Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Curationis]]> vol. 31 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care</b>]]> From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328). Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations. <![CDATA[<b>The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District</b>]]> This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy. Self-administered questionnaires with close-ended questions were used in the collection of data. The questions included the women's demographic details, their views of HIV testing, knowledge and as well as their acceptability of HIV testing. Forty questionnaires were distributed and they were all returned. A quantitative method was used to analyse the data. The findings of the study revealed that 45 % of the women in the sample were relatively young ( 18-25 years) and most of them (90%) were unmarried .The majority of women (92.5%) said testing was a good idea and 85% said it was necessary. However only 52.5% said they would opt for HIV testing. The uptake of HIV testing was found to be low. Eighty-seven and a half percent (87.5%) of the women in the sample were of the opinion that HIV testing in pregnancy was of benefit to the mother and her baby. Women in the study were generally found to have a good understanding and good perceptions towards HIV testing in pregnancy, but this was not consistent with their behaviour. <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge of pregnant women on transmission of HIV infection through breast feeding</b>]]> Although breast-feeding is nature s way of providing nutrition to the baby, in HIV positive mothers this has been identified as one of the means through which HIV infection is transmitted from the mother to the child. In Africa where children under the age of 5 are killed by preventable diseases like diarrhoea, the issue of HIV transmission through breast feeding poses an added huge problem. Research has, however shown that exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, reduces the risk substantially. It is imperative that mothers be informed about safer methods of infant feeding so that HIV infection is kept to a minimum. The objective of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge that pregnant women had about mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. A non-experimental quantitative exploratory and descriptive research design was used to explore the knowledge women had on mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. From the data collected, it showed that although women were aware of the susceptibility of children to HIV infection if fed on breast and formula feeds simultaneously by HIV positive mothers, exclusive feeding was a problem as people associated the practise with a positive HIV status. Women who had not disclosed their HIV status and were HIV positive, found it difficult to comply with the requirement to exclusively feed their infants. These either continued with complementary feeds or did not collect the free formula milk supply preferring instead to buy the formula feeds privately. In this study it was recommended that information on transmission of HIV infection from mother to child through breast -feeding including the benefits of exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, for the first three to six months be provided to the community so that relatives can support the mother on infant feeding method of choice. <![CDATA[<b>HIV/AIDS risk factors among residence students at the University of the Free State</b>]]> The aim of this study is to investigate the sexual campus culture of students at the University of the Free State (UFS), by specifically focussing on gender and culture as patterns of high-risk sexual behaviour. The sample consisted of 396 participants, 211 female and 185 male students, with a mean age of 19.9 years. Sixty one percent (61%) of the students associated themselves with a Western cultural background and 39% with an African cultural background. In this article an exposition is provided on information collected in a survey conducted at the UFS to help provide a better understanding of risk factors for HIV infection among UFS students in comparison with the behaviour patterns of students at other universities. Stereotypes identified as known risk factors making students at other universities more vulnerable to HIV and high-risk sexual behaviour, were also found among UFS students. Results indicated the existence of the following statistical significant correlations: African cultural students, gender and their viewpoint that there is a stronger relationship between homosexuality and HIV/AIDS; their opinion that HIV/AIDS is more strongly associated with African students. Data obtained from this survey questionnaire show that even if students have a great deal of knowledge to their disposal, and even if they recognised that they were personally at risk, some students' sexual practices and risk-taking behaviour remained unchanged. Despite the fact that the majority of students (85%) concluded that it is unacceptable for a woman or a man to have more than one sexual partner and that it is better to wait until marriage before engaging in a sexual relationship, 17% of male students (Western culture) and 4% of female students indicated that they have had more than five sexual partners in their lives. Statistical significant correlations also existed between African students, gender and their sexual activity the last six months. Contradictory to research results reported in literature, data obtained from this survey indicate that the majority of students view condom use in a positive light - 75% of participating African students disagreed with the statement 'not using a condom during sexual intercourse shows trust in your partner'. Finally, in an interesting revelation, a general sexual culture was identified among UFS students, rather than culturally-based sexual practices. <![CDATA[<b>Health care practices influencing health promotion in urban black women in Tshwane</b>]]> Health promotion is a multifaceted activity. Women and children are particularly vulnerable regarding access to quality health care, with young African women reportedly the poorest and most economically marginalised and least educated sector in South Africa. Understanding the context within which a person lives is an essential component in the health educator's teaching strategy. Understanding urban black women's health care practices will enable health promoters to develop interventions that are successful. The problem investigated was to gain an understanding of the health care practices of urban black women that could influence health promotion activities. The design was qualitative exploratory. The respondents were women living in an urban township in Tshwane, South Africa. The sampling method was convenient and purposive and the sample size was determined by saturation of the data. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews using six specific themes and the analysed using open coding. The results indicated that the social environment created by the registered nurses in the primary health influenced the health care practices of the women negatively. Practices regarding the seriousness of a health problem suggest a possible reason for late admission of a person with a serious health problem. <![CDATA[<b>Expectations of postgraduate nursing students: An inquiry</b>]]> Postgraduate supervision in South Africa currently takes place in the context of university transformation with a notable increase in concern for quality. The latter is determined by the extent to which students' expectations within a supervisory practice are met. This study investigated students' expectations regarding their research supervision in a postgraduate nursing programme. A 48-item questionnaire was mailed to 24 postgraduate students, of which 22 (92%) responded, to determine their expectations within a supervisory relationship. Items in the questionnaire included students' perceptions of the responsibilities of the institution, the department, the supervisor and students' responsibilities regarding their supervised postgraduate studies in the School of Nursing Science. Descriptive statistics, namely frequencies and percentages for categorical data and means and standard deviations or medians and percentiles for continuous data, were calculated. Findings indicate that more than 80% of the postgraduate students in the study expected the university and the department to provide them with structures that would enable them to succeed in their studies. They also believed that the student had a major role to play in ensuring that studies were completed. Recommendations included making a code of practice for postgraduate supervision available to students and the use of a learning contract to clarify roles and expectations in the supervisory process. It was also recommended that supervisors should be trained to supervise students. <![CDATA[<b>Humor: A pedagogical tool to promote learning</b>]]> BACKGROUND: It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. AIM: This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naïve sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in: Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING EDUCATION, TRAINING AND PRACTICE: The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice. <![CDATA[<b>Factors influencing nurses' job satisfaction in selected private hospitals in England</b>]]> The quantitative descriptive survey used self-completion questionnaires to study factors influencing nurses' job satisfaction in selected private hospitals in England. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation was used to contextualise the results obtained from 85 completed questionnaires. In terms of Herzberg's Theory of Motivation, the most important extrinsic (hygiene) factor was no satisfaction with their salaries compared to nurses' salaries in other private hospitals in England, in the NHS and even at their own hospitals. However, most nurses were satisfied with the other extrinsic factors (organisation and administration policies, supervision and interpersonal relations). The most important intrinsic factors (motivators), influencing nurses' job satisfaction was their lack of satisfaction with promotions (including the fact that their qualifications were reportedly not considered for promotions), lack of advancement opportunities and being in deadend jobs, and lack of involvement in decision- and policy-making activities. Nurses' levels of job satisfaction might be enhanced if promotion policies could be consistent, advancement opportunities implemented, qualifications considered for promotions, salary issues clarified, and if nurses could be involved in decision- and policy-making. Enhanced levels of job satisfaction could help to reduce turnover rates among registered nurses at the private hospitals in England that participated in this study.