Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Lexikos]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-003920180001&lang=pt vol. 28 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>On Recent Proposals to Abolish Polysemy and Homonymy in Lexicography</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Two articles appeared recently in Lexikos that propose the abolishment of homonymy and polysemy in lexicography, particularly in dictionaries with a text reception function only. This contribution identifies two main theoretical premises of the proposal in these articles and challenges them. They are: (i) a theory of the lemma as linguistic sign; and (ii) the results of dictionary criticism. Under examination, it is found that both premises fail to support the proposal with regard to polysemy. With regard to homonymy, the first premise is proven invalid, and the second is found to be valid. This implies that the theoretical basis for the proposal should either be reviewed (for which the lexicographical communication theory is offered), or the proposal should rely on the sole practical and unproven argument of data accessibility. The contribution simultaneously develops a potential broad framework for the lexicographical communication theory. The framework constitutes a lexicographical text grammar, which is presented as a parallel communication code to elements of the lexicographic text theory and linguistic grammars. It is argued that dictionary articles constitute texts in which these two grammars overlap to varying degrees, representing a hybrid form of textual communication<hr/>Twee artikels het onlangs in Lexikos verskyn wat voorstel dat weggedoen word met homonimie en polisemie in die leksikografie, spesifiek in woordeboeke met slegs 'n teksresepsiefunksie. Hierdie bydrae identifiseer twee teoretiese hoofpremisse vir die voor-stel en bevraagteken hulle. Die premisse is: (i) 'n teorie van die lemma as taalteken; en (ii) die resultate van woordeboekkritiek. By nadere ondersoek word bevind dat beide die premisse faal met betrekking tot polisemie. Met betrekking tot homonimie word die eerste premis as ongeldig bewys, en die tweede een word geldig bevind. Die bevindinge hou in dat die teoretiese basis vir die voor-stel óf hersien moet word (waarvoor die teorie van leksikografiese kommunikasie aangebied word), óf op die enkele praktiese en onbewese argument van datatoeganklikheid moet steun. Terselfdertyd ontwikkel die bydrae 'n potensiële breë raamwerk vir die teorie van leksikografiese kommunikasie. Die raamwerk verteenwoordig 'n leksikografiese teksgrammatika, wat as 'n kommunikasiekode parallel tot elemente van die teorie van leksikografiese tekste en taalkundige grammatikas aange-bied word. Daar word aangevoer dat woordeboekartikels uit tekste bestaan waarin hierdie twee grammatikas in wisselende mates oorvleuel en as sodanig 'n hibridiese vorm van tekstuele kom-munikasie verteenwoordig. <![CDATA[<b>Corpus-driven Bantu Lexicography Part 1: Organic Corpus Building for Lusoga</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article is the first in a trilogy that deals with corpus-driven Bantu lexicography, which is illustrated for Lusoga. The focus here is on the building of a so-called 'organic corpus' from scratch, while the next two instalments will deal with the use of that corpus on the macrostructural and microstructural levels, respectively. Not many detailed descriptions of corpus-building efforts exist for Bantu languages, so each and every step is discussed in detail, paying particular attention to the parameters that have to be taken into account, while not losing sight of the need to log the metadata either.<hr/>Olupapula luno n'olusooka ku isatu edhinaayogela ku musomo gw'omutengeso gw'eitu ogukozesebwa mu namawanika w'ennimi dha Bantu nga gulaga omulimu ogw'akolebwa ku Lusoga. Mu lupapula luno, eisila lili ku nzimba ya itu namukyukilo okuva ku ntandiiko. Ebitundu ebinaaba mu lupapula olw'okubili n'olw'okusatu biidha kugema ku nkozesa ya itu lino ku isa ly'omutindiigo ogw'ebizimbibwa mu mutegeko n'eisa elilaga eitu lino mu mwoleko ogw'azimbibwa mu mutindiigo n'engeli omusingi ogulimu bwe gulagibwa mu iwanika. Mu nnimi dha Bantu, emilimu egilaga omusingi guno tigitela kuwandiikibwaku mu butongole okusobola okumanhisa abo abayinza okuba nga bagasibwa. Kale buli kitundu ekiteesebwaku mu nnambika eli mu mpapula eisatu dhino kitoolayo buli kanhomelo ka bukodyo n'emitendela egy'agobelebwa ela gy'akozesebwa mu kusenvula omulimu gw'okuzimba omutimbo gw'ekyebungo ky'olulimi Olusoga gwonagwona. <![CDATA[<b>Corpus-driven Bantu Lexicography Part 2: Lemmatisation and Rulers for Lusoga</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article is the second in a trilogy that deals with corpus-driven Bantu lexicography, which is illustrated for Lusoga. The focus here is on the macrostructure and in particular on the building of a lemmatised frequency list directly within a dictionary-writing system. The programming code for the parts of the lemmatisation that may be automated is included as addenda. A second focus is on the embedded part-of-speech and alphabetical rulers, for which it is shown how these may be used to plan the actual compilation of the dictionary entries.<hr/>Olupapula luno n'olwo'kubili mu nteeko y'okulaga omusomo gw'omutengeso gw'eitu ogukozesebwa mu namawanika w'ennimi dha Bantu ogulaga omulimu ogw'akolebwa ku Lusoga. Mu lupapula luno eisila liteebwa ku muteeko gw'omutindiigo okusingila ilala ku kuzimba olukalala lwa namungi w'ebigambowazo mu muteeko ogukozesebwa okuwandiika amawanika. Namugelo w'okutegekuza ebitundu by'okugambowaza ebisobola okuba mu mbeela ya kaneetindiigo bilagibwa mu kikugilo. Eisila ely'okubili lili ku mbu dh'ebigambo edh'ennimbyo n'engeli ye dhilagibwa mu nsengeka ya walifu ng'olupapula luno kwe lusinziila okuwa endowooza ekoba nti ebintu bino ebibili bisobola okukozesebwa okutaawo omusingi gw'okwingiza ebigambo mu iwanika. <![CDATA[<b>Corpus-driven Bantu Lexicography Part 3: Mapping Meaning onto Use in Lusoga</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article is the third instalment in a trilogy of studies that deal with corpus-driven Bantu lexicography as applied to Lusoga. Having dealt with corpus-building in Part 1, and macrostructural aspects in Part 2, we now focus on the microstructure of a dictionary and in particular on the concept of Mapping Meaning onto Use. The starting point is Patrick Hanks's book chapter by the same title, which we transpose to a study of the high-frequent motion verb -v- in Lusoga. Our detailed analysis is as much practical as it is methodological.<hr/>Olupapula luno n'olwokusatu mu nteeko y'okulaga omusomo gw'omutengeso gw'eitu ogukozesebwa mu namawanika w'ennimi dha Bantu ogulaga omulimu ogw'akolebwa ku Lusoga. Oluvainhuma lw'okwandhula engeli eitu ly'Olusoga mu Kitundu 1 n'omuteeko gw'omutindiigo ogusinziilwaku okuzimba olukala lwa namungi w'ebigambowazo mu Kitundu 2, buti eisila liize ku kulaga ngeli amakulu g'ebigambo ye gakwanaganizibwa n'enkozesa. Omusingi gw'eisomo elilagibwa mu kitundu kino gw'ateebwawo Patrick Hanks. Ensonga enkulu dhe yataaku eisila dhilondoolebwa okusinziila ku kigelo kya namungi w'ennhingizo entabaazi (o)ku.v.a. Olupapula luno lugelaagelania engeli ennhingizo eno bwe yaingizibwa mu Eiwanika ly'Olusoga elitaasinziililwa ku itu lya bigambo n'engeli gye yandibaile esengekebwa singa eitu n'ebigelo by'emiwendo egilagibwamu byali bikozeseibwa. Eby'asoboka n'ebitaasoboka bigelaagelanhizibwa n'ebigendelelwa by'omusingi gw'eisomo ly'eitu lya namawanika mu mpandiika y'amawanika. <![CDATA[<b>New Insights in the Design and Compilation of Digital Bilingual Lexicographical Products: The Case of the Diccionarios Valladolid-UVa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This contribution deals with a new digital English-Spanish-English lexicographical project that started as an assignment from the Danish high-tech company Ordbogen A/S which signed a contract with the University of Valladolid (Spain) for designing and compiling a digital lexicographical product that is economically and commercially feasible and can be used for various purposes in connection with its expansion into new markets and the launching of new tools and services which make use of lexicographical data. The article presents the philosophy underpinning the project, highlights some of the innovations introduced, e.g. the use of logfiles for compiling the initial lemma list and the order of compilation, and illustrates a compilation methodology which starts by assuming the relevance of new concepts, i.e. object and auxiliary languages instead of target and source languages. The contribution also defends the premise that the future of e-lexicography basically rests on a close cooperation between research centers and high-tech companies which assures the adequate use of disruptive technologies and innovations.<hr/>In hierdie bydrae word aandag geskenk aan 'n nuwe digitale Engels-Spaans-Engelse leksikografiese projek wat begin is in opdrag van die Deense hoëtegnologiemaatskappy Ordbogen A/S. 'n Ooreenkoms is gesluit met die Universiteit van Vallodolid (Spanje) vir die ontwerp en vervaardi-ging van 'n digitale leksikografiese produk wat ekonomies en kommersieel uitvoerbaar is en wat gebruik kan word vir verskillende doeleindes wat verband hou met die uitbreiding daarvan na nuwe markte en die bekendstelling van nuwe hulpmiddels en dienste wat leksikografiese data benut. Die artikel bespreek die filosofie onderliggend aan die projek, belig sommige van die vernu-wende elemente wat bekendgestel is, soos die gebruik van log-lêers vir die samestelling van die aanvanklike lemmalys en die volgorde van die samestelling. Die samestellingsmetodologie wat begin by die aanname dat vernuwende konsepte toepaslik is, word ook geïllustreer, d.w.s. primêre en sekondêre tale in plaas van doel- en brontale. In hierdie bydrae word die aaname dat die toe-koms van e-leksikografie fundamenteel berus op die noue samewerking tussen navorsingssen-trums en hoëtegnologiemaatskappye wat die voldoende gebruik van ontwrigtende tegnologieë en vernuwende elemente verseker, verdedig. <![CDATA[<b>A Lexicographic Data Pulling Structure for Online Dictionaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In the field of lexicography the transition from printed to online dictionaries has had a significant influence on numerous aspects of both lexicographic theory and the lexicographic practice. In the continued development of lexicographic theory this influence has to be formulated in order to present guidelines for the optimal application of the resulting adaptations in the lexicographic practice. Dictionary structures should be investigated to determine which structures can be maintained in the new medium, which structures need to be adapted and which new structures are coming to the fore. The focus in this article is on adaptations in lexicographic structures. Reference is made to structures of which the adaptations have already been discussed in metalexicography. The main emphasis is on different types of data distribution structures in online dictionaries. Provision is made for a comprehensive data distribution structure that can be employed in dictionary portals to give the user access to dictionary-external sources. The need of users for more freedom to select their required data, leads to proposals for a new structure, namely the data pulling structure. By employing this structure users can access the internet as lexicographic corpus from any point in an online dictionary to retrieve from the data there the information they require in a specific situation of use. The data pulling structure confirms the status of dictionaries as integrated information instruments and puts them within the scope of an over-arching data structure.<hr/>Op die gebied van die leksikografie het die oorgang vanaf gedrukte na aanlyn woordeboeke 'n ingrypende invloed op talle aspekte van sowel die leksikografieteorie as die leksi-kografiepraktyk. In die voortgesette ontwikkeling van die leksikografieteorie moet hierdie invloed verwoord word sodat daar riglyne gebied kan word vir die optimale benutting van die vooruit-spruitende aanpassings in die leksikografiepraktyk. Woordeboekstrukture moet opnuut ondersoek word om vas te stel watter strukture in die nuwe medium behou kan word, watter strukture aan aanpassings onderhewig is en watter nuwe strukture na vore tree. In hierdie artikel is die fokus op aanpassings in leksikografiese strukture. Daar word verwys na strukture waarvoor aanpassings reeds in die metaleksikografie bespreek is. Die hoofklem is op verskillende vorme van die dataverspreidingstruktuur in aanlyn woordeboeke. Voorsiening word gemaak vir 'n omvattende dataverspreidingstruktuur wat in woordeboekportale gebruik kan word en die gebruiker toegang tot woordeboekeksterne bronne gee. Die behoefte aan groter vryheid van die gebruiker om data te kies wat benodig word, lei tot voorstelle vir 'n nuwe struktuur, naamlik die datatrekkingstruktuur. Met behulp van hierdie struktuur kan gebruikers regstreeks vanuit 'n bepaalde posisie in 'n aanlyn woordeboek toegang kry tot die internet as leksikografiese korpus om aan die data daar die inligting te onttrek wat in 'n bepaalde gebruiksituasie verlang word. Die data-trekkingstruktuur bevestig die status van woordeboeke as geïntegreerde inligtingsinstrumente en plaas hulle binne die bestek van 'n oorkoepelende datastruktuur. <![CDATA[<b>A Lexicographic Approach to Teaching the English Article System: Help or Hindrance?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article reports on changes in EFL learners' article choice performance before and after receiving lessons on the main rules applicable to article usage combined with dictionary consultation guidance. A sample of 43 Korean college students undertook the same forced-choice elicitation task once as a diagnostic test and again as a post-intervention test at three-month intervals. Unlike the diagnostic test, in which the participants were only asked to choose the correct articles, the post-intervention test asked them to give written accounts of their decision-making procedures as well. The analyses of the diagnostic test results, specifically the items requiring the indefinite article or the zero article, demonstrated EFL learners' struggle with indeterminate nominal numbers, underlining the importance of clear lexicographic treatment of such information. Further, the post-intervention test and the written think-aloud data analyses suggested that although using a bilingualised dictionary for nominal countability is useful in general, dictionary consultation can sometimes impede users from using articles correctly. Specific problem areas are discussed.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen oor veranderings in EVT-leerders se keuse van lidwoorde voor en nadat hulle lesse oor die hoofreëls wat van toepassing is op lidwoordgebruik asook leiding oor die raadpleging van woor-deboeke ontvang het. 'n Steekproef van 43 Koreaanse kollegestudente het dieselfde opdrag uitge-voer waartydens gedwonge keuses ontlok is, een keer as 'n diagnostiese toets en weer as 'n postintervensietoets drie maande later. Anders as in die diagnostiese toets, waarin die deelnemers slegs die korrekte lidwoorde moes kies, is hulle in die postintervensietoets ook gevra om 'n geskrewe weergawe te gee van die besluitnemingsprosesse wat hulle gevolg het. Die ontleding van die diagnostiese toetsresultate, spesifiek die items wat die onbepaalde lidwoord of die zero-lid-woord vereis het, het getoon dat EVT-leerders sukkel met onbepaalde naamwoordgetalle, wat die belangrikheid van duidelike leksikografiese hantering van sodanige inligting beklemtoon het. Die postintervensietoets en die ontleding van die geskrewe hardop-dink-data het daarop gedui dat, alhoewel die gebruik van 'n verklarende woordeboek met vertalings oor die algemeen nuttig is vir nominale telbaarheid, die raadpleging van 'n woordeboek soms gebruikers kan verhinder om lidwoorde korrek te gebruik. Spesifieke probleemareas word bespreek. <![CDATA[<b>An Empirical Study of EFL Learners' Dictionary Use in Chinese-English Translation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article reports on the results of a study which investigated English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of an electronic dictionary in a L1-L2 translation task. Forty-seven university graduate students from a Chinese university were asked to translate a Chinese passage into English on computers with the support of an embedded dictionary. Screen recorders were used to record their dictionary use behavior and a follow-up interview was conducted to tap into the thinking processes behind their behavior. The results of the study show that when translating, EFL learners demonstrate preferences for L2 equivalents and content words in their lookups, and reveal specific problems such as a preoccupation with L2 equivalents and lack of awareness of other lexical information, which may hinder correct application of dictionary information. This study suggests that dictionary use behavior may affect the development of students' ability to translate and requires attention from both EFL learners and teachers. It is further suggested that translation teachers should alert learners to the importance of checking other lexical information in a dictionary in their translation practice.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word verslag gelewer oor die resultate van 'n studie waarin leerders van Engels as Vreemde Taal (EVT) se gebruik van 'n elektroniese woorde-boek in 'n L1-L2-vertalingsopdrag ondersoek is. Sewe en veertig nagraadse studente van 'n Chinese universiteit is versoek om op die rekenaar 'n Chinese stuk in Engels te vertaal met behulp van 'n ingeboude woordeboek. Skermopnemers is gebruik om hul gedrag rakende woordeboekgebruik vas te lê, en 'n opvolgonderhoud is gevoer om die denkprosesse wat hul gedrag rig, te probeer bepaal. Die resultate van die studie dui daarop dat EVT-leerders in die naslaanproses 'n voorkeur vir L2-ekwivalente en inhoudswoorde toon, en dit lê spesifieke probleme soos 'n beheptheid met L2-ekwivalente en 'n onkunde oor ander leksikale inligting bloot, wat kan verhinder dat die woor-deboekinligting korrek toegepas word. Hierdie studie suggereer dat woordeboekgebruiksgedrag die ontwikkeling van studente se vertaalvermoëns mag affekteer en dat sowel EVT-leerders as -onderwysers aandag hieraan moet skenk. Daar word ook voorgestel dat vertaalonderwysers leerders se aandag moet vestig op hoe belangrik die kontrolering van ander leksikale inligting in 'n woordeboek in hul vertaalpraktyk is. <![CDATA[<b>Once Again Why Lexicography Is Science</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The article addresses some issues connected with the disciplinary status of lexicography. Drawing on the views of scholars such as L. Zgusta, R. Ilson, H. Wiegand, R. Gouws, H. Ber-genholtz, S. Tarp, R. Lew and others, the author argues in favour of the viewpoint that lexicography is a science and that working on a dictionary is a scientific activity. The main issues tackled in the paper include understanding the complex nature of word meaning, the role of dictionaries in the description of word meaning and the development of lexical semantics. Attention is also paid to the definitional method of the study of word meaning, which is based on the analysis of dictionary definitions, components of the theory of lexicography, the relation between lexicographic theory and practice, and the teaching of lexicography as an academic discipline at universities. The author argues that the right approach to lexicography and its disciplinary status is particularly important in our era of globalisation. Only state-of-the-art lexicographic and corpus resources will secure the future of many languages, particularly lesser-used languages, and such resources will not be created until lexicography receives proper recognition as a science with "big interdisciplinary vocation" (Tarp 2017); until lexicography is turned into an academic discipline through advanced theory of lexicography, through teaching lexicography at universities, etc.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word 'n paar kwessies met betrekking tot die vakstatus van leksikografie aangespreek. Gebaseer op die sienings van vakkundiges soos L. Zgusta, R. Ilson, H. Wiegand, R. Gouws, H. Bergenholtz, S. Tarp, R. Lew en ander, argumenteer die outeur ten gunste van die siening dat die leksikografie 'n wetenskap is en dat die samestelling van 'n woordeboek 'n wetenskaplike aktiwiteit is. Die hoof-kwessies wat in hierdie artikel aangespreek word, sluit die komplekse aard van woordbetekenis, die rol van woordeboeke in die beskrywing van woordbetekenis en die ontwikkeling van die leksikale semantiek in. Daar word ook aandag geskenk aan die definisiële studiemetode van woord-betekenis, wat gebaseer is op die ontleding van woordeboekdefinisies, komponente van die leksi-kografieteorie, die verband tussen die leksikografiese teorie en -praktyk, en die onderrig van die leksikografie as 'n akademiese dissipline by universiteite. Die outeur argumenteer dat die korrekte benadering tot die leksikografie en die vakstatus daarvan besonder belangrik in hierdie era van globalisering is. Slegs die heel nuutste leksikogra-fiese en korpushulpbronne sal die toekoms van baie tale, spesifiek minder gebruikte tale, verseker, en voor hierdie hulpbronne geskep kan word, moet die leksikografie behoorlike erkenning as 'n wetenskap met "('n) groot interdissiplinêre taak" (Tarp 2017) geniet; moet gevorderde leksikogra-fieteorie in 'n akademiese vakrigting verander word, moet leksikografie aan universiteite onderrig word, ens. <![CDATA[<b>The Effectiveness of Using Dictionaries as an Aid for Teaching Standardization of English-based Sports Terms in Serbian</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper reports on the effectiveness of a new teaching method employing dictionaries as an aid for teaching the standardization of English-based sports terms in Serbian. The research was conducted among the students of a sports faculty in 2017 by means of a questionnaire distributed to the students both at the beginning of the second half of an ESP course and again at its end. Its aim was to measure the students' progress related to the acquisition of standardized sports terms in Serbian as an indicator of the effectiveness of the new teaching method. The findings generally indicate a certain degree of improvement of the students' knowledge of standardized sports terminology, though a less than satisfactory amount of progress regarding their linguistic competence. Even though the outcomes did not fully meet the goals set in advance, they do provide solid arguments for further efforts in developing and monitoring dictionary use in teaching the standardization of English-based sports terms in Serbian within the ESP curriculum and, even more importantly, for the systematic education of dictionary usage as part of the mother tongue curriculum.<hr/>in hierdie artikel word verslag gedoen oor die effektiwiteit van 'n nuwe onderrigmetode waarin woordeboeke benut word as hulpmiddels in die onderrig van die standaardisering van Engelsgebaseerde sportterme in Serwies. Hierdie navorsing is in 2017 uitge-voer onder die studente van 'n sportfakulteit deur middel van 'n vraelys wat aan die begin van die tweede helfte van 'n ESD-kursus en weer aan die einde daarvan aan die studente uitgedeel is. Dit het die evaluering van die studente se vordering ten opsigte van die aanleer van gestandaardi-seerde sportterme in Serwies ten doel gehad wat 'n aanduiding sou wees van die effektiwiteit van die nuwe onderrigmetode. Die bevindings dui oor die algemeen op 'n mate van verbetering van die studente se kennis van gestandaardiseerde sportterminologie, maar dui ook op minder bevre-digende vordering ten opsigte van hul taalkundige vaardigheid. Alhoewel die resultate nie die doelwitte wat aanvanklik gestel is ten volle bevredig het nie, verskaf dit steeds grondige argumente vir verdere pogings in die ontwikkeling en monitering van woordeboekgebruik in die onderrig van die standaardisering van Engelsgebaseerde sportterme in Serwies in die ESD-kurri-kulum en, selfs belangriker nog, vir die sistematiese onderrig van woordeboekgebruik as deel van die moedertaalkurrikulum. <![CDATA[<b>Correct Hypotheses and Careful Reading Are Essential: Results of an Observational Study on Learners Using Online Language Resources</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In the past two decades, more and more dictionary usage studies have been published, but most of them deal with questions related to what users appreciate about dictionaries, which dictionaries they use and what type of information they need in specific situations - presupposing that users actually consult lexicographic resources. However, language teachers and lecturers in linguistics often have the impression that students do not use enough high-quality dictionaries in their everyday work. With this in mind, we launched an international cooperation project to collect empirical data to evaluate what it is that students actually do while attempting to solve language problems. To this end, we applied a new methodological setting: screen recording in conjunction with a thinking-aloud task. The collected empirical data offers a broad insight into what users really do while they attempt to solve language-related tasks online.<hr/>In die afgelope twee dekades is al hoe meer woordeboekgebruikstudies gepubliseer, maar die meeste van hierdie studies handel oor vraagstukke wat verband hou met wat gebruikers van woordeboeke waardevol vind, watter woordeboeke hulle gebruik en watter tipe inligting hulle in spesifieke situasies benodig - met die voorveronderstelling dat gebruikers inderdaad leksiko-grafiese hulpbronne raadpleeg. Taalonderwysers en dosente in die linguistiek kry dikwels die indruk dat studente nie genoeg hoëkwaliteitwoordeboeke in hul daaglikse werk gebruik nie. Met hierdie siening in gedagte het ons 'n internasionale samewerkingsprojek van stapel gestuur om empiriese data te versamel om sodoende te kan evalueer wat dit is wat studente in werklikheid doen wanneer hulle taalprobleme probeer oplos. Om hierdie doel te bereik het ons gebruik gemaak van 'n nuwe metodologiese omgewing: skermopnames saam met 'n opdrag wat uitgevoer moet word terwyl daar hardop gedink word. Die versamelde empiriese data verskaf 'n breë insig in wat gebruikers werklik doen terwyl hulle poog om taalverwante take aanlyn op te los. <![CDATA[<b>Polish Americans in the History of Bilingual Lexicography: The State of the Art</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper measures dictionaries made by Polish Americans against the development of the Polish-English and English-Polish lexicographic tradition. Of twenty nine monoscopal and biscopal glossaries and dictionaries published between 1788 and 1947, four may be treated as milestones: Erazm Rykaczewski's (1849-1851), Wladyslaw Kierst and Oskar Callier's (1895), Wladyslaw Kierst's (1926-1928), and Jan Stanislawski's (1929). Unsurprisingly, they came to be widely repub-lished in English-speaking countries, primarily the United States of America, for the sake of Polish-speaking immigrants. One might therefore wonder whether there was any pressing need for new dictionaries. There must have been, assuming that supply follows demand, because as many as eight Polish-English and English-Polish dictionaries were compiled by Polish Americans and published by the mid-twentieth century. The scant attention accorded this topic suggests a chronological approach to these dictionaries is in order, firstly, to blow the dust from the tomes; secondly, to establish their filial relationships; and, lastly, to evaluate their significance for the bilingual dictionary market.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word woordeboeke wat saamgestel is deur Poolse Amerikaners gemeet aan die ontwikkeling van die Pools-Engelse en Engels-Poolse leksiko-grafiese tradisie. Van die nege en twintig eenrigting- en tweerigtingglossariums en -woordeboeke wat tussen 1788 en 1947 gepubliseer is, kan vier as mylpale beskou word: Dié van Erazm Rykaczewski (1849-1851), Wladyslaw Kierst en Oskar Callier (1895), Wladyslaw Kierst (19261928), en Jan Stanislawski (1929). Dit is nie verbasend nie dat hulle wyd in Engelssprekende lande, veral in die Verenigde State van Amerika, ter wille van die Poolssprekende immigrante herpubliseer is. Daar kan dus gewonder word of daar enige dringende behoefte aan nuwe woordeboeke was. Indien daar aangeneem word dat aanbod op aanvraag volg, moes daar wel so 'n behoefte gewees het, aangesien agt Pools-Engelse en Engels-Poolse woordeboeke teen die middel van die twintigste eeu deur Poolse Amerikaners saamgestel is. Die min aandag wat al aan hierdie onderwerp geskenk is, dui daarop dat 'n chronologiese benadering tot hierdie woordeboeke geskik is, eerstens om die woordeboeke te herontdek, tweedens om hul onderlinge verwantskappe te bepaal, en laastens om hul waarde vir die tweetalige woordeboekmark te evalueer. <![CDATA[<b>Semi-automating the Reading Programme for a Historical Dictionary Project</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper describes the resources and software procedures used or developed in a major enabling step towards the revision of the scholarly reference work A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles (DSAE, Silva et al. 1996), namely the semi-automatic generation of a digitally-sourced lexical database on which new and updated dictionary entries will be based; as well as the addition, in parallel, of a new corpus of South African English (SAE) to the project. Drawing on online data sources and an extensive list of known SAE word forms, we have developed a software toolchain to gather, encode, annotate and collate textual sources, producing: (i) a 3.1-billion part-of-speech-annotated corpus of South African English; (ii) a lexical database of illustrative quotations for over 20,000 known SAE word forms, available for selection at the entry-revision stage; and (iii) a list of potential new variant spellings and headword inclusion candidates. These steps replace, where recent electronic sources are concerned, the mechanical aspects of quotation gathering, normally undertaken manually through a reading programme requiring years of teamwork to acquire sufficient coverage (cf. Hicks 2010).<hr/>Hierdie artikel beskryf die hulpbronne en sagtewareprosedures wat gebruik word of ontwikkel is in 'n belangrike bemagtigingstap na die hersiening van die vakkun-dige naslaanwerk A Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles (DSAE, Silva et al. 1996), naamlik die semi-outomatiese generering van 'n leksikale databasis van digitale bronne waarop nuwe en bygewerkte woordeboekinskrywings gebaseer sal wees; asook die gelyktydige toevoeging van 'n nuwe korpus van Suid-Afrikaanse Engels (SAE) tot die projek. Gebaseer op aanlyn data-bronne en 'n uitgebreide lys bekende SAE woordvorme, het ons 'n sagteware nutsketting ontwerp vir die versameling, enkodering, annotering en vergelyking van teksbronne, wat gelei het tot die skep van (i) 'n 3.1-biljoen woordsoortgeannoteerde korpus van Suid-Afrikaanse Engels; (ii) 'n leksi-kale databasis van illustratiewe aanhalings vir ongeveer 20,000 bekende SAE-woordvorme, wat by die hersieningsfase van die inskrywings beskikbaar is vir seleksie; en (iii) 'n lys van potensieel nuwe variante spellings en moontlikhede vir trefwoordseleksie. Wat onlangse elektroniese bronne betref, vervang hierdie stappe die meganiese aspekte van die versameling van aanhalings, wat gewoonlik met die hand met behulp van 'n leesprogram wat jare se spanwerk vereis om voldoende dekking te verkry, gedoen word (cf. Hicks 2010). <![CDATA[<b>Objectivity, Prescription, Harmlessness, and Drudgery: Reflections of Lexicographers in Slovenia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This contribution reports on a study that set out to paint as complete a picture as possible of the context and content of modern Slovenian lexicography. We aimed to discern the philosophical underpinnings, the most noteworthy accomplishments, and the main projects of Slovenian dictionary work as presented by our seven subjects, who are all prominent members of the lexicographic community. We sought specialists who work on synchronic topics and concentrate more on the standard language and terminology rather than on dialectal variation and other lexicographic topics that are of more interest to scholars than to educated lay persons. The interview script consisted of thirteen narrative questions, designed to allow the interviewees to reflect in as much depth as possible on their daily practice as well as on their underlying vision of what lexicography or terminography is. This article discusses the development and influences of Slovenian lexicographic theory and presents part 1 of the results of this study: the views of the practicing lexicographers on whether they perceive their lexicographic work as drudgery and what they see as the essential nature of their role in society - how the dictionary maker can be a force for good and avoid any potential for harm.<hr/>In hierdie bydrae word verslag gedoen oor 'n studie waarin gepoog is om so 'n volledig moontlike beskrywing te gee van die kon-teks en inhoud van die moderne Sloweense leksikografie. Ons het probeer om die filosofiese bou-stene, die noemenswaardigste prestasies, en die belangrikse Sloweense woordeboekprojekte soos voorgehou deur ons sewe respondente, wat almal prominente lede van die leksikografiese gemeen-skap is, weer te gee. Ons het vakkundiges gekies wat aan sinchroniese onderwerpe werk en meer op die standaardtaal en -terminologie konsentreer as op dialektiese variasie en ander leksikogra-fiese onderwerpe, wat van meer belang is vir die vakkundige as vir die opgevoede leek. Die onder-houd het bestaan uit dertien narratiewe vrae, wat ontwerp is om die respondente toe te laat om so volledig moontlik weer te gee wat hul daaglikse praktyke is sowel as wat hul onderliggende visie van die leksikografie en terminografie is. Hierdie artikel bespreek die ontwikkeling en invloede van Sloweense leksikografiese teorie en gee deel 1 van die resultate van hierdie studie weer: die beskouings van die praktiserende leksikograwe oor of hulle hul leksikografiese werk as sleurwerk ervaar en wat hulle as die wesensaard van hul rol in die gemeenskap beskou - hoe die woorde-boekmaker 'n goeie mag kan wees en enige potensiële skade kan vermy. <![CDATA[<b>Towards Chinese Learner's Dictionaries for Foreigners Living in China: Some Problems Related to Lemma Selection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt During the past decades, various dictionaries for foreign learners of Chinese have seen the light. Except for one picture dictionary which is almost completely ignored in the academic literature, none of these dictionaries has taken into account the special needs which foreigners living in China and learning Chinese may have. This contribution will discuss these needs with special focus on lemma selection. We argue that foreigners living in China, in order to meet their lexicographical needs, require additional words typically occurring in social contexts in which they often find themselves, whether or not these words have a high corpus-frequency. As a solution we therefore recommend a set of selection criteria that combines corpus frequency and context relevance. Finally, we discuss how logfiles reflecting user behaviour can be used as a new and very reliable empirical source for lemma selection for an online Chinese learner's dictionary.<hr/>Gedurende die afgelope dekades het verskeie woordeboeke vir vreemdetaalleerders van Chinees ver-skyn. Buiten een prentewoordeboek wat byna heeltemal in die akademiese literatuur geïgnoreer is, het geeneen van hierdie woordeboeke die spesiale behoeftes wat buitelanders wat in China woon en Chinees aanleer, mag hê, in ag geneem nie. In hierdie artikel word hierdie behoeftes, met spe-siale fokus op lemmaseleksie, bespreek. Ons argumenteer dat buitelanders wat in China woon, addisionele woorde benodig wat tipies voorkom in sosiale kontekste waarin hulle hulself dikwels bevind, ongeag of hierdie woorde 'n hoë korpusfrekwensie het of nie. As oplossing hiervoor beveel ons 'n stel seleksiekriteria aan wat korpusfrekwensie en konteksrelevansie kombineer. Laastens bespreek ons hoe loglêers wat gebruikersgedrag weerspieël, as 'n nuwe en baie betroubare empi-riese bron vir lemmaseleksie vir 'n aanlyn Chinese aanleerderswoordeboek gebruik kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Enhancing the Learnability of Chinese-English Dictionaries for Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners: The Neglected Legacy of Robert Morrison in His Compilation of <i>Wuche Yunfu </i>(1819)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In previous studies on learner lexicography, design features of both the content and presentation of learner's dictionaries are the two major research concerns. The quality assessment of learner's dictionaries also covers the two dimensions. Terms used for evaluating them are respectively "usability" or "availability" for the former and "findability" or "accessibility" for the latter. However, the lexicographical construction of "learnability", which takes into account the users' reference and learning needs, remains virtually unexplored either theoretically or practically. Compared to the features of dictionary design mentioned above, "learnability" as the design philosophy of learner lexicography is worth more serious consideration. The present paper aims at exploring the lexicographical notion of "learnability" by way of introducing the neglected legacy of Robert Morrison in his compilation of Wuche Yunfu (1819)1, which is characterized by a high degree of learnability illustrated in the dictionary entries. Morrison's pioneering efforts may help with the conceptual clarification of "learnability" in compiling learner's dictionaries, bilingual ones in particular. Moreover, it is hoped that the recognition of Morrison's lexicographical practice will be beneficial to the future production of better Chinese-English dictionaries for non-native Chinese learners.<hr/>In vorige studies van aanleerderleksikografie is ontwerpkenmerke van beide die inhoud en aanbieding van aanleerderswoordeboeke die twee belangrikste navorsingsaspekte. Die kwaliteitsbepaling van aan-leerderswoordeboeke dek ook hierdie twee dimensies. Terme wat gebruik word vir hul evaluering is onderskeidelik "bruikbaarheid" of "beskikbaarheid" vir eersgenoemde en "vindbaarheid" of "toe-ganklikheid" vir laasgenoemde. Die leksikografiese begrip "leerbeerheid", wat die gebruikers se verwysings- en aanleerdersbehoeftes in ag neem, bly egter eintlik teoreties en prakties onontgin. Vergeleke met die kenmerke van woordeboekontwerp waarna hierbo verwys is, behoort "leerbaar-heid" as die ontwerpfilosofie van aanleerdersleksikografie ernstiger oorweeg te word. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die leksikografiese konsep van "leerbaarheid" te ondersoek met behulp van die vergete nalatenskap van Robert Morrison in sy samestelling van Wuche Yunfu (1819)¹, wat gekenmerk word deur 'n hoë mate van leerbaarheid soos geïllustreer in die woorde-boekinskrywings. Morrison se baanbrekerswerk kan van hulp wees met die konseptuele verheldering van "leerbaarheid" in die samestelling van aanleerderswoordeboeke, veral tweetalige aanleer-derswoordeboeke. Bowenal word daar gehoop dat die erkenning van Morrison se leksikografiese praktyk tot voordeel van die toekomstige produksie van beter Chinees-Engelse woordeboeke vir nie-moedertaal Chinese aanleerders sal wees. <![CDATA[<b>Corpus-Based Research on Terminology of Turkish Lexicography (CBRT-TURKLEX)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this paper, we introduce an ongoing lexicographic corpus project. The Center for Lexicography, abbreviated as SÖZMER, was established under the aegis of Eskisehir Osmangazi University to support lexicographical projects. SÖZMER decided to initiate a corpus-based Turkish lexicography project. This project will be the first stage of the endeavour aimed at preparing a specialized dictionary for Turkish lexicography. The primary aim of the project is to prepare an electronic corpus for researchers of Turkish lexicography. The secondary aim of the project is to obtain a word list of Turkish lexicographic terms. This paper presents a description of the process of data collection and the methodology employed for building a specialized corpus. The study contains an outline of the project background, needs, problems, and the phases of corpus building.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word 'n lopende leksikografiese projek bekend gestel. Die Sentrum vir Leksikografie, afgekort tot SÖZMER, is onder die vaandel van die Eskisehir Osmangazi Universiteit tot stand gebring om leksikografiese projekte te ondersteun. SÖZMER het besluit om 'n korpus-gebaseerde Turkse leksikografieprojek te inisieer. Hierdie projek sal die eerste fase vorm van die strewe wat die skep van 'n gespesialiseerde woordeboek vir Turkse leksikografie ten doel het. Die primêre oogmerk van die projek is om 'n elektroniese korpus vir navorsers van die Turkse leksikografie voor te berei. Die sekondêre oogmerk van die projek is om 'n woordelys van Turkse leksikografiese terme te verkry. In hierdie artikel word 'n beskrywing gegee van die proses van dataversameling en die metodologie wat gebruik word vir die bou van 'n gespesialiseerde korpus. 'n Oorsig word gegee van die projekagtergrond, behoeftes, probleme, en die fases van korpusbou. <![CDATA[<b>Web-based Exploration of Results From a Large European Survey on Dictionary Use and Culture: ESDexplorer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt We present ESDexplorer (https://owid.shinyapps.io/ESDexplorer), a browser application which allows the user to explore the data from a large European survey on dictionary use and culture. We built ESDexplorer with several target groups in mind: our cooperation partners, other researchers, and a more general public interested in the results. Also, we present in detail the architecture and technological realisation of the application and discuss some legal aspects of data protection that motivated some architectural choices.<hr/>Ons stel ESDexplorer (https://owid.shinyapps.io/ESDexplorer), 'n webblaaiertoepassing wat die gebruiker toelaat om die data van 'n omvattende Europese opname van woordeboekgebruik en -kultuur te verken, bekend. Met die bou van ESDexplorer het ons verskeie teikengroepe in gedagte gehad: ons samewerkingsvennote, ander navorsers, en 'n meer algemene publiek wat in die resultate sou belangstel. Ons bespreek ook die argitektuur en tegnologiese totstandkoming van die toepassing in besonderhede en brei uit oor enkele regsaspekte rakende databeskerming wat sommige argitek-tuurkeuses gemotiveer het. <![CDATA[<b>Which Learning Tools Accompanying the Paid Online Version of <i>LDOCE </i>Do Advanced Learners of English Find Useful?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of the report is twofold: to (1) briefly describe the learning tools of the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE6) which are available to English learners in the paid online version of the dictionary (sixth edition); and (2) present the results of the questionnaire that was conducted on 114 students of English at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The participants completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to assess the usefulness of the learning tools of the paid online version of LDOCE6. The first section of the paper introduces the reader to the five major British monolingual learners' dictionaries on the market and the most prominent features of LDOCE. The second section is a description of the learning tools available to learners of English in the paid online version of LDOCE6. The following section elaborates on the earliest questionnaire studies conducted in the field of dictionary use, and some of the problematic aspects of this research method are discussed. The report ends with a presentation of the results of the questionnaire and a brief discussion.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is tweërlei: om (1) kortliks die leerhulpmiddels van die Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE6) wat tot die beskikking van Engelse leerders in die betaalde aanlyn weergawe van die woordeboek (sesde uitgawe) is, te beskryf; en om (2) die resultate wat verkry is uit die vraelys wat aan 114 studente van Engels aan die Universiteit van Warmia en Mazury in Olsztyn voorgelê is, weer te gee. Die deelnemers het 'n vraelys waarin hulle gevra is om die bruikbaarheid van die leerhulpmiddels van die betaalde aanlyn weergawe van LDOCE6 te beoordeel, voltooi. Die eerste afdeling van hierdie artikel stel die leser bekend aan die vyf belangrikste Britse eentalige aanleerderswoordeboeke wat tans beskikbaar is en ook aan die mees prominente kenmerke van LDOCE. Die tweede afdeling is 'n beskrywing van die leerhulp-middels wat tot die beskikking van die Engelse leerders in die betaalde aanlyn weergawe van LDOCE6 is. In die volgende afdeling word verder uitgebrei oor die vroegste vraelysstudies wat uit-gevoer is in die woordeboekgebruiksveld en 'n paar van die problematiese aspekte rondom hierdie navorsingsmetode word bespreek. Ten slotte word die resultate van die vraelys weergegee met 'n kort bespreking daarvan. <![CDATA[<b>Herbert Ernst Wiegand 08 Januarie 1936 - 03 Januarie 2018</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of the report is twofold: to (1) briefly describe the learning tools of the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE6) which are available to English learners in the paid online version of the dictionary (sixth edition); and (2) present the results of the questionnaire that was conducted on 114 students of English at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The participants completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to assess the usefulness of the learning tools of the paid online version of LDOCE6. The first section of the paper introduces the reader to the five major British monolingual learners' dictionaries on the market and the most prominent features of LDOCE. The second section is a description of the learning tools available to learners of English in the paid online version of LDOCE6. The following section elaborates on the earliest questionnaire studies conducted in the field of dictionary use, and some of the problematic aspects of this research method are discussed. The report ends with a presentation of the results of the questionnaire and a brief discussion.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is tweërlei: om (1) kortliks die leerhulpmiddels van die Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE6) wat tot die beskikking van Engelse leerders in die betaalde aanlyn weergawe van die woordeboek (sesde uitgawe) is, te beskryf; en om (2) die resultate wat verkry is uit die vraelys wat aan 114 studente van Engels aan die Universiteit van Warmia en Mazury in Olsztyn voorgelê is, weer te gee. Die deelnemers het 'n vraelys waarin hulle gevra is om die bruikbaarheid van die leerhulpmiddels van die betaalde aanlyn weergawe van LDOCE6 te beoordeel, voltooi. Die eerste afdeling van hierdie artikel stel die leser bekend aan die vyf belangrikste Britse eentalige aanleerderswoordeboeke wat tans beskikbaar is en ook aan die mees prominente kenmerke van LDOCE. Die tweede afdeling is 'n beskrywing van die leerhulp-middels wat tot die beskikking van die Engelse leerders in die betaalde aanlyn weergawe van LDOCE6 is. In die volgende afdeling word verder uitgebrei oor die vroegste vraelysstudies wat uit-gevoer is in die woordeboekgebruiksveld en 'n paar van die problematiese aspekte rondom hierdie navorsingsmetode word bespreek. Ten slotte word die resultate van die vraelys weergegee met 'n kort bespreking daarvan. <![CDATA[<b>Romanian German in the 2016 edition of the <i>German Variant Dictionary. </i>Dedicated to loan Läzärescu on his 65th Birthday</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Noch vor Jahresende 2016 ist eine völlig neu bearbeitete, erweiterte und aktualisierte zweite Auflage des Variantenwörterbuchs des Deutschen (VWB) erschienen, das bisher lexikografisch nicht kodifizierte standardsprachliche Besonderheiten in Rumänien, Namibia und Mexiko erfasst. Im Hinblick auf das veränderte Normdenken zur standardsprachlichen Regio-nalität ist es erfreulich, dass sich das VWB vornimmt, das gesamte gegenwärtige Varietätenspek-trum am Rande und weit außerhalb des geschlossenen deutschen Sprachgebiets lexikografisch zu dokumentieren. Mit der Fokussierung auf die schriftsprachliche Seite der Standardvarietäten, der sich die Bestandsaufnahme im VWB widmet, belegt das Wörterbuch Unterschiede und damit auch Eigenheiten der Viertel(s)zentren, um sie von der zweifelhaften Einschätzung als Non-Standard zu befreien. In der Erstauflage des VWB (2004) wurden nur die lexikalischen Varianten der deutschen Standardsprache in den Ländern und Regionen, wo Deutsch offizielle und/oder Amtssprache ist, kodifiziert. Aufgrund dieses lobenswerten Bestrebens gilt es zu fragen, inwiefern eine überzeu-gende lexikografische Bearbeitung der in der Erstauflage zu Unrecht vernachlässigten Viertel(s)zen-tren gewährleistet wurde. Im Beitrag soll dies exemplarisch am Beispiel des Rumäniendeutschen auf-gezeigt werden. Die Bewusstmachung typischer Erscheinungsformen außerhalb des deutschen Amtssprachengebietes im täglichen Gebrauch wird den Vergleich der Viertel(s)zentren miteinan-der fördern und auch dazu beitragen, dass auch dieses Deutsch intensiver wahrgenommen wird.<hr/>Towards the end of 2016, a fully revised, extended and updated second edition of the Variantenwörterbuch des Deutschen (German Variant Dictionary, GVD) was published, covering hitherto not lexicographically coded peculiarities of the German language in Romania, Namibia, and Mexico. In view of the changed normative thinking about standard language regionality, it is gratifying that the GVD undertakes to lexicographically document the entire variety spectrum beyond the boundaries of the closed German language area. Focussing on the written-language side of the standard varieties to which the inventory in the GVD is dedicated, the dictionary points out differences and thus peculiarities of the different varieties of the German language spoken in the quarter centres, in order to free them from their suspect assessment as non-standard. In the first edition of the GVD (2004), only the lexical variants of Standard German in countries and regions where German is the official and/or administrative language were coded. In view of this praiseworthy endeavor, it is important to question to what extent a convincing lexicographical treatment of the quarter centres, which had been unjustly neglected in the first edition, has been ensured. In the article, this will be exemplified on the basis of Romanian German. Raising awareness of typical manifestations in everyday use outside of the German official language area will promote the comparison of the quarter centres, and also contribute to the fact that this German is also perceived more intensively. <![CDATA[<b>Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera. The Routledge Handbook of Lexicography</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Noch vor Jahresende 2016 ist eine völlig neu bearbeitete, erweiterte und aktualisierte zweite Auflage des Variantenwörterbuchs des Deutschen (VWB) erschienen, das bisher lexikografisch nicht kodifizierte standardsprachliche Besonderheiten in Rumänien, Namibia und Mexiko erfasst. Im Hinblick auf das veränderte Normdenken zur standardsprachlichen Regio-nalität ist es erfreulich, dass sich das VWB vornimmt, das gesamte gegenwärtige Varietätenspek-trum am Rande und weit außerhalb des geschlossenen deutschen Sprachgebiets lexikografisch zu dokumentieren. Mit der Fokussierung auf die schriftsprachliche Seite der Standardvarietäten, der sich die Bestandsaufnahme im VWB widmet, belegt das Wörterbuch Unterschiede und damit auch Eigenheiten der Viertel(s)zentren, um sie von der zweifelhaften Einschätzung als Non-Standard zu befreien. In der Erstauflage des VWB (2004) wurden nur die lexikalischen Varianten der deutschen Standardsprache in den Ländern und Regionen, wo Deutsch offizielle und/oder Amtssprache ist, kodifiziert. Aufgrund dieses lobenswerten Bestrebens gilt es zu fragen, inwiefern eine überzeu-gende lexikografische Bearbeitung der in der Erstauflage zu Unrecht vernachlässigten Viertel(s)zen-tren gewährleistet wurde. Im Beitrag soll dies exemplarisch am Beispiel des Rumäniendeutschen auf-gezeigt werden. Die Bewusstmachung typischer Erscheinungsformen außerhalb des deutschen Amtssprachengebietes im täglichen Gebrauch wird den Vergleich der Viertel(s)zentren miteinan-der fördern und auch dazu beitragen, dass auch dieses Deutsch intensiver wahrgenommen wird.<hr/>Towards the end of 2016, a fully revised, extended and updated second edition of the Variantenwörterbuch des Deutschen (German Variant Dictionary, GVD) was published, covering hitherto not lexicographically coded peculiarities of the German language in Romania, Namibia, and Mexico. In view of the changed normative thinking about standard language regionality, it is gratifying that the GVD undertakes to lexicographically document the entire variety spectrum beyond the boundaries of the closed German language area. Focussing on the written-language side of the standard varieties to which the inventory in the GVD is dedicated, the dictionary points out differences and thus peculiarities of the different varieties of the German language spoken in the quarter centres, in order to free them from their suspect assessment as non-standard. In the first edition of the GVD (2004), only the lexical variants of Standard German in countries and regions where German is the official and/or administrative language were coded. In view of this praiseworthy endeavor, it is important to question to what extent a convincing lexicographical treatment of the quarter centres, which had been unjustly neglected in the first edition, has been ensured. In the article, this will be exemplified on the basis of Romanian German. Raising awareness of typical manifestations in everyday use outside of the German official language area will promote the comparison of the quarter centres, and also contribute to the fact that this German is also perceived more intensively. <![CDATA[<b>Maria José Domínguez Vázquez, Fabio Mollica and Martina Nied Curcio (Eds.). Zweisprachige Lexikographie zwischen Translation und Didaktik</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392018000100023&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Noch vor Jahresende 2016 ist eine völlig neu bearbeitete, erweiterte und aktualisierte zweite Auflage des Variantenwörterbuchs des Deutschen (VWB) erschienen, das bisher lexikografisch nicht kodifizierte standardsprachliche Besonderheiten in Rumänien, Namibia und Mexiko erfasst. Im Hinblick auf das veränderte Normdenken zur standardsprachlichen Regio-nalität ist es erfreulich, dass sich das VWB vornimmt, das gesamte gegenwärtige Varietätenspek-trum am Rande und weit außerhalb des geschlossenen deutschen Sprachgebiets lexikografisch zu dokumentieren. Mit der Fokussierung auf die schriftsprachliche Seite der Standardvarietäten, der sich die Bestandsaufnahme im VWB widmet, belegt das Wörterbuch Unterschiede und damit auch Eigenheiten der Viertel(s)zentren, um sie von der zweifelhaften Einschätzung als Non-Standard zu befreien. In der Erstauflage des VWB (2004) wurden nur die lexikalischen Varianten der deutschen Standardsprache in den Ländern und Regionen, wo Deutsch offizielle und/oder Amtssprache ist, kodifiziert. Aufgrund dieses lobenswerten Bestrebens gilt es zu fragen, inwiefern eine überzeu-gende lexikografische Bearbeitung der in der Erstauflage zu Unrecht vernachlässigten Viertel(s)zen-tren gewährleistet wurde. Im Beitrag soll dies exemplarisch am Beispiel des Rumäniendeutschen auf-gezeigt werden. Die Bewusstmachung typischer Erscheinungsformen außerhalb des deutschen Amtssprachengebietes im täglichen Gebrauch wird den Vergleich der Viertel(s)zentren miteinan-der fördern und auch dazu beitragen, dass auch dieses Deutsch intensiver wahrgenommen wird.<hr/>Towards the end of 2016, a fully revised, extended and updated second edition of the Variantenwörterbuch des Deutschen (German Variant Dictionary, GVD) was published, covering hitherto not lexicographically coded peculiarities of the German language in Romania, Namibia, and Mexico. In view of the changed normative thinking about standard language regionality, it is gratifying that the GVD undertakes to lexicographically document the entire variety spectrum beyond the boundaries of the closed German language area. Focussing on the written-language side of the standard varieties to which the inventory in the GVD is dedicated, the dictionary points out differences and thus peculiarities of the different varieties of the German language spoken in the quarter centres, in order to free them from their suspect assessment as non-standard. In the first edition of the GVD (2004), only the lexical variants of Standard German in countries and regions where German is the official and/or administrative language were coded. In view of this praiseworthy endeavor, it is important to question to what extent a convincing lexicographical treatment of the quarter centres, which had been unjustly neglected in the first edition, has been ensured. In the article, this will be exemplified on the basis of Romanian German. Raising awareness of typical manifestations in everyday use outside of the German official language area will promote the comparison of the quarter centres, and also contribute to the fact that this German is also perceived more intensively.