gender in Engels. Elektroniese databasisse en elektroniese korpora word vir die analise van die mees frekwente kollokasionele raamwerk van die gekose voorbeelde gebruik. Die resultate van die navorsing wat gedoen is, illustreer hoe semantiese (en grammatikale) aspekte van woorde op en binne hul kollokasionele reeks gereflekteer word wat dui op die idiomatiese betekenis van die adjektiewe wat in albei tale geanaliseer is. Verder het die analise wat uitgevoer is, getoon dat die mees frekwente kollokasies van die adjektief hrabar, -a, -o, weens die geimpliseerde grammatikale gender (manlik, vroulik, onsydig), asook die opeenvolging van die ampersinonieme, gevarieer het. As gevolg van die afwesigheid van grammatikale gender het soortgelyke veranderings nie in Engels voorgekom nie. <![CDATA[<b>After the Digital Revolution: Dictionary Preferences of English Majors at a European University</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The present contribution reports on a recent survey of dictionary-consulting habits and preferences of university students majoring in English at a European university. Amongst the information sought is the choice between digital online dictionaries and traditional print dictionaries, as well as a number of other issues of interest to lexicographers and educators. It was found that online dictionaries have all but replaced the traditional paper dictionary, suggesting that the digital revolution in lexicography hailed by Lew and De Schryver (2014) is complete. A positive finding is that students prefer dictionaries that are highly rated by experts. The paper concludes with a number of pedagogical suggestions.<hr/>In hierdie bydrae word verslag gelewer oor 'n onlangse opname van woordeboekraadplegingsgewoontes en -voorkeure van universiteitstudente met Engels as hoofvak aan 'n Eurpese universiteit. Inligting wat o.a. ondersoek is, is die keuse tussen digitale aanlyn woordeboeke en tradisioneel gedrukte woorde-boeke, asook 'n aantal ander kwessies van belang vir leksikograwe en opvoeders. Daar is bevind dat aanlyn woordeboeke byna die tradisionele papierwoordeboek vervang het, wat daarop dui dat die digitale revolusie in die leksikografie, soos voorspel deur Lew en De Schryver (2014), voltooi is. 'n Positiewe bevinding wat gemaak is, dui daarop dat studente woordeboeke verkies wat hoog aange-skrewe word deur kundiges. Hierdie artikel word afgesluit met 'n aantal pedagogiese voorstelle.