Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Curationis]]> vol. 32 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The levels of Community Involvement in Health (CIH): A case of rural and urban communities in KwaZulu-Natal</b>]]> The study aimed to describe the practice of community involvement in health programmes. The study therefore explored the nature and practice of community involvement in health programmes in the two communities in KwaZulu Natal. The study was guided by the conceptual framework adapted from Arnstein's,( 1969) Ladder of Citizen Participation. This framework shows different levels and steps in community participation. A case study method was used to conduct the study. The two cases were one urban based and one rural based community health centers in the Ilembe health district, in Kwa Zulu Natal. A sample of 31 persons participated in the study. The sample comprised 8 registered nurses, 2 enrolled nurses 13 community members and 8 community health workers. Data was collected using structured individual interviews and focus group interviews, and was guided by the case protocol. Community involvement in health largely depended on the type of community, with rural community members being in charge of their health projects and urban community members helping each other as neighbours in times of need. <![CDATA[<b>Precautions used by occupational health nursing students during clinical placements</b>]]> Protection of health care workers including students from being infected when caring for high risk patients is a major cause for concern to all promoting occupational health. Safety of every employee is mandatory. Furthermore, universal guidelines for precautions must be used by all interacting with high risk patients and clients to protect themselves and prevent the spread of infection. The aim of this paper was to ascertain the availability of universal guidelines for precautions against the spread of infection in clinical settings and determine the precautions used by OHN students during their clinical placements. To realise these objectives, a quantitative and descriptive design was followed. A purposive sampling method was used to select 45 Occupational health nursing students who participated in the study. Data was collected with the use of a structured questionnaire and the results revealed that: most units where OHN students were placed for clinical experience had guidelines for universal precautions although these were not always accessible to them; regarding compliance to universal precautions, OHN students were reportedly aware of the hazards of failure to comply although in some emergencies and where personal protective material was not available, they had to provide care without using protective equipments. Recommendations made include that employers and staff at all occupational settings must ensure that updated guidelines for universal precautions are available and accessible to every body interacting with high risk patients; health care providers and students must be fully informed about and should always adhere to universal precautions. <![CDATA[<b>Nursing students' evaluation of the introduction of nursing diagnosis focused tutorials in a university degree programme</b>]]> The School of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal has recently introduced the concept of nursing diagnosis within the Bachelor of Nursing Problem Based Learning (PBL) acute care nursing course. A descriptive survey was designed to evaluate a teaching strategy the researchers developed for Year III Bachelor of Nursing students in an acute care clinical practice course. All students in Year III PBL tutorials in 2006 were included in the study. The students were satisfied with their learning and felt competent in assessing, making and prioritizing nursing diagnoses, formulating hypotheses and using the nursing process in their care in real life nursing situations. With regard to the structured nine step process students generally were enthusiastic about this process and felt that it helped them perform better. This paper describes how the researchers introduced nursing diagnosis and how it was received by the students. Because these students are Year III students their perceptions of this change in focus is especially enlightening and provides useful feedback to further modify the course. <![CDATA[<b>Implementing community-based education in basic nursing education programs in South Africa</b>]]> Education of health professionals using principles of community-based education is the recommended national policy in South Africa. A paradigm shift to community-based education is reported in a number of nursing education institutions in South Africa. Reviewed literature however revealed that in some educational institutions planning, implementation and evaluation of Community-based Educational (CBE) programmes tended to be haphazard, uncoordinated and ineffective, resulting in poor student motivation. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyse the implementation of community-based education in basic nursing education programmes in South Africa. Strauss and Corbin's (1990) grounded theory approach guided the research process. Data were collected by means of observation, interviews and document analysis. The findings revealed that collaborative decision-making involving all stakeholders was crucial especially during the curriculum planning phase. Furthermore, special criteria should be used when selecting community learning sites to ensure that the selected sites are able to facilitate the development of required graduate competencies. Collaborative effort, true partnership between academic institutions and communities, as well as government support and involvement emerged as necessary conditions for the successful implementation of community-based education programmes. <![CDATA[<b>Self-concepts and demographic characteristics of battered women in Gauteng, South Africa</b>]]> In South Africa, studies have shown that one in every four women are abused or battered. Put graphically, 25% of women in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) are assaulted by their boyfriend/partner or husband and a woman suffer battering on average of 39 times before she seeks outside help. Woman battering can leave women abused, distressed, create fear, limits behaviour, cause psychological damage and physical harms and very often breaks down self-esteem and leaves the individual self-incompetent. Hence the need to understand how women who have been abused rate their pre and post abuse self-concepts, how their demographic characteristics influence their self-concepts and also understand their attitude towards their abuser. Through in-depth interviews using a questionnaire, data were collected from 150 randomly selected abused women attending a respite centre located in Johannesburg. Age of women ranged from 16 years to 49 years with a mean age of 32.2 (SD=8.27). Abuse or being battered in this study is defined as "women who have been emotionally abused or physically beaten by husband/boyfriend with blows, slapped, kicked and have experienced these over three times in a single relationship. The study was anchored on a three research questions. Results showed that before abuse, women rated themselves positively (X bar = 82.4) and negatively after abuse (X bar = 69.9). The study showed a huge drop in self-concept change (X bar = 23.9) after abuse. At a pre-abuse level, women generally rated themselves positively on almost all dimensions and negatively after abuse on almost all bi-polar items. The study also found that demographics of abused women such as marital status (C² (1, N = 149) =7.30, P<.01 ), educational level (C² ( 1, N = 149) = 15.89, P <.001 ), duration of abuse (C² ( 1, N = 149)=12.71, P<.002), and nature of abuse (C² ( 1, N = 149) =4.502, P <.05) do influence self-concepts of abused women. Age of women was not significant. Finally, results also indicate that majority of the women have negative attitude towards their abuser (C² (1, N = 149) =4.051, P< .05). The abuser was described negatively as cold, slow, passive, weak, sick, tense, unpredictable, sad, dangerous, ignorant and bad. Surprisingly, the abuser was also described as rich, wise, clean and valuable. These findings have significant practical implications for intimate partner violence or Gender-based violence and the health and psychological outcomes for battered women. The study also suggests the need for more research in this direction and a need for culturally relevant programmes to help women in abusive relationships and in addition help the abusers deal with myths that have cultural relevance to factors maintaining battering. <![CDATA[<b>Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study</b>]]> Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women's journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study. This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault. <![CDATA[<b>Response times of ambulances to calls from Midwife Obstetric Units of the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Service (PMNS) in Cape Town</b>]]> Response times of ambulances to calls from Midwife Obstetric Units, although varied, are perceived as slow. Delays in transporting women experiencing complications during or after their pregnancies to higher levels of care may have negative consequences such as fetal, neonatal or maternal morbidity or death. An exploratory descriptive study was undertaken to investigate the response times of ambulances of the Western Cape Emergency Medical Services to calls from midwife obstetric units (MOUs) in the Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Services (PMNS) in Cape Town. Response times were calculated from data collected in specific MOUs using a specifically developed instrument. Recorded data included time of call placed requesting transfer, diagnosis or reason for transfer, priority of call and the time of arrival of ambulance to the requesting facility. Mean, median and range of response times, in minutes, to various MOUs and priorities of calls were calculated. These were then compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A comparison was then made between the recorded and analysed response times to national norms and recommendations for ambulance response times and maternal transfer response times respectively. A wide range of response times was noted for the whole sample. Median response times across all priorities of calls and to all MOUs in sample fell short of national norms and recommendations. No statistical differences were noted between various priorities of calls and MOUs. The perception of delayed response times of ambulances to MOUs in the PMNS was confirmed in this pilot study. <![CDATA[<b>The experience of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labour</b>]]> The goal of this article was to describe the experience of black fathers concerning support for their wives/partners during labour. The research design entailed an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study that was contextual to clinical nursing. A phenomenological approach to nursing research was utilized, whereby unstructured interviews were conducted with ten black fathers. Two groups of black fathers were purposively selected for the study. Group 1 consisted of fathers who provided support to their wives/partners during labour and Group 2 consisted of fathers who did not provide support during labour. A literature control was undertaken to verify and recontextualize data. The results indicate that most of the fathers in Group 1 experienced negative feelings of nervousness, helplessness and anxiety due to lack of information concerning childbirth. These were coupled with positive feelings such as excitement, overwhelming delight and a sense of miracle. Most of the fathers in Group 2 expressed a feeling of wanting to be there. Lack of information, fear and cultural factors were identified as stumbling blocks. Conclusions drawn from the study included positive attitudes that needed to be enhanced as well as negative attitudes that needed counteracting. The guidelines were based on overcoming the following: cultural taboos; lack of knowledge and fears concerning childbirth; lack of interest in childbirth; and childbirth being regarded as a woman's department.