Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Curationis]]> vol. 45 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Lived experiences of nursing students regarding learning in large classes and its effects on teaching and learning at the University of Namibia</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Whilst the number of students who choose to enrol at institutions of higher education continues to increase, class size remains a challenge. Therefore, institutions of higher education should continuously explore the challenges experienced by students regarding learning in large classes and devise strategies to address such challenges. The experiences of nursing students regarding learning in large classes and its effects on teaching and learning at the University of Namibia (UNAM) and in Namibia are not extensively researched. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of nursing students regarding learning in large classes and its effects on teaching and learning at the UNAM. METHODS: A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was employed. Data collection was conducted using semi-structured interviews to ascertain the experiences of nursing students regarding learning in large classes and its effects on teaching and learning at the UNAM. Fifteen undergraduate nursing students from the Rundu campus participated in the study using a purposive sampling technique. RESULTS: The analysis of data led to the emergence of the following themes namely: negative learning experiences, positive learning experiences and mechanisms for improvement. The findings had a negative effect on participants' learning outcomes. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study indicated that participants were dissatisfied with the size of their classes as the learning environment was not conducive for teaching and learning. <![CDATA[<b>The development of self skills in an authentic learning environment: A qualitative study</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The contemporary healthcare environment is an authentic, demanding, challenging and ever-changing environment that requires learners to possess good self skills when they need to engage in meaningful, critical discourse in order to solve authentic problems. However, nurse educators assume that learners already have well-developed self skills at the commencement of their nursing training and as a result do not explicitly teach and develop such skills in the learners. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to explore and describe nurse educators' views on how learners' self skills can be developed within an authentic learning (AL) environment, and to formulate recommendations based on the findings. METHOD: A qualitative and contextual research design was used to seek rich, in-depth data from 20 nurse educators who were purposively sampled. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted, and the data were analysed using Miles, Huberman and SaldaƱa method RESULTS: The three themes that emerged were that nurse educators should (1) ensure an AL environment that promotes self skills, (2) engage learners in activities that will consciously evoke authentic self and (3) evaluate the developed self skills and metacognition. CONCLUSION: By developing good self skills, learners should be able to deliver quality patient care, find solutions to complex problems and handle cognitive complexity and authentic conditions whilst creating their own identity. <![CDATA[<b>Missing appointments by patients on antiretroviral therapy: Professional nurses' perspective</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Missed appointments for medicine pick-ups are regarded as a predictor of poor adherence, and should trigger immediate questions about issues that may affect follow-up visits to healthcare settings. OBJECTIVES: The study explored and described professional nurses' perspectives about the factors that contribute to missing appointments by people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLWHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Mopani and Vhembe district in Limpopo Province. METHOD: A qualitative explorative contextual approach was used for the study. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select 14 professional nurses who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through face-to-face unstructured interviews. One central question was asked and probing questions were based on the participants' responses to the central question. Thematic analysis of the findings was carried out. Trustworthiness was ensured through intercoder agreement, audio recording, triangulation, bracketing, and member checking. Required permission, approval, and ethical clearance were also ensured. RESULTS: Organisational health system and management of the healthcare facility were found to be the barriers that negatively impacted on the ability of the PLWHIV on ART to maintain clinic visits appointments. Lack of patient involvement, stereotyped appointment dates selection, poor patient-provider relationships, errors of recording appointment dates and long waiting times came up as sub-themes derived from the main theme. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there is a need to increase and improve mutual trust in patient-provider relationships, improve nurses working conditions, develop proper booking systems and reduce clinic waiting hours. <![CDATA[<b>Experiences of adolescents and parents on the mental health management of depression in adolescents, North West province, South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Living with or managing an adolescent suffering from depression predisposes the adolescent and parents to various experiences, considering the multifactorial nature of depression and associated symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This study explored and described the experiences of adolescents and their parents on the mental health management of depression in the North West province (NWP), South Africa. METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, contextual research design was adopted. Data was collect from two mental health care institutions and two mental health care units attached to two general hospitals in the NWP, SA. Thirty-two participants (18 adolescents and 14 parents) were purposefully selected for the study. Data were collected through individual interviews and analysed using Tesch's open-coding method to generate themes and categories which were presented with the concurrent support of participants direct quotations RESULTS: The study revealed that the experiences of adolescents with depression and their parents taking care of them at homes include the following: emotional distress, poor coping mechanisms, financial burden, repeated suicidal attempts, negative attitudes from support systems and withdrawal behaviours. Appropriate therapeutic environments, ongoing monitoring by mental healthcare practitioners and adequate support systems were suggested by participants as management approaches that could enhance the recovery of adolescents from depression. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed the devastating experiences of adolescents with depression and their parents taking care of them in their various homes which confirms the dire need for attention on the plights of these groups in order to facilitate adolescents' recovery and strengthen the adolescents' and parents' coping mechanisms for a healthier family. <![CDATA[<b>Facilitators of professional socialisation of learners in the clinical learning areas: A qualitative systematic review</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Professional socialisation is significant in nursing as it involves immersing learners in the profession so that they adopt the ethical values and conduct of the profession. It is in the clinical learning areas where learners observe and practise those values. The objective of the review was to explore the factors that promote professional socialisation of learners in the clinical learning areas. The problem is the inadequate support for learner nurses in the clinical learning areas. The South African community has lost trust in nurses and that was even acknowledged in the national nursing summit in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To present a review of the factors that facilitate professional socialisation among undergraduate nursing learners. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted on literature from 2008 to 2018. The literature search focused on factors that facilitate professional socialisation of learner nurses. A search of databases was conducted in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Science Direct. The search focused on literature on professional socialisation of learner nurses published from 2008 to 2018. The search resulted in 3035 articles which were further reduced to 13 after further synthesis. Critical appraisal skills programme was used to assess the quality of the studies. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged. Learner factors, factors in the clinical learning areas and interpersonal factors were identified as the factors that facilitate professional socialisation of learners. CONCLUSION: Learners should have self-motivation and be supported and assisted to develop a positive professional identity. The clinical learning environment should have effective communication that fosters learning. Professional nurses should act as exemplary role models so that learners can emulate the conduct and practice. The review brought to light that the professional socialisation of learners is affected by the learner factors, clinical learning areas and personal factors. <![CDATA[<b>Unfair labour practice on staff in primary health care facilities, North West province, South Africa: A qualitative study</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Unfair labour practices on staff is a worldwide concern which creates conflicts and disharmony among health workers in the workplace. It is found that, nursing staff members are unfairly treated without valid reasons in primary health care (PHC) facilities and predominantly in the developing countries and South Africa is not an exception OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of operational managers regarding unfair labour practices on staff by their local health area managers, and describe the perceptions of operational managers towards such treatment METHOD: A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual research approach was considered appropriate for the study. The population of the study comprised operational managers working in PHC facilities in the North West province, South Africa. Purposive sampling was used to select participants for the study and focus group interviews used to interview 23 operational managers. Ethical measures were applied throughout the study RESULTS: The six phases of thematic analysis were used to analyse the data collected for the study. Two themes that emerged are experiences of factors related to unfair labour practices in the PHC facilities and the perceptions regarding how to improve their working conditions. The categories that were found in the first themes were favouritism and discrimination. In the second theme, in-service training and transparency regarding staff training and development emerged. Recommendations comprised, among others, training on the concepts of equality in the workplace, and reinforcement of transparency regarding granting of study leave and attending workshops CONCLUSION: Operational managers in the PHC facilities experienced unfair labour practices as evidenced by favouritism and discrimination <![CDATA[<b>Nurse educators and student nurses' perspectives on ways to improve implementation of simulation-based education in Lesotho</b>]]> BACKGROUND: In order to ensure an effective health system, there is a need to recruit, train and deploy a competent nursing workforce. A competent workforce can be made possible by integrating simulation into the curriculum. Implementation of simulation-based education in Lesotho is facing a number of challenges as the country has limited resources. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe nurse educators and students' perspectives on ways to improve implementation of simulation-based education in Lesotho. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted. A total of 24 students, 24 nurse educators and 4 principals who were purposely selected participated in the study. Focus group discussions as one of the data collection methods were used to collect data from the nurse educators and students whilst in-depth, unstructured individual interviews were used with the principals. Data were analysed following the Corbin and Strauss grounded theory approach where similar codes were categorised together as part of open coding, and axial coding was conducted by refining the codes and organising them into categories and subcategories. RESULTS: Two categories emerged from the areas where improvement is required: resources to support simulation. Resources emerged as playing a major role in ensuring quality simulation. The teaching and learning process emerged as collaborative in nature with all key players ensuring that they meet their responsibilities in order to ensure effective simulation-based learning CONCLUSION: The study revealed that there are limited numbers of simulation facilitators and this hinders effective implementation of simulation. Students are concerned about the comments of educators during simulation, as some of the comments are belittling. <![CDATA[<b>Construct validity and reliability of the perceived stress scale for nursing students in South Africa</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Increased levels of stress in nursing students are negatively related to caring behaviours and also result in poorer job proficiency and nurses who are more inclined to leave the profession. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), developed by Sheu and colleagues, is one of the most cited instruments for measuring stress and sources of stress amongst nursing students in international studies. However, it has not been widely validated for this purpose. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to test the construct validity and reliability of the PSS for South African nursing students. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at a Central South African University, and 471 of the 685 registered nursing students (68.8% response rate) participated in the study. Questionnaires were distributed and collected during classes. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the hypothesised six-factor latent structure and determine the construct validity of the PSS. The internal consistency of the PSS was measured using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The model fit was a good fit and supported the six-factor latent structure as stress from (1) taking care of patients, (2) teachers and nursing staff, (3) assignments and workload, (4) peers and daily life, (5) lack of professional knowledge and skills and (6) clinical environment. Overall the PSS had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.93. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the construct validity and the internal consistency of the PSS for South African nursing students. <![CDATA[<b>Technology usage for teaching and learning in nursing education: An integrative review</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The increasing availability of technology devices or portable digital assistant devices continues to change the teaching-learning landscape, including technology-supported learning. Portable digital assistants and technology usage have become an integral part of teaching and learning nowadays. Cloud computing, which includes YouTube, Google Apps, Dropbox and Twitter, has become the reality of today's teaching and learning and has noticeably improved higher education, including nursing education. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this integrative literature review was to explore and describe technology usage for teaching and learning in nursing education. METHOD: A five-step integrative review framework by Whittemore and Knafl was used to attain the objective of this study. The authors searched for both empirical and non-empirical articles from EBSCOhost (health information source and health science), ScienceDirect and African Journals Online Library databases to establish what is already known about the keywords. Key terms included in literature search were coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), digital learning, online learning, nursing, teaching and learning, and technology use RESULTS: Nineteen articles were selected for analysis. The themes that emerged from this review were (1) technology use in nursing education, (2) the manner in which technology is used in nursing education, (3) antecedents for technology use in nursing education, (4) advantages of technology use in nursing education, (5) disadvantages of technology use in nursing education and (6) technology use in nursing education amidst COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Technology in nursing education is used in both clinical and classroom teaching to complement learning. However, there is still a gap in its acceptance despite its upward trend. CONTRIBUTION: The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge on the phenomenon of technology use for teaching and learning in nursing education. <![CDATA[<b>Frontline healthcare workers' experiences of providing care during the COVID-19 pandemic at a COVID-19 centre in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: A phenomenological study</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a far-reaching, negative impact on healthcare systems worldwide. Healthcare workers play a critical role in the country's healthcare delivery system, as they facilitate a continuum of care and containment of diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of healthcare workers who provided care to COVID-19 patients at a central hospital in Zimbabwe. METHOD: The researchers used an interpretative phenomenological analysis design. In-depth interviews were conducted virtually with 10 frontline healthcare workers working at a COVID-19 centre in Zimbabwe. Data collection was guided by an interview guide. All audio-recorded interview data were transcribed verbatim into written text. Data analysis was conducted using an interpretative phenomenological analysis framework. An expert in qualitative research acted as an independent co-coder and conducted the open coding of each transcript. RESULTS: Findings reveal inadequate preparation and training of healthcare providers before the commencement of duty, resources-related challenges and a lack of support as significant experiences of healthcare providers. Moreover, healthcare providers have been subjected to stigma and discrimination attached to COVID-19, resulting in psychological effects on frontline healthcare providers CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic brings unique and challenging experiences for frontline healthcare workers, resulting in a physically and emotionally drained workforce. This study calls for comprehensive support in the form of counselling, reasonable work schedules, training and adequate provision of personal protective equipment. <![CDATA[<b>Experiences of nurses practising mindfulness during self-leadership in delivering a rapid response system for general wards in a private hospital in Gauteng</b>]]> BACKGROUND: The increased complexity of the nursing care needs of patients and acuity in general wards present nursing care challenges for nurses. Self-led nurses are attentive, taking responsibility for activating the rapid response service when a patient is starting to deteriorate. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to describe nurses' experiences practising mindfulness during self-leadership in delivering a rapid response system (RRS) in a private hospital in Gauteng METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed. Homogenous purposive sampling was used and a total of eight focus groups were conducted. Focus groups durations were between 45 min and 60 min. The data analysis was carried out through open coding on Atlas.ti using the noticing things, collecting things and thinking about things (NCT) approach. An independent coder met with the researcher during a consensus meeting and finalised the analysis. RESULTS: The findings indicated an underlying theme of nurses being mindful in their self-leadership through the development of self-motivation and self-direction in the RRS. Three categories with six subcategories emerged from the data analysis, namely self-motivation in an RRS by the team, self-direction through role-modelling to peers and training. CONCLUSION: Nurses practised mindfulness during self-leadership, utilising behavioural and natural reward approaches and constructive thought patterns. These findings could assist management with developing training programmes for nurses. <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions of nurses on occupational health hazards and safety practices in Ditsobotla public hospitals in North West province</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Nurses are the backbone of the healthcare system. During the fulfilment of their duties and responsibilities, they experience various types of work-related risks, which harmfully affect their health and nursing quality. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore and describe perceptions of nurses on occupational health hazards and safety practices in Ditsobotla public hospitals of North West province. METHOD: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative research design was undertaken in this study. An explorative design allowed the researcher to identify key issues regarding nurses' perceptions on occupational health hazards and safety practices using Donabedian structure, process and outcome. A total of 15 nurses of different categories participated in the study that formed four focus group discussions. Semi-structured focus group discussions of three to four participants were conducted until data saturation is obtained and at the point where no new themes from participants' perceptions emerged. Creswell and Clark framework of data analysis was used to analyse data. RESULTS: Three major categories emerged during data analysis: nurse's perception on occupational health hazards in the health settings, Donabedian framework on assessing the quality of care in relation to occupational health hazards and occupational health and safety (OHS) practices. Eight themes were identified. CONCLUSION: Nurses' perceived different occupational hazards that affect their normal duties and responsibility in the workplace. Future interventions such as training and education on OHS policy should be adopted to promote health and well-being of the staff. <![CDATA[<b>The lived experiences of mothers who have children with congenital abnormalities in the Gert Sibande district</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Mothers are regarded as primary care givers. The experience of having a child with congenital abnormality may have an impact on their psychological well-being. It was observed that the psychological well-being of mothers is often unattended by health professionals, including nurses and their families. Mothers make adjustments in their daily lives to ensure the child's activities of daily living are attended. Therefore, this raises the need for the experience of mothers who have children with congenital abnormalities in the Gert Sibande district to be explored. Gert Sibande was chosen because it has been observed that several mothers who visit the clinic and outpatient department have children with congenital abnormalities. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers who have children with congenital abnormalities. METHOD: A phenomenological study was conducted. Purposive sampling of 12 participants was done. The study used adjusted ecological model of health for guidance. Data gathering was done by self-report using unstructured face-to-face interviews until data saturation was reached. RESULTS: Five themes emerged from the study, which include 'being hurt emotionally', 'sense of guilt', 'acceptance', 'support from family' and 'community reaction to the congenital abnormality'. The findings show that mothers were affected by having children with congenital abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that mothers of children with congenital abnormalities experienced devastation, denial, guilt and lack of acceptance of their child's condition. The study indicates that mothers require support from health care professionals, family and the community.