Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Curationis]]> vol. 37 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge and attitudes of nurses in community health centres about electronic medical records</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Nurses in primary healthcare record data for the monitoring and evaluation of diseases and services. Information and communications technology (ICT) can improve quality in healthcare by providing quality medical records. However, worldwide, the majority of health ICT projects have failed. Individual user acceptance is a crucial factor in successful ICT implementation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore nurses' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding ICT so as to inform the future implementation of electronic medical record (EMR) systems. METHODS: A qualitative design was used. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with nurses at three community health centres (CHCs) in the King Sabata Dalyindyebo Local Municipality. The interview guide was informed by the literature on user acceptance of ICT. Interviews were recorded and analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Many nurses knew about health ICT and articulated clearly the potential benefits of an EMR such as fewer errors, more complete records, easier reporting and access to information. They thought that an EMR system would solve the challenges they identified with the current paper-based record system, including duplication of data, misfiling, lack of a chronological patient record, excessive time in recording and reduced time for patient care. For personal ICT needs, approximately half used cellphone Internet-based services and computers. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, nurses identified many challenges with the current recording methods. They thought that an EMR should be installed at CHCs. Their knowledge about EMR, positive attitudes to ICT and personal use of ICT devices increase the likelihood of successful EMR implementation at CHCs. <![CDATA[<b>Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS</b>]]> ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. METHOD: The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV, exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS-) related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collected data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. CONCLUSION: The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges encountered by critical care unit managers in the large intensive care units</b>]]> ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Nurses in intensive care units (ICUs) are exposed regularly to huge demands in terms of fulfilling the many roles that are placed upon them. Unit managers, in particular, are responsible for the efficient management of the units and have the responsibilities of planning, organising, leading and controlling the daily activities in order to facilitate the achievement of the unit objectives. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore and present the challenges encountered by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted at five hospital ICUs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data were collected through individual interviews from purposively-selected critical care unit managers, then analysed using thematic coding. RESULTS: Five themes emerged from the data: challenges related to the layout and structure of the unit, human resources provision and staffing, provision of material resources, stressors in the unit and visitors in the ICU. CONCLUSION: Unit managers in large ICUs face multifaceted challenges which include the demand for efficient and sufficient specialised nurses; lack of or inadequate equipment that goes along with technology in ICU and supplies; and stressors in the ICU that limit the efficiency to plan, organise, lead and control the daily activities in the unit. The challenges identified call for multiple strategies to assist in the efficient management of large ICUs. <![CDATA[<b>Advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners' ideas and needs for supervision in private practice in South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Supervision forms an integral part of psychiatric nursing. The value of clinical supervision has been demonstrated widely in research. Despite efforts made toward advanced psychiatric nursing, supervision seems to be non-existent in this field. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore and describe advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners' ideas and needs with regard to supervision in private practice in order to contribute to the new efforts made in advanced psychiatric nursing in South Africa. METHOD: A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory, and contextual design using a phenomenological approach as research method was utilised in this study. A purposive sampling was used. Eight advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners in private practice described their ideas and needs for supervision during phenomenological interviews. Tesch's method of open coding was utilised to analyse data. After data analysis the findings were re-contextualised within literature. RESULTS: The data analysis generated the following themes - that the supervisor should have or possess: (a) professional competencies, (b) personal competencies and (c) specific facilitative communication skills. The findings indicated that there was a need for supervision of advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners in private practice in South Africa. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that there is need for supervision and competent supervisors in private practice. Supervision can be beneficial with regard to developing a culture of support for advanced psychiatric practitioners in private practice and also psychiatric nurse practitioners. <![CDATA[<b>A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997). The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. METHOD: A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis) in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied. RESULTS: The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, meso and micro) based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice and critical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation. CONCLUSION: The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators. <![CDATA[<b>Healthcare workers' experiences of HIV testing in Tshwane, South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: In an era when antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has become part of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention strategy, early testing and introduction to ARVs is critical for improving public health outcomes in general and, in particular, the lives of people living with HIV. South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV as compared with the rest of the world. Initiated voluntary HIV counselling and testing and provider-initiated counselling and testing (PICT) are required in order to increase the uptake of HIV testing. OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the experiences of healthcare workers who are themselves in need of HIV testing. METHOD: A descriptive, exploratory design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with the 26 healthcare workers who were involved in HIV testing in the Tshwane district of South Africa. The participants were sampled purposively from two healthcare settings. A thematic framework was used for data analysis. RESULTS: There was a complication with regard to PICT as healthcare workers felt they could not initiate HIV testing for themselves and or their work colleagues without their confidentiality being compromised. This was complicated further by both the perceived and actual fear of stigmatisation and discrimination. It was difficult for qualified staff to support and encourage the uptake of HIV testing by students nurses as this was seen, albeit incorrectly, as targeting the students in a negative manner. CONCLUSION: There is a need for accessible HIV testing policies for healthcare workers in order to increase access to HIV testing and prevent the progression of the disease. <![CDATA[<b>Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. METHOD: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5%) was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990) working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. RESULTS: Results included (95%) of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99%) loved to care for their patients and (93%) believed in the Nurses' Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50%) of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59%) experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. CONCLUSION: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient. <![CDATA[<b>An integrative review of South African cancer nursing research published from 2002-2012</b>]]> BACKGROUND: This integrative review aimed to quantify the publication output of South African cancer nursing research conducted between 2002 and 2012 and to identify key trends relevant to cancer nurse researchers. OBJECTIVES: To describe the publication output of cancer nursing research in terms of the journals of publication, authors, focus, participants and methods used, to explore whether the published work was funded and to assess the quality of the studies published. METHODS: An integrative review was conducted using the key words South Africa in combination with cancer nursing and oncology nursing to search the databases Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sabinet, Web of Science, Medline and OvidSP. A data extraction sheet was developed to document the required information from each paper and all publications were reviewed independently by the authors. RESULTS: A total of 181 publications for potential inclusion were identified and 26 papers were included in this review. Cervical cancer, specifically the prevention of this disease, was the most popular diagnostic focus and theme of investigation. Most of the studies were descriptive and none of the studies met the criteria of the highest quality. CONCLUSION: Nursing added to the body of knowledge regarding the primary and secondary prevention of cancer. There is a need for work on both men and women diagnosed with the most common cancers, as well as the family and care giver. There is also a need for multidisciplinary work using complex interventions focusing on symptom management to improve patient outcomes. <![CDATA[<b>Nurses experiences in palliative care of terminally-ill HIV patients in a level 1 district hospital</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Whilst the discourse of palliative care in HIV management is largely documented and regarded as being an essential component, various authors have further argued that within the context of HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, palliative care and exploration of the dimensions thereof is largely lacking. This article presents the lived experiences of nurses involved in palliative care, thus providing the perspective of nurses and the multi-faceted dimensions of the nature of caring inherent. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the respondents' understanding of the concepts 'caring' and 'terminal patient' and described the experiences of nurses caring for terminally-ill patients with HIV and how these experiences influence the nature of care rendered. METHODS: Qualitative research using Husserl's approach of phenomenology design underpinned the study and Giorgi's steps of analysis were used to make meaning of the data. RESULTS: The concept 'caring' was experienced by the nurses as transforming the patients' quality of life through supportive care and hope for life. Palliative care made the nurses conscious of their own mortality, enabling them to be more sensitive, compassionate and dedicated to caring for their patients. The findings described the social networking that enabled nurses to collaborate with colleagues in the interdisciplinary teams and shared knowledge, skills and support within the palliative care team in order to optimise patient outcomes. CONCLUSION: Nurses with prolonged involvement in caring for terminally-ill patients with HIV experienced helplessness and emotional stress. Recommendations based on the results are that training in psychological and holistic care of the patient, professional counselling and stress management services are needed to support the nurse in this context. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of alcohol on HIV prevention and treatment for South Africans in primary healthcare</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality for HIV patients. In South Africa, with the largest ART programme globally, attention is needed not only on the further expansion of ART coverage, but also on factors which undermine its effectiveness, such as alcohol use. OBJECTIVE: Given the decentralised approach of nurse-initiated and -sustained ART in the South African primary health sector, it is important to document key aspects of alcohol use to be conveyed to HIV-positive individuals and those at risk for HIV. METHOD: This study comprised a narrative review of relevant literature. RESULTS: Alcohol acts through both behavioural and physiological pathways to impact on the acquisition, further transmission and then progression of HIV disease. Besides links to risky sex, alcohol undermines the immune system, raising susceptibility to contracting and then countering HIV and other infections. There are important drug interactions between alcohol and ART, or therapies for opportunistic infections and other co-morbidities. Moreover, alcohol undermines adherence to the medication which is essential for effective ART. CONCLUSION: Primary healthcare clinic attendees need evidence-based information on the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption on HIV infection, which ensue throughout the clinical course of HIV. This spans the role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for HIV infection, HIV replication in infected individuals, a person's response to HIV infection and HIV treatment. Primary healthcare workers, especially nurses and HIV counsellors, require training in order to screen for and provide appropriate interventions for HIV-positive patients, those on treatment and treatment-na├»ve patients, who will benefit from reduced alcohol consumption or the cessation thereof. <![CDATA[<b>Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Aggressive and violent behaviour of inpatients in mental health facilities disrupts the therapeutic alliance and hampers treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe patients' perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour. RESEARCH DESIGN: A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality. METHOD: Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch's descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability. RESULTS: Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients' aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. CONCLUSION: From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities. <![CDATA[<b>Lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in a community empowerment programme</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Both non-governmental organisations and governmental organisations are very involved in the development and implementation of community empowerment programmes (CEPs). Because of various health issues within the community, 10 CEPs were launched in Ladysmith with a focus on addressing the particular needs of HIV-affected and -infected members. Of the 10 programmes, however, only four were deemed sustainable after five years. OBJECTIVES: The researcher explored the lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in two CEPs in Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal in order to develop recommendations for CEPs. METHOD: Data were explored using a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Ten participants who had been involved in HIV CEPs for more than six months were identified and individual interviews were held. RESULTS: Three themes emerged, namely, giving of yourself, maintaining sustainability and assisting the CEPs and community workers. Each of these themes also contained a number of subthemes. Exploring the lived experience of the community workers revealed that there are a number of ways in which to promote the sustainability of CEPs. CONCLUSION: The community should be involved in all aspects of the CEP and community workers must respect the community and their knowledge, experience and value systems. <![CDATA[<b>Patients' experiences of being nursed by student nurses at a teaching hospital</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Teaching hospitals are medical institutes at which most nursing education institutions provide their students with practical nursing experience. Although the focus of care is the patient, attention is sometimes focused more on the nursing students rather than on the patients who are undergoing care at the hands of both the nursing professionals and students. However, proper nursing care should also take into account the experiences of patients during the care process in the health facility. OBJECTIVES: The study had three objectives: to describe the experiences of patients nursed by student nurses in a teaching hospital in the Western Cape; to identify patterns in the experiences of patients receiving patient care from student nurses; and to analyse aspects of the experiences that may need further attention for the training of student nurses. METHOD: A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of patients nursed by student nurses. Participant selection took place purposively from different wards of the identified teaching hospital, and thematic saturation was achieved at 10 participants. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Three main themes were discovered after data analysis: methods of identification of student nurses by patients; positive perceptions of student nurses by patients; and negative perceptions of student nurses by patients. CONCLUSION: The findings will inform the clinical supervisors and educational institutions of aspects of the nursing training of student nurses that need improvement and those that require enforcement. <![CDATA[<b>Lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in a community empowerment programme</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Both non-governmental organisations and governmental organisations are very involved in the development and implementation of community empowerment programmes (CEPs). Because of various health issues within the community, 10 CEPs were launched in Ladysmith with a focus on addressing the particular needs of HIV-affected and -infected members. Of the 10 programmes, however, only four were deemed sustainable after five years OBJECTIVES: The researcher explored the lived experiences of HIV community workers participating in two CEPs in Ladysmith, KwaZulu-Natal in order to develop recommendationsfor CEPs METHOD: Data were explored using a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Ten participants who had been involved in HIV CEPs for more than six months were identified and individual interviews were held RESULTS: Three themes emerged, namely, giving of yourself, maintaining sustainability and assisting the CEPs and community workers. Each of these themes also contained a number of subthemes. Exploring the lived experience of the community workers revealed that there are a number of ways in which to promote the sustainability of CEPs CONCLUSION: The community should be involved in all aspects of the CEP and community workers must respect the community and their knowledge, experience and value systems <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors in African children at one and three years residing in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa</b>]]> OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its determinants in one- and three-year-old children from the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted in rural villages in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. At birth, a cohort of 219 children was followed until they were one and three years of age. Data collected included the children's anthropometric measurements, blood for biochemical analysis (full blood count, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12) and socio-demographic status RESULTS: At one year, anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) was present in 52% of the children, decreasing to 22% by the third year. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 μg/mL) was common in these children (39% and 33% at one year and three years, respectively) particularly in the presence of anaemia. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies (< 5 ng/mL and < 145 pg/mL, respectively) were common at one year, with the children accumulating enough vitamin B12 by three years; however, folate deficiency levels remained fairly constant between the two time points CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of anaemia in the study participants at one year and three years of age. Factors that increased the risk of anaemia at three years were: a mother with only a primary school education, anaemia at one year, male gender, overweight, and combined overweight and stunting. Protective factors against anaemia were having a younger mother who served as the main caregiver <![CDATA[<b>Exploring nurse preceptors' perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province</b>]]> BACKGROUND: A preceptor is a specialised tutor who provides practical training to students in the practice setting. They are frequently used to orientate nursing students to prepare them for their duties as professional nurses. In the Western Cape Province professional nurses attend a training programme to prepare them for the role of preceptor. After completion of the training it is unclear how the trained nurse preceptors perceive their preparation for the role. The perceptions of preceptors may influence their commitment to their role OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors' perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors' perceptions METHOD: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60) who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors' perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors' perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 RESULTS: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role CONCLUSION: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter's model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role <![CDATA[<b>Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening METHOD: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315). Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables RESULTS: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248) indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198) knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure CONCLUSION: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer <![CDATA[<b>Communal child-rearing: The role of nurses in school health</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Child-rearing remains a concern within our communities, especially because families of today lack primary parents due to multifaceted challenges such as working mothers, diseases and violence. Health-promoting school initiatives are necessary because they allow a multifaceted approach to child-rearing. They further provide a conducive environment for continued schoolchild-rearing moving from home to school OBJECTIVES: This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu - solidarity and sense of community - as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services METHOD: An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model FINDINGS: The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children CONCLUSION: Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula <![CDATA[<b>Impact of caring for people living with HIV on the psychosocial well-being of palliative caregivers</b>]]> Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues to be a serious public health issue, and it is often the caregivers who carry the brunt of the epidemic. Caregivers of people with AIDS face distinctive demands that could make them more prone to occupational stress, with serious consequences for their psychosocial well-being. The impact of caring for people living with HIV infection on the psychosocial well-being of palliative caregivers was investigated using in-depth interviews and questionnaires in 28 participants. The results indicated no burnout, but occupational stress was prevalent. Factors impacting negatively on well-being were stressors inherent in AIDS care, such as suffering and dying of the persons being cared for, work-related stressors such as heavy workload, lack of support and ineffective coping mechanisms. Positive aspects of caring such as job satisfaction, holistic palliative care, effective coping mechanisms and psychosocial support were identified. Recommendations to curb the negative effects of caregiving are provided. <![CDATA[<b>Student nurses' perceptions of guidance and support in rural hospitals</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Clinical guidance and support of nursing students in rural hospitals is a challenge for novice nurses, who rotate amongst accredited hospitals throughout the province for clinical exposure, and find themselves in an unfamiliar environment. Theory learned at the training college is integrated with clinical exposure at hospitals and supplemented through teaching by hospital staff. Nursing students complain about lack of support and guidance from professional nurses within the hospital, some feeling restricted in execution of their nursing tasks by professional nurses and other staff. Students perceived negative attitudes from clinical staff, a lack of clinical resources, inadequate learning opportunities and a lack of support and mentoring during their clinical exposure. OBJECTIVES: This article describes perceptions of guidance and support of nursing students by professional nurses in a rural hospital and suggests guidelines for clinical guidance and support of nursing students. METHOD: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. Two focus group interviews were employed to collect data from a sample drawn from level II nursing students from one training college in Limpopo Province, South Africa, on different days (n = 13; n = 10). Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data. RESULTS: Three themes (mutual distrust and disrespect, hospital environment, and clinical guidance and support) and subthemes (student behaviour and staff behaviour) emerged. CONCLUSION: Failure to support and guide nursing students professionally may lead to high turnover and absenteeism, resulting in students' refusal to be allocated to a rural hospital for clinical exposure. Proposed guidelines have been formulated for clinical guidance and support of nursing students at the selected rural hospital. The college and hospital management should foster collaboration between the college tutors and professional nurses to ensure adequate guidance and support of nursing students. <![CDATA[<b>Views of professional nurses regarding low tuberculosis cure rate in Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Management of patients suffering from tuberculosis (TB) after discharge from hospital plays a critical role in the cure rate of TB. Despite interventions developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to improve the cure rate, TB remains a worldwide health problem. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the views of professional nurses regarding the low TB cure rate in primary healthcare facilities of Greater Giyani Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa, with the aim of determining strategies that can be used to improve this low rate. METHOD: This study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of professional nurses working in primary healthcare facilities within Greater Giyani Municipality, which has a TB cure rate below the national target of 85%. Data gathering was through individual face-to-face interviews using an interview guide. Open-coding was used to analyse the data in this study. RESULTS: The theme that emerged from data was 'factors contributing to low TB cure rate'. This theme was supported by the following sub-themes: poor referral system, lack of knowledge about TB and its treatment, stigma attached to TB, and cultural and religious beliefs. The professional nurses suggested counselling of TB patients upon diagnosis, advice about patients' responsibilities and the involvement of family members. CONCLUSION: The involvement of community stakeholders in TB prevention, health promotion and education activities devoted to disease spread and cure is vital so that the stigma attached to TB can be eliminated. TB education and awareness programmes should be included in the curriculum of primary schools. <![CDATA[<b>Using a simulated patient to transfer patient-centred skills from simulated practice to real patients in practice</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Simulation in healthcare education is common practice. Although this teaching strategy increases patient safety, it is not proven to enhance patient-centred care in practice. Simulated patients are used to teach communication skills and to contribute to the authenticity of the simulation. Could this enhanced authenticity help bridge the gap from simulated practice to practice with live patients where patient-centredness is of crucial importance? OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to determine whether students who acquired a skill in simulation using a simulated patient displayed more patient-centredness in practice than students who used a mannikin. METHOD: A pre-experimental, post-test-only design with a comparison group was used. The population sample comprised all second-year B.Cur. students (N = 36) at a tertiary institution, who were divided into two cohorts. Cohort 1 was trained to administer an intramuscular injection using a simulated patient with a strap-on injectable device, whilst cohort 2 used an injection model. All participants were assessed on their procedural skills as well as patient-centred care whilst administering an injection to a patient in hospital. A comparison was made of mean scores for patient-centred care rendered by the two cohorts. RESULTS: Fisher's exact test revealed that the mean score for patient-centredness of cohort 1 (88%) was significantly higher (p = < 0.001) than that of cohort 2 (74%). CONCLUSION: Using a simulated patient to teach administration of an intramuscular injection enhanced students' patient-centredness when performing the procedure in practice. Recommendations include making use of a bigger sample and including a pre-test the next time research of this nature is carried out. <![CDATA[<b>Pre-deployment preparation of military nurses of the South African National Defence Force for participation in peace support operations</b>]]> BACKGROUND: South Africa has dedicated itself to participate in peace support operations (PSOs). The concept of 'jointness', involving different arms of services, was adopted within the South African National Defence Force, thus involving nurses in PSOs. PROBLEM STATEMENT: Combat-readiness being a prerequisite for those involved in PSOs raised questions as to the readiness of forces to participate in these missions. There is a need for specific nursing care during PSOs, but the role and functions of nurses during such operations were not clearly defined; thus their preparation for these missions had very little scientific grounding. OBJECTIVES: These were to explore the pre-deployment preparation needs of military professional nurses during PSOs, and to describe the experience of these nurses whilst being deployed. METHOD: A quantitative exploratory, descriptive and contextual approach was used. Questionnaires were distributed to 99 professional nurses who had deployment experience, and 72 participated (73% response rate). Relevant peace mission concepts are the environment, jointness, behaviour and mission readiness, which served as the conceptual bases for the study. RESULTS: Findings indicated that the nurses were not fully informed of their responsibilities during deployment or the circumstances under which they would have to work and live. Their preparation is not fully integrated with that of the other armed forces, and deficiencies in their training and development were identified which negatively impact on their mission readiness. CONCLUSION: Recommendations were made in terms of human resource requirements, psychological training, better integration of jointness training, and content of training and development to ensure mission readiness of nurses. <![CDATA[<b>Factors influencing treatment outcomes in tuberculosis patients in Limpopo Province, South Africa, from 2006 to 2010: A retrospective study</b>]]> BACKGROUND: South Africa has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection rates and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB. OBJECTIVES: To describe treatment outcomes and factors influencing outcomes amongst pulmonary TB (PTB) patients in the Limpopo Province. METHOD: A retrospective review was conducted of data on the provincial electronic TB register ( for the years 2006 to 2010 (inclusive), and a random sample of 1200 records was selected for further analysis. The Chi square test was used to examine the influence of age, gender, health facility level, diagnostic category and treatment regimen on treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Overall 90 617 (54.6% male) PTB patients were registered between 2006 and 2010. Of the sampled 1200 TB cases, 72.6% were in persons aged 22 to 55 years and 86.2% were new cases. The TB mortality rate was 13.6% (much higher than the World Health Organization target of 3%), whilst the default rate was 9.8%. There was a strong association between age (P < 0.001), diagnostic category (P < 0.001), treatment regimen (P < 0.001), and health facility level (P < 0.001) and treatment outcome. Those aged 22-55, and 56-74 years were more likely to die (P < 0.05). Poor treatment outcomes were also associated with initial treatment failure, receiving treatment at hospital and treatment regimen II. CONCLUSION: The poor TB treatment outcomes in Limpopo, characterised by a high mortality and default rates, call for strengthening of the TB control programme, which should include integration of HIV and/or AIDS and TB services. <![CDATA[<b>Cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and skills of registered nurses in Botswana</b>]]> BACKGROUND: In Botswana nurses provide most health care in the primary, secondary and tertiary level clinics and hospitals. Trauma and medical emergencies are on the increase, and nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skills in order to be able to implement effective interventions in cardiac arrest situations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this descriptive study was to assess registered nurses' CPR knowledge and skills. METHOD: A pre-test, intervention and re-test time-series research design was adopted, and data were collected from 102 nurses from the 2 referral hospitals in Botswana. A multiple-choice questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data. RESULTS: All nurses failed the pre-test. Their knowledge and skills improved after training, but deteriorated over the three months until the post-test was conducted. CONCLUSION: The significantly low levels of registered nurses' CPR skills in Botswana should be addressed by instituting country-wide CPR training and regular refresher courses.