Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Curationis]]> vol. 40 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Lived experiences of parents of premature babies in the intensive care unit in a private hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU), and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. METHOD: Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. RESULTS: Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. RECOMMENDATIONS: Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. CONCLUSION: Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents' relationships. <![CDATA[<b>A profile of perceived stress factors among nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex, South Africa</b>]]> INTRODUCTION: Nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients experience unique stress factors that can influence their personal well-being and work performance. OBJECTIVES: To compile a profile of stress factors experienced by nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC). METHODS: This descriptive study included 89 nursing staff members from this environment. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and determine personal and occupational stressors. The data were summarised by frequencies and percentages (categorical variables) and means or percentiles (numerical variables). RESULTS: Most participants were aged between 46 and 55 (41.2%), female (93.2%) and black (93.2%), and 76.7% had children or dependant minors. The main stressors among participants were pressure providing financially for their children and dependant minors (71.2%), caring for them (39.4%) and fearing them moving away (25.8%). Occupational stressors included high workload (66.3%), lack of decision-making by superiors (58.1%), underpayment (53.5%), endangerment of physical health (52.3%) and safety (50.0%), working hours (51.2%), pressure of expectations from superiors (48.8%), uncertainty of employment (48.8%), work responsibilities (47.7%) and perceiving that skills and training were not appreciated. They experienced stress regarding health issues such as hyper- and hypotension (35.3%). Because of stress 34.5% of participants took leave, 34.5% developed depression and 14.3% had panic attacks. CONCLUSION: Most of the respondents experienced personal and occupational stress that influenced their health, which poses serious challenges for the management of the FSPC. Security should be upgraded, medical and psychological support for the staff and care facilities for their dependants should be provided, and financial problems experienced by these staff members should be addressed. The workload of the nursing staff at FSPC needs urgent attention. This can be done by means of a workforce analysis to determine minimum staffing levels for nursing. <![CDATA[<b>Nurses' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding evidence-based practice in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme in Malawi</b>]]> BACKGROUND: HIV continues to be a global public health concern with Malawi being among the worst affected countries. The prevalence of HIV among pregnant women is also very high, thereby raising concerns of mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is therefore a priority in the efforts to curb the HIV pandemic. Keeping in mind that the area of HIV management is rapidly evolving, underpinning nursing care with evidence-based practice is essential and has been reported to reduce mother-to-child transmission. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nurses regarding evidence-based practice in PMTCT at a selected hospital in Malawi. METHODS: An exploratory descriptive quantitative design was used, and 81 nurses working in paediatric, obstetrics and gynaecology departments completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Predictive Analytics Software. RESULTS: The results showed that nurses had average knowledge of evidence-based practice and although their attitudes were favourable, their practice was very low. Certain sociodemographic variables had an influence on the respondent's knowledge, attitudes and practices. Furthermore, the results have indicated that evidence-based practice was mainly hampered by insufficient resources and difficulties in accessing research articles. It emerged from the study that mentoring, training and access to literature could facilitate evidence-based practice in PMTCT among nurses. CONCLUSION: Nurses need to be provided with the necessary support including education and resources if evidence-based practice in PMTCT is to be promoted. <![CDATA[<b>Experiences of patients with hypertension at primary health care in facilitating own lifestyle change of regular physical exercise</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Regular physical exercise is one of the lifestyle modification general measures to control the blood pressure (BP) of patients with hypertension. Globally, hypertension is considered a non-communicable disease (NCD), as well as a chronic condition of lifestyle, that contributes to the mortality rate caused by complications of cardiovascular burden of diseases. In South Africa, NCDs account for nearly 40% of adult deaths, with a high prevalence among black people in urban areas such as Soweto. The first step in treating hypertension is lifestyle modification, referred to in this study as health-promoting lifestyle change measures. Despite the positive benefits of regular physical exercise in controlling hypertension, in 2014, only 10% of men and 18% of women with hypertension had their BP controlled to a level that would eliminate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to present the experiences of patients with hypertension regarding the facilitation of their own health-promoting lifestyle change measure of regular physical exercise. METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. The accessible population of patients with hypertension at three primary health care (PHC) clinics in Soweto was targeted and purposefully sampled. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted to collect data till data saturation occurred. Tesch's open-coding method of data analysis was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings show that participants experienced poor self-care due to poor self-efficacy, demonstrated by not engaging in regular physical exercise, which in turn, resulted in uncontrolled BP and cardiovascular complications from hypertension. More should be done to educate, motivate and empower patients with the necessary knowledge, skills and the values in facilitating their own regular physical exercise in order to improve their own quality of health. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of adolescent obesity at a high school in the City of Tshwane</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Obesity has been reported to be on the rise in the world and South Africa is no exception. In recent years obesity has been reported to contribute to the increasing number of people with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Africa has the fastest growing number of overweight and obese adolescents, with indications that in 2010, it had more than doubled since 1990. Some people might perceive being overweight as being round and healthy which might contribute to the increased rate of obesity in South Africa. Physical and psychological changes that occur during adolescence can also be observed earlier during the preteen years (ages 9-12 years). During this time, peer groups and external appearance are of importance. Physical changes, such as obesity, might be perceived negatively by adolescents, affecting their self-esteem. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of adolescent obesity at a high school in the City of Tshwane. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Stratified random sampling was used and data were collected from 30% of the total population as recommended by the statistician. Data analysis was performed using descriptive analysis. Validity and reliability were ensured through calibrating the weight-monitoring scale and the measuring tape, which are collection tools. RESULTS: The results identified the prevalence of adolescent obesity at 8.57%. There is evidence of abdominal obesity and waist-hip ratio ≥ 1. The results show that there is a steady increase in obesity levels among adolescents. The poor response of parents was observed and could demonstrate the need to form stronger partnerships for weight reduction interventions. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based prevalence allowed for conceptualisation of the scope of the obesity epidemic and how children and young people are also affected. To enable proper planning for adolescent obesity interventions, the depth of consequences of obesity for the adolescent cohort should be well defined and clarified. <![CDATA[<b>Professional nurses' perceptions and experiences with the implementation of an integrated chronic care model at primary healthcare clinics in South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: An integrated chronic disease management model has been implemented across primary healthcare clinics in order to transform the delivery of services for patients with chronic diseases. The sustainability and rapid scale-up of the model is dependent on positive staff perceptions and experiences. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the perceptions and experiences of professional nurses with the integrated chronic care model that has been implemented. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive survey utilising a self-administered questionnaire was conducted amongst all professional nurses who were involved in delivering primary healthcare services at the 42 implementing facilities in September 2014. Each facility has between four and eight professional nurses providing a service daily at the facilities. RESULTS: A total of 264 professional nurses participated in the survey. Prior to the implementation, 34% (91) of the staff perceived the model to be an added programme, whilst 36% (96) of the staff experienced an increased workload. Staff noted an improved process of care, better level of interaction with patients, improved level of knowledge and better teamwork coupled with an improved level of satisfaction with the work environment at the clinic after implementation of the integrated chronic disease model. CONCLUSION: Professional nurses have a positive experience with the implementation of the integrated chronic disease management model. <![CDATA[<b>The role of emotional intelligence and organisational support on work stress of nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Universally, nurses have been reported to be a group at high risk of workplace stress. However, nurses' responses to stressful situations at work could be the outcomes of individual differences and organisational factors. OBJECTIVES: We examined the independent and joint contributions of four dimensions of emotional intelligence and perceived organisational support in work stress of nurses in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey research design, which selected 228 (41 male and 187 female nurses) nurses through the use of convenience sampling. Questionnaires comprising demographics with work stress, organisational support and emotional intelligence scales were administered to the sampled 228 nurses in the study. Data were analysed with the use of correlational matrix and hierarchical multiple regression. RESULTS: Self-emotion appraisal, others' emotion appraisal, use of emotion, regulation of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have joint contributions to explaining work stress among nurses. Others' emotion appraisal, use of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have independent relationships with work stress. CONCLUSION: Our findings stress that judgement of others' emotions, accurate use of emotion by nurses and support from management of the hospital are most important in explaining their reactions towards work-related stress. <![CDATA[<b>Predictors of burnout among HIV nurses in the Western Cape</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Burnout has been implicated as one of the reasons for key healthcare personnel, such as nurses, leaving their profession, resulting in insufficient staff to attend to patients OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictors of three dimensions of burnout, namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment, among nurses in South Africa attending to patients living with HIV. METHOD: Participants were recruited at a large tertiary hospital in the Western Cape region, with the help of the assistant director of nursing at the hospital. They completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Quantitative Workload Inventory, the Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, the Organisational Constraints Scale, the Death and Dying subscale of the Nursing Stress Scale, and the HIV and AIDS Stigma Instrument - Nurse. RESULTS: We found elevated levels of burnout among the sample. Workload, job status and interpersonal conflict at work significantly explained more than one-third of the variance in emotional exhaustion (R² = 0.39, F(7, 102) = 9.28, p = 0.001). Interpersonal conflict, workload, organisational constraints and HIV stigma significantly explained depersonalisation (R² = 0.33, F(7, 102) = 7.22, p = 0.001). Job status and organisational constraints significantly predicted personal accomplishment (R² = 0.18, F(7, 102) = 3.12, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Factors such as workload, job status and interpersonal conflict in the work context, organisational constraints and stigma associated with HIV were found to be predictors of burnout in the sample of nurses. Our recommendations include developing and testing interventions aimed at reducing burnout among nurses, including reducing workload and creating conditions for less interpersonal conflict at work. <![CDATA[<b>Guidelines for support to mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province</b>]]> BACKGROUND: South Africa is reported to have the highest rate of sexual assault in the world with over 40% of cases occurring among children. Children who are sexually abused have support programmes and policies to assist them in coping, but there are no support programmes for mothers or caretakers. Caretakers need support for themselves and assisting them will incrementally benefit children under their care. Often mothers of these children experience shock, anger, disbelief and suffer secondary trauma such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following their children's sexual abuse disclosure and yet there are no guidelines for support to these mothers within North-West province (NWP). OBJECTIVES: The study seeks to develop guidelines for support to mothers of sexually abused children in NWP. METHODS: Concurrent convergence triangulation mixed method design was employed in this study. The population consisted of mothers of sexually abused children (SAC) (n = 17 participants for the qualitative component and n = 180 participants for the quantitative component). A sample of mothers of SAC was purposely selected. RESULTS: The participants indicated significant levels of depression because of lack of support by stakeholders. Guidelines for support to assist mothers cope with their secondary trauma were developed based on the literature review, study findings as well as an ecological model of the impact of sexual assault on women's mental health. The results also showed extreme PTSD (47.8%), little support (38.8%), not coping (76.1%) and depression (36.1%) CONCLUSION: The stakeholders should consider a positive approach to support mothers whose children are sexually abused. <![CDATA[<b>The role of patient care workers in private hospitals in the Cape Metropole, South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Nursing managers have to meet expectations of patients despite economic pressures, an increasing burden of disease and nursing shortages. Shifting health care-related tasks to lower categories of staff, including non-nursing support staff, has become one solution to address this dilemma. Patient care workers are a specific group of non-nursing support staff working in South African hospitals. Although patient care workers have been used for several years and their numbers are increasing, there are controversial opinions about the role of patient care workers, ranging from praise for their contribution towards patient care to serious concerns about the impact of their role on patient safety. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to explore and describe the role of patient care workers in private hospitals. METHODS: A qualitative, descriptive design was applied to explore the role of patient care workers. Purposive sampling was used to select unit managers, nurses and patient care workers from medical and surgical wards of three private hospitals. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The researcher applied interpretative data analysis to move from the participants' descriptions of their experiences to a synthesis of all participants' descriptions. RESULTS: Patient care workers are involved in direct patient care and spend much time with patients, often not working under direct supervision of registered nurses despite limited training and lack of regulation. Their contribution, however, is valued by nurses. CONCLUSION: Patient care workers are well-integrated into the patient care team and are mostly seen as nurses. Yet, there are concerns about their evolving role despite their limited training and the lack of direct supervision. Regulating the work of patient care workers is recommended. <![CDATA[<b>Utilisation of the partogram among nurses and midwives in selected health facilities in the Eastern Province of Rwanda</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality continues to be a global burden, with more than 200 million women becoming pregnant each year and a large number dying as a result of complications of pregnancy or childbirth. The World Health Organisation has recommended use of the partogram to monitor labour and delivery in order to improve healthcare and reduce maternal and foetal mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: This study described factors affecting utilisation of the partogram among nurses and midwives in selected health facilities of Rwanda. METHOD: A descriptive quantitative and cross-sectional research design was used. The population comprised 131 nurses and midwives providing obstetric care in 15 health institutions (1 hospital and 14 health centres). Data collection was through a self-administered questionnaire, and a pre-test of the data collection instrument was carried out to enhance validity and reliability. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 21) was used to capture and analyse data. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of the Western Cape (Republic of South Africa) and from the Institutional Review Board of Kigali Health Institute (Rwanda). Patricia Benner's model of nursing practice was used to guide the study. RESULTS: It was found that 36.6% of nurses and midwives did not receive any in-service training on how to manage women in labour. Despite fair knowledge of the partogram among nurses and midwives in this study, only 41.22% reported having used the partogram properly, while 58.78% reported not having done so. CONCLUSION: Nurses' and midwives' years of professional experience and training in managing pregnant women in labour were found to be predictors of the likelihood of proper use of the partogram. In-service training of obstetric caregivers in the Eastern Province of Rwanda is recommended to improve use of the partogram while managing women in labour. <![CDATA[<b>A model of collaboration for the implementation of problem-based learning in nursing education in South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The idea of collaboration between key stakeholders in nursing education for the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) may have far-reaching implications for the institutions and students MAIN OBJECTIVE: To develop a model of collaboration to facilitate the implementation of PBL in nursing education METHODOLOGY: An exploratory sequential design was used. Qualitative data were collected from purposively recruited nurse educators from three universities in South Africa offering PBL and nurse managers from all the three hospitals in North West Province where PBL students are placed for clinical learning. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from respondents who were conveniently recruited. Model development, concept analysis, construction of relationships, description and evaluation were followed RESULTS: This model has six elements: higher education and nursing education (context), institutions initiating PBL, clinical services, colleges affiliated to PBL universities, students and healthcare users (recipients), champions in PBL (agents), effective implementation of PBL (terminus), collaboration (process) and commitment, communication, trust and respect (dynamics CONCLUSION: Collaboration in implementing PBL can be a functional reality in the delivery of quality educational experiences and has far-reaching implications for the institutions and students. The implementation of the model in South African nursing education institutions may be necessary in the light of the revision of the preregistration qualifications RECOMMENDATIONS: Managerial commitment, training of collaborators on PBL and collaboration skills, memorandum of agreement, monitoring and evaluation are critical. More research is required to pilot the model and evaluate collaboration in implementing PBL at different levels of operations <![CDATA[<b>Through the eyes of the student: Best practices in clinical facilitation</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Clinical facilitation is an essential part of the undergraduate nursing curriculum. A number of studies address the issue of clinical facilitation in South Africa, but there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding regarding what students perceive as best practice in clinical facilitation of their learning OBJECTIVE: To determine what type of clinical facilitation undergraduate students believe should be offered by clinical facilitators (nurse educators, professional nurses and clinical preceptors) in the clinical area in order to best facilitate their learning METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted. Purposive sampling was performed to select nursing students from the second, third and fourth year of studies from a selected nursing education institution in Johannesburg. The sampling resulted in one focus group for each level of nursing, namely second, third and fourth year nursing students. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, thematic data analysis was used and trustworthiness was ensured by applying credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability MAIN FINDINGS: The data revealed that participants differentiated between best practices in clinical facilitation in the clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. In the clinical skills laboratory, pre-contact preparation, demonstration technique and optimising group learning were identified as best practices. In the clinical learning environment, a need for standardisation of procedures in simulation and practice, the allocation and support for students also emerged CONCLUSION: There is a need for all nurses involved in undergraduate nursing education to reflect on how they approach clinical facilitation, in both clinical skills laboratory and clinical learning environment. There is also a need to improve consistency in clinical practices between the nursing education institution and the clinical learning environment so as to support students' adaptation to clinical practice <![CDATA[<b>Challenges faced by caregivers of children on antiretroviral therapy at Mutale Municipality selected healthcare facilities, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Children depend solely on caregivers who can be either parents or guardians for drug administration to enhance adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), which might pose any number of challenges PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges faced by caregivers of children on ART at Mutale Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of 16 caregivers who were 18 years of age and above, and mentally capable, irrespective of educational qualifications, caring for children aged between 0 and 15 years who were on ART between April 2013 and October 2014. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select the 16 caregivers. Required permission, approval and ethical clearance were obtained from the University of Venda Higher Degree Committee, Limpopo Provincial Health Department and relevant institutions. An in-depth, individual, unstructured interview method was used to collect data. One central question was asked: 'What are the challenges you experience when caring for a child on antiretroviral treatment?' Subsequent questions were based on the participants' responses to the central question. Qualitative data were analysed by means of Tesch's open-coding method RESULTS: The findings of this study revealed that participants, that is, caregivers of children on ART, experienced financial burdens because of transport costs needed to comply with follow-up dates and insufficient of money for food, clothing the child in need of care, pocket money for lunch boxes during school hours and time lost while waiting for consultations. Participants reported some level of stigmatisation against children on ART by family members, especially the husbands or in-laws of the secondary caregivers. Many primary and secondary caregivers seemed to have given up seeking support from government and community structures CONCLUSION: The conclusions drawn from this research are that caregivers hardly receive any support from family members or the community. Fear of disclosing the HIV-positive status of children resulted in the delay of financial support from the government, thus leading to serious financial burden on the caregivers <![CDATA[<b>The perceptions of midwives regarding audit and feedback on the use of the partogram at Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback is regarded as the cornerstone of clinical teaching to guarantee good practice and to correct poor performance. Feedback given to health professionals assists in narrowing the gap between the actual and the desired information. The findings of the research study on perceptions of midwives on audit and feedback highlighted aspects that needed improvement to address challenges on the use and documentation of the partogram OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this article were to explore and describe the perceptions of midwives on auditing of the partogram by health professionals and to explore and describe the perceptions of midwives on the feedback that was given after audit was done METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to answer the two research objectives. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 17 midwives who were working in the labour wards of three hospitals. Eight steps of qualitative data analysis as indicated by Tesch were used to analyse the data RESULTS: The findings revealed that auditing and feedback is sometimes done by midwives themselves, midwives' managers and district managers. Audit is done monthly or on a daily basis and sometimes inconsistently because of shortage of staff. Challenges indicated were lack of knowledge on the use of the partogram and lack of encouragement and praise when documentation was done correctly and that emphasis was mostly placed on negative aspects CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that auditing and feedback and in-service education is done at the three hospitals, although challenges such as inconsistency in auditing because of shortage of staff, lack of knowledge on partogram use and on principles of giving feedback were highlighted <![CDATA[<b>Nursing students' perceptions of soft skills training in Ghana</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The quality of nursing care rendered today is markedly reducing and the amount of time spent with patients listening to and explaining issues concerning their conditions is gradually diminishing. The therapeutic touch and the listening ear of the nurse are no longer accessible to the patient. Understanding what non-technical skills are and their relevance for healthcare practitioners has become a new area of consideration. Although recent literature has highlighted the necessity of introducing soft skills training and assessment within medical education, nursing education is yet to fully embrace this skills training OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' understanding of the concept of soft skills and to acquire their perception on the need for soft skills training to promote quality nursing care METHODS: A quantitative research design with descriptive and explorative strategies was used. One hundred and ten nursing students were sampled after permission to conduct the study was requested and obtained from the University of KwaZulu-Natal Ethics Committee RESULTS: The results indicated that a majority (68.8%) of respondents understood the concept of soft skills and agreed with the definition of 'soft skills'. They furthermore agreed that soft skills should be part of the training that student nurses receive during their professional training CONCLUSION: The study revealed that there is a need for nursing students to be educated in soft skills and that this will enhance their job performances in the clinical environment and improve the way in which they communicate with their clients <![CDATA[<b>A model of collaboration between nursing education institutions in the North West Province of South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Professional nursing in South Africa is obtained through a 4-year diploma offered at nursing colleges, or a 4-year degree in universities, and the South African Nursing Council (SANC) registered both for professional nursing. New SANC legislation now requires a bachelor's degree for registration as professional nurse OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore and describe perceptions of nurse educators and stakeholders to develop a model of collaboration for joint education and training of nursing professionals by colleges and universities through a bachelor's degree METHOD: A mixed methods approach was used to explore perceptions of nurse educators utilising a questionnaire, and perceptions of other nurse training stakeholders through interviews, about a model of collaboration between the college and the university RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the interviews included identifying collaboration goals, establishing a conducive environment, maximising exchange of resources, role clarification and perceived challenges. Quantitative results showed high agreement percentages (84.13%-100%) on most basic concepts and themes. A model of collaboration was developed indicating a framework, agents, recipients, procedure, dynamics, and terminus CONCLUSION: A model of collaboration was acceptable to the majority of nurse education stakeholders. Other implications are that there was a need for the improvement of scholarship among nurse educators and clinical mentors, sharing rare skills, and addressing perceived challenges <![CDATA[<b>The lived experiences and social support needs of first-time mothers at health care facilities in the City of Tshwane, South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Social support refers to the assistance people receive from others, and it is divided into four types of support. Given the increasing mortality and morbidity rates of mothers and neonates postpartum, this study intended to determine whether the social support needs of the first-time mothers were met after early discharge from health care facilities OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to explore the lived experiences and social support needs of the first-time mothers after an early discharge from health care facilities in the City of Tshwane, Gauteng METHOD: A qualitative explorative study was conducted to explore the lived experiences and social support needs of the first-time mothers. The population were first-time mothers who had a vaginal delivery and were discharged within 6-12 hours of delivery from health care facilities. Purposive sampling was performed and 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted, with those mothers who came for the prescribed three postnatal check-ups at the three health care facilities identified according to maternity services provided. Saturation of data for the three health care facilities was reached at the 14th interview. Data analysis was performed using the hermeneutic interpretive approach RESULTS: Almost all participants had completed grades 11 or 12, but most were unemployed. The needs identified included the need for social support, lack of confidence, knowledge and skill to care for themselves and their newborn babies after early discharge CONCLUSION: There is need to identify alternative types of social support for the first-time mothers, to ensure a normal adjustment to motherhood <![CDATA[<b>Descriptive study of burnout, compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary education institution in KwaZulu-Natal</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Studies have investigated burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses and effects in the nursing profession. However, there are limited investigations of burnout and compassion fatigue among undergraduate nursing students in South Africa, as nursing students may experience distressful situations during their nursing education course, which may have an impact during their training and in their profession as they graduate PURPOSE: The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout among undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary nursing institution METHODS: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted to describe compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout among undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary nursing institution in KwaZulu-Natal. Convenience sampling was used RESULTS: Sixty-seven undergraduate students (26 third-year and 41 fourth-year nursing students) took the self-test Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL). The study results indicate that undergraduate students experienced average levels of compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction CONCLUSION: As shown in the study, some of the undergraduate students are experiencing compassion fatigue and burnout, associated with relieving suffering of others. Therefore, knowledge of compassion fatigue and burnout and the coping strategies should be part of nursing training <![CDATA[<b>Professional nurses' lived experiences regarding the performance management system in the Mopani district</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The purpose of the performance management system (PMS) is planning, monitoring, evaluation and development of employees to meet the organisational goals and objectives and transform of service delivery to excellence of the organisation. However, public services are deteriorating and implementation of PMS stimulated different views among professional nurses (PNs) in the Mopani district clinics, which warrants exploration and documentation of the findings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the PNs' perceptions towards PMS. METHODS: A qualitative, phenomenological research was conducted to explore and describe the nurses' lived experiences regarding PMS. A purposive sampling method was used. Data collection was done using focus group interviews. Three focus group discussion sessions were conducted, inclusive of six to nine participants in each session RESULTS: Twenty-two PNs were interviewed. The findings revealed the following themes: PNs' uncertainty regarding the implementation of PMS, poor implementation of PMS and its process, lack of knowledge and understanding of PMS implementation and its process, and negative attitudes towards the implementation of PMS. CONCLUSION: PNs perceived PMS negatively. There is a need to improve leadership and management behaviour by enhancing productivity, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Constructive feedback, training and capacity development, including standardisation and stabilisation of performance instrument, might improve the process. <![CDATA[<b>Men's reproductive health knowledge in Mankweng District, Limpopo Province</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Gender roles influence men's attitudes towards reproductive health, and society might assume that reproductive health issues, fertility and family planning are women's responsibilities. Moreover, literature shows that men have insufficient knowledge about reproductive health matters and some misconceptions about modern contraceptive practices. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe reproductive health knowledge of men in Mankweng District and was conducted in 2015. METHODS: A descriptive research study was conducted by using quantitative approach. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Cluster random multistage sampling was used to select villages in Mankweng District and convenient sampling was used to identify participants who met the inclusion criteria to participate on the study. RESULTS: A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and returned; 197 (98.5%) of the returned questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The findings indicated that the majority of participants, 74% (n = 145), considered their partners to be unclean during menstruation, and 84.77% (n = 167) of participants did not know how to perform self-testicular examination. More than half of the participants, 55.83% (n = 67), were not in favour of vasectomy and had strong opinions about it; some of those who reportedly knew what a vasectomy involves had some misconceptions. CONCLUSION: The findings showed that despite participants' reported knowledge about some reproductive health matters their perceptions were unfavourable towards them. Despite men's sufficient knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and ways to protect themselves against STIs men had limited knowledge about other male and female reproductive health matters. <![CDATA[<b>Performance in grade 12 mathematics and science predicts student nurses' performance in first year science modules at a university in the Western Cape</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The demand for highly qualified and skilled nurses is increasing in South Africa as well as around the world. Having a background in science can create a significant advantage for students wishing to enrol for an undergraduate nursing qualification because nursing as profession is grounded in scientific evidence. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. METHOD: A quantitative research method using a cross-sectional predictive design was employed in this study. The participants included first year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled at a university in the Western Cape, South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to analyse the data by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences versions 24. Descriptive analysis of all variables was performed as well as the Spearman's rank correlation test to describe the relationship among the study variables. Standard multiple linear regressions analysis was performed to determine the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that grade 12 physical science is not a significant predictor (p &gt; 0.062) of performance in first year science modules. The multiple linear regression revealed that grade 12 mathematics and life science grades explained 37.1% to 38.1% (R² = 0.381 and adj R² = 0.371) of the variation in the first year science grade distributions. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the study it is evident that performance in grade 12 mathematics (β = 2.997) and life science (β = 3.175) subjects is a significant predictor (p < 0.001) of the performance in first year science modules for student nurses at the university identified for this study. <![CDATA[<b>Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding malnutrition in children and its management in Ghana</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Malnutrition contributes significantly to child morbidity and mortality. Nurses require appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes to prevent and treat malnutrition in children using appropriate guidelines or protocols. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to assess nurses' knowledge, attitudes towards malnutrition and its management using the World Health Organization (WHO) or United Nations International Children's Fund guidelines for the treatment of severely malnourished children and to evaluate factors associated with their knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: Participants included 104 nurses working in the outpatient and paediatric units or departments of four hospitals in Tamale metropolis. An 88-item questionnaire was used to measure nurses' socio-demographic characteristics as well as their knowledge and attitudes towards malnutrition in children and its management using the WHO guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children. RESULTS: Nurses' knowledge in malnutrition and its management was slightly above average (54.0%), but their attitudes were highly positive. Factors that were associated with nurses' knowledge were number of nutrition courses undertaken in nursing school, number of years working as a nurse, receipt of a refresher course on nutrition after school and receipt of training on the guidelines. Nurses' attitudes were associated with report of having awareness on the guidelines, number of years a nurse has been involved in the treatment of a severely malnourished child. CONCLUSION: Nurses' knowledge levels in the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children were not desirable. However, their attitudes were generally positive. Receipt of previous training, awareness of the WHO guidelines, practice experience and number of years as a nurse significantly affected knowledge and attitude scores in the positive direction.