Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Lexikos]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2224-003920220001&lang=en vol. 32 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The Effect of Learning Conditions on Collocation Gains: A Case Study of Task-based Dictionary Use Instruction</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en To examine the effect of learning conditions on collocation gains, 88 Chinese EFL students were assigned randomly to one of three different learning conditions, i.e. dictionary use with prior instruction, dictionary use without training, or explicit collocation teaching. They were asked to fill in the missing verb in ten V + N target collocations embedded in sentences. A screen recorder was used to keep track of the students' lookup behaviour in the two conditions involving dictionary use such as every input of the searched word, every move and click of the mouse, every step of collocation search and the time length of dictionary consultation. After completion of the assignment all the students were given corrective feedback to the collocation task and marked their corrections on the test paper. Two weeks later, an unexpected retention test was administered. The study showed that dictionary use following a five-step training session reaped significantly more collocation gains than dictionary use without prior instruction and explicit collocation teaching. Compared with those who used the dictionary without prior training, the students with prior dictionary instruction employed more effective strategies concerning the selection of lookup words and the location and identification of collocation information. They took a more conscientious approach to dictionary use and retrieved more correct target verbs. Apart from lending new support to the continuous appeal for a position of dictionary use instruction in the EFL pedagogy, the study also provides a detailed demonstration of task-based dictionary training applicable to classroom practice.<hr/>Om die invloed van onderwysomstandighede op die aanleer van kollokasies te ondersoek, is 88 Chinese EVT-studente lukraak aan een van drie verskillende onderwysomstandighede onderwerp, nl. woordeboekgebruik met voorafgaande onderrig, woordeboekgebruik sonder enige opleiding, of gebruik met uitvoerige aanwysings vir die aanleer van kollokasies. Hulle is ook gevra om die ontbrekende werkwoord in tien V + N-doelkollokasies wat in sinne gebruik is, in te vul. 'n Skermopnemer is gebruik om die studente se naslaangedrag in die twee onderwysomstandighede wat woordeboekgebruik behels, te monitor, bv. elke keer wanneer die woord wat nageslaan word, ingetik word, elke beweging en klik van die muis, elke stap van die kollokasiesoektog en die tydsduur waarin die woordeboek geraadpleeg is. Ná voltooiing van die opdrag is al die studente korrektiewe terugvoer rakende die kollokasieopdrag gegee en hulle het hul korreksies op die toetsblad aangebring. Twee weke later is 'n onverwagse retensietoets uitgevoer. Die studie het aangetoon dat woordeboekgebruik wat volg op 'n onderrigsessie bestaande uit vyf stappe 'n baie groter invloed op die aanleer van kollokasies gehad het as woordeboekgebruik sonder enige voorafgaande opleiding en uitvoerige aanwysings vir die aanleer van kollokasies. Indien die studente wat die woorde-boek sonder enige opleiding gebruik het, vergelyk word met dié wat voorafgaande onderrig ontvang het, kan gesien word dat laasgenoemde groep effektiewer strategieë rondom die seleksie van naslaanwoorde en die vind en identifisering van kollokasie-inligting toegepas het. Hulle het 'n meer doelgerigte benadering tot woordeboekgebruik gevolg en meer korrekte doelwerkwoorde gevind. Buiten die verlening van nuwe steun aan die volgehoue pleidooi vir woordeboekgebruiksopleiding in die EVT-pedagogie, verskaf hierdie studie ook 'n gedetailleerde voorbeeld van taakgebaseerde woordeboekopleiding wat op die klaskamerpraktyk toegepas kan word. <![CDATA[<b>The Beginnings of Romanian Multilingual Lexicography: Pragmatic Sources and Cultural Influences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Les débuts de la lexicographie multilingue roumaine sont étroitement liés à la parution sur le territoire des Principautés des premiers textes ecclésiastiques traduits de la langue slavonne. Les premiers dictionnaires répondent à des besoins d'ordre pratique, étant conçus comme des annexes à la littérature religieuse, slavonne ou traduite, qui circulait. L'étude réalise une radiographie des premiers projets lexicographiques roumains, avec l'identification des prototypes que ceux-ci enregistrent et la description des ressorts d'ordre pragmatique qui sont à la base des initiatives lexicographiques. Malheureusement, beaucoup de ces travaux n'ont pas été conservés, et d'autres n'ont été préservés que de manière fragmentaire, étant identifiés dans des bibliothèques privées. Dans ces conditions, pour reconstruire la lexicographie roumaine de cette période, nous avons fait appel à deux catégories de sources: les notations et les témoignages des auteurs des premiers projets lexicographiques, respectivement les études faisant référence à la lexicographie du roumain ancien. Comme ils n'avaient pas à la base la conception rigoureuse, scientifique, d'une école lexicographique, les premiers dictionnaires roumains sont l'expression de l'initiative des érudits, reflétant tant leur vision sur le rôle de tels instruments lexicographiques, comme le degré de développement de la langue roumaine à l'époque.<hr/>The beginnings of Romanian multilingual lexicography are deeply rooted in the first religious texts translated from Slavonic on the territory of the Romanian Principalities. The first dictionaries were aimed at fulfilling practical needs, being conceived as annexes to Slavonic or translated religious literature circulating at the time on the Romanian territory. This study provides an analysis of the first Romanian lexicographic projects, identifying their prototypes and describing the pragmatic background that these lexicographic initiatives were based on. Many of these works have sadly been lost, while others have been just partially preserved in private libraries. In these conditions, for the reconstruction of the Romanian lexicography belonging to that specific period, we resorted to two categories of sources: the notations and testimonies of the authors of the first lexicographic projects, and studies on the old Romanian lexicography. As they were not based on the rigorous scientific conception of a proper lexicographie school, the first Romanian dictionaries reflect the initiative of some scholars, revealing both their perspective on the role of such lexicographic tools and the stage of development of the Romanian language at the time. <![CDATA[<b>Improving the Compilation of English-Chinese Children's Dictionaries: A Children's Cognitive Perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Children's dictionaries have existed for more than one thousand years in China, and play an important role in children's learning. However, many of those produced in China are deficient in the selection of the wordlist, in exemplification, and in definition. This paper aims at improving the compilation of English-Chinese children's dictionaries (ECCDs) from a children's cognitive perspective. Children's dictionaries should not only be an abridgement or simplification of dictionaries for adults, because their target user group is immature, uninformed and untrained children. Informed by some innovations in current English learner's dictionaries, this paper proposes that the making of ECCDs needs to be improved in the following aspects. Firstly, instead of lexicographers' intuition, the selection of headwords should be based on an English corpus for Chinese children. Secondly, the words used in examples should be congruent with children's limited cognitive and learning abilities. Thirdly, a multifaceted method of explanation should be provided in order to assist children in understanding the meaning of headwords. <![CDATA[<b>Turning Bilingual Lexicography Upside Down: Improving Quality and Productivity with New Methods and Technology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2224-00392022000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is a report from the real world. It informs about the outcome of a project, which the author conducted during a months-long research stay at the Danish company Ordbogen where he integrated its research and development (R) team. The first part of the project was to test machine translation and find out to what extent it is usable in the compilation of bilingual lexicographical databases. The hypothesis was that the technology was not yet mature. But surprisingly, it turned out that the accuracy rate is already so high that it is worth considering how to implement it. The second part of the project aimed at further developing an idea formulated by Fuertes-Olivera et al (2018) on how to invert a dictionary without losing semantic content. The new vision is to compile a monolingual L2 database, bilingualize it to an L2-L1 database using machine translation, and then invert the relationship between L2 lemmata and L1 equivalents using the L1 definitions of the L2 lemmata as the axis. The third part of the project was to test this idea using a specially designed ad hoc program. The program automatically uploads relevant data from existing lexicographical databases, translates L2 definitions and example sentences into L1, suggests adequate L1 equivalents, and eventually inverts the relationship between the two languages. It worked, but the methodology still needs further refinement to be implementable on a large scale. The report concludes by listing some of the remaining challenges and defining the new role of the lexicographer in this type of project.<hr/>verslag uit die praktyk Daar word verslag gelewer oor die uitkoms van 'n projek, wat die outeur gedurende 'n maandelange navorsingstydperk by die Deense maatskappy Ordbogen aangevoer het waartydens hy die navorsings- en ontwikkeling- (N)-span geïntegreer het. Die eerste deel van die projek het die toets van masjienvertaling behels en om die bruikbaarheid daarvan in die saam-stel van tweetalige leksikografiese databasisse te bepaal. Die hipotese was dat die tegnologie nog nie gevorderd genoeg was nie. Dit het egter, verrassend genoeg, geblyk dat die akkuraatheidsyfer reeds so hoog was dat dit die moeite werd was om die implementering daarvan te oorweeg. Die tweede deel van die projek het die verdere ontwikkeling van 'n idee, geformuleer deur Fuertes-Olivera et al. (2018) oor die omskakeling van 'n woordeboek sonder verlies van semantiese inhoud, ten doel gehad. Die nuwe visie is om 'n eentalige L2-databasis saam te stel, dan met behulp van masjienvertaling te omskep in 'n L2-L1-databasis, en daarna die verhouding tussen L2-lemmata en L1-ekwivalente om te skakel deur die L1-definisies van die L2-lemmata as die spil te gebruik. Die derde deel van die projek was die toets van hierdie idee met 'n spesiaal ontwerpte ad hoc-program. Hierdie program laai outomaties relevante data vanuit leksikografiese databasisse, vertaal L2-definisies en -voorbeeldsinne in L1, stel gepaste L1-ekwivalente voor, en skakel uiteindelik die verhouding tussen die twee tale om. Dit was geslaagd, maar die metodologie moet nog verder verfyn word voordat dit op groot skaal geïmplementeer kan word. Die verslag word afgesluit met die lys van sommige van die oorblywende uitdagings en met die definiëring van die nuwe rol van die leksikograaf in hierdie tipe projek.