Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Curationis]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2223-627920190001&lang=en vol. 42 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Promoting experiential learning through the use of high-fidelity human patient simulators in midwifery: A qualitative study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The need to use innovative teaching and learning strategies in the nursing pedagogy is important in the 21st century. The challenges of clinical sites and opportunities for nursing students to gain clinical experience are a growing concern for many nurse educators. High-fidelity human patient simulators (HFHPS) are computerised mannequins that replicate a real-life patient, and when integrated into classroom teaching they allow students to become fully immersed into an almost real-life scenario. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe how HFHPS can promote experiential learning following the management of postpartum haemorrhage as a midwifery clinical emergency. METHOD: A descriptive qualitative research approach was carried out in this study. The research setting was a local university in KwaZulu-Natal. The total population included all (N = 43) fourth-year baccalaureate of nursing undergraduate student midwives who participated as observers and/or role-players of a scenario role-play. An all-inclusive sampling was performed. There were 43 student midwives involved in the simulation teaching session with 6 of these students actively participating in each role-play at a time, while the remaining 37 observed. This occurred in two separate sessions and all the student midwives were involved in a debriefing session. These student midwives were then followed up and asked to participate in a focus group. The data in this article came from two separate focus groups which comprised 20 student midwives in total. Data were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Four categories emerged from the data, namely HFHPS offers a unique opportunity for student midwives to manage complex real-life emergencies; promotes reflection by allowing student midwives to reflect or review their roles, decisions and skills; allows student midwives to learn from their own experiences and encourages student midwives to try out what they learnt in a real-life situation CONCLUSION: High-fidelity human patient simulators can be used in a complex case scenario to promote experiential learning of a clinical emergency. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges of primary healthcare nurses regarding the integration of HIV and AIDS services into primary healthcare in Vhembe district of Limpopo province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Integration of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS) services into primary healthcare (PHC) is a key public health approach to achieving universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite the government's efforts of integrating HIV services into PHC, an insufficient number of PHC staff and inadequate infrastructure are challenging when integrating HIV and AIDS services into PHC. This study explored the challenges of PHC nurses regarding the integration of HIV and AIDS services into PHC. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the challenges of PHC nurses regarding the integration of HIV and AIDS services into PHC. METHOD: An exploratory, descriptive and contextual qualitative research design utilising face-to-face semi-structured interviews was conducted with 12 PHC nurses from selected clinics and health centres in the Vhembe district of Limpopo province. RESULTS: Two main themes emerged from data analysis which included challenges related to healthcare recipients and challenges related to healthcare providers. CONCLUSION: Clear policies on the integration of HIV and AIDS services into PHC should be available and should include strategies to promote HIV testing and counselling, adherence to ART and scheduled appointments, disclosure of HIV status as well as revising the human resource policy to reduce workload. <![CDATA[<b>Compliance to the Integrated School Health Policy: Intersectoral and multisectoral collaboration</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Implementation of the Integrated School Health Policy (ISHP) requires strong intersectoral collaboration on the part of key role players such as the Department of Health, Department of Basic Education and Department of Social Development. These departments and educational structures such as school governing bodies, teacher unions and learner organisations, academic institutions, civil society and development partner organisations are also expected to contribute to the development of sustainable and comprehensive school health programmes. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the compliance of the schools in the City of Tshwane to the ISHP in 2015. METHOD: A quantitative, explorative and descriptive study was conducted in the City of Tshwane using a questionnaire to determine the extent of compliance to the application of the ISHP in selected schools. RESULTS: The results indicated a widespread non-compliance to ISHP programmes. There was insufficient stakeholder integration in the school health programmes at schools in the City of Tshwane. CONCLUSION: The lack of collaboration with relevant stakeholders in school health service delivery will lead to a fragmented, uncoordinated and unsustainable approach to the execution of ISHP programmes. This might result in delayed or no detection and intervention in cases of, among others, mental, psychosocial and health challenges to learning, as well as development of nutrition-related conditions. <![CDATA[<b>Nurses' attitudes towards the implementation of the Mother-Baby Friendly Initiative in selected primary healthcare facilities at Makhuduthamaga Municipality, Limpopo province</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The implementation of the Mother-Baby Friendly Initiative (MBFI) strategy demonstrated its capabilities to improve global children's health and maternal survival. However, its implementation in primary healthcare (PHC) facilities remains a challenge as many nurses are reluctant to adopt it for the improvement of child and maternal healthcare services in their respective clinics. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the implementation of the MBFI in selected PHC facilities in the Makhuduthamaga Municipality, Limpopo province. METHOD: This study used a quantitative, descriptive design, and all respondents were conveniently sampled. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. One-hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were distributed, and 153 nurses responded and completed the questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23 was used to analyse data. RESULTS: Results show that the majority of nurses (professional nurses [PNs] = 65, 78%; enrolled nurses [ENs] = 18, 72%; enrolled nursing auxiliaries [ENAs] = 23, 51%) had a positive attitude towards the MBFI strategy implementation as they agreed that it increased breastfeeding rates. Most PNs (n = 58, 70%) and ENs (n = 15, 60%) showed positive attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) as they agreed that it was the ideal feeding option for any child, and most ENAs (n = 38, 84%) showed a negative attitude as they disagreed that EBF was the ideal feeding option for any child. CONCLUSION: In this study, most PNs and ENs had a positive attitude in all the aspects that determined their attitudes towards MBFI strategy implementation. A concern is the fact that most ENAs showed negative attitudes in almost all the statements that were in line with the principles of MBFI, as they disagreed in most aspects. Therefore, this study recommends that on-going orientation and trainings should be offered to all nurses including ENAs to equip them with information that can assist in changing their attitudes towards MBFI implementation in PHC facilities. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges experienced by health care professionals working in resource-poor intensive care settings in the Limpopo province of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Providing optimal care to critically ill patients poses challenges in resource-poor settings because of the lack of equipment, inadequately trained personnel and limited infrastructure. OBJECTIVES: This study explored challenges experienced by health care professionals working in resource-poor intensive care units. METHOD: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive design was used. The population comprised nurses and doctors working in an intensive care unit of one hospital in the Limpopo province of South Africa. A purposive sample was selected and 17 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using Tesch's method. Ethical considerations were adhered to. RESULTS: Participants experienced challenges related to provision of suboptimal patient care, the challenge of non-adherence to protocols and/or instructions and the challenge of practising beyond the scope of practice. CONCLUSION: Lack of resources resulted in providing suboptimal intensive patient care. Patients were prone to infections and their safety might be compromised. <![CDATA[<b>A retrospective audit of nursing-related morbidity recorded in a state hospital in KwaZulu-Natal</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Health care professionals are expected to deliver safe and effective health services; however there is increased realisation that adverse events in the health system are a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a retrospective audit of nursing-related morbidities in a state hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHOD: A retrospective audit of nursing-related morbidities documented by the surgical service was carried out using the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry data for a period of 3 years - 01 November 2013 to 31 October 2016. RESULTS: There were a total of 12 444 admissions to surgical service during the study period, with 461 nursing-related morbidities reported. There was an increase in the number of documented nursing-related morbidities noted during November 2015 to October 2016, with 79% of all reported nursing-related morbidities documented during this period. A total of 54% of nursing-related morbidities were associated with males (n = 248) and 46% (n = 213) with females. The most commonly documented nursing-related morbidity was drugs/medication (n = 167, 36%) with the second most common being adjunct management (n = 130, 28%). CONCLUSION: The study has identified the most commonly documented nursing-related morbidities in the surgical service of a state hospital. The findings of the study could provide direction for further research and educational initiatives. <![CDATA[<b>Student nurses' perceptions of their educational environment at a school of nursing in Western Cape province, South Africa: A cross-sectional study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Educational environments have been found to bear a substantial relationship with the academic performance and success, as well as the retention, of students. OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to (1) evaluate the educational environment as perceived by undergraduate nursing students at a school of nursing (SON) in Western Cape province and (2) investigate whether the educational environment, or components thereof, is perceived negatively or positively among undergraduate nursing students of different year level, gender, home language and ethnicity. METHOD: A quantitative research method with a cross-sectional design was implemented. Data were collected from 232 undergraduate nursing students from a SON at a university in Western Cape province, South Africa. The subscales and the items of the educational environment questionnaire were compared among undergraduate nursing students. Data were analysed by means of the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS-24) using analysis of variances (ANOVAs), independent-sample t-tests, mean scores, standard deviations and percentages RESULTS: The mean score attained for the entire participant group was 195 (standard deviation [SD] = 24.2) out of 268 (equivalent to 72.8% of maximum score), which indicated that the educational environment was perceived substantially more positively than negatively. The overall mean score was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for male students (M = 202; SD = 21) and for black students (M = 202; SD = 21). The digital resources (DR) subscale was the only subscale with a statement or item that was rated as absolute negative (M = 1.9; SD = 0.9). CONCLUSION: The educational environment at the institution concerned was perceived as predominantly positive by its undergraduate nursing students. Although the educational environment was predominantly perceived as positive, the results of this study also indicated that enhancements are required to improve the physical classroom conditions, skills laboratories, DR and the implemented teaching and learning strategies. It is vital for university management to prioritise the creation of an educational environment which would ensure that quality learning takes place. <![CDATA[<b>Recommendations to facilitate managers' compliance with quality standards at primary health care clinics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is shifting towards universal health coverage and a unified health system. This milestone can be achieved through the implementation of National Health Insurance (NHI). To employ NHI, health establishments in the country are compelled to comply with quality standards. The non-compliance with quality standards at primary health care (PHC) clinics within a district in Gauteng, which was verified by quality standards' audit reports, prompted an intervention. No prior research aimed at facilitating managers' compliance with quality standards has been conducted within the context under study. This research gap necessitated an exploration on how managers' compliance to quality standards at PHC clinics within a district in Gauteng could best be facilitated. OBJECTIVES: To describe recommendations to facilitate managers' compliance with quality standards at PHC clinics within a district in Gauteng. METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used in this study. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted. RESULTS: The recommendations to facilitate managers' compliance with quality standards at PHC clinics within a district in Gauteng were described. However, for the purpose of this article, only the recommendations seeking to address challenges with management practices as a reason for non-compliance with quality standards at PHC clinics will be discussed. These recommendations include involvement of PHC clinic managers in decision-making, adequate support from senior management and improvement of internal communication practices. CONCLUSION: The researcher concludes that the senior management team in the district under study should strive to embrace the described recommendations as a strategy to facilitate managers' compliance to quality standards at PHC clinics. <![CDATA[<b>Clinical supervision and support: Perspectives of undergraduate nursing students on their clinical learning environment in Malawi</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The nurse educators' role in clinical learning is to define the necessary prerequisites of an ideal clinical learning environment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the Kamuzu College of Nursing (KCN) undergraduate nursing students' perspectives on clinical supervision and support in their clinical learning environment and their preferences in the clinical learning environment. METHOD: A mixed method research approach was used to explore and describe clinical supervision from the students' perspectives on the features of their actual and preferred clinical learning environment. The study's population comprised all third- and fourth-year undergraduate nursing students (n = 219). A sample (n = 125) was randomly selected from the population for the quantitative survey of which 120 questionnaires (96%) were valid for analysis. The data collection for qualitative arm of the study comprised interviews conducted through purposive sampling interviewing 20 participants. Survey results were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (Version 16) and the qualitative data were analysed using the content analysis approach where themes were generated. RESULTS: The study found that the participants were not satisfied with clinical supervision and support during clinical learning. The participants preferred improved clinical supervision and support in their clinical learning. Comparing the difference between actual and the preferred items of supervision the results were statistically significant at p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: There is a need to improve students' clinical supervision and support at KCN. Nurse educators need to plan for clinical supervision and support effectively to promote proficient nursing graduates. <![CDATA[<b>Positioning public nursing colleges in South African higher education: Stakeholders' perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Public nursing colleges (PNCs) are currently redeploying from provincial departments of health to higher education to become part of a unified higher education system in South Africa. As primary producers of nurses, this migration process needs to be managed carefully, with stakeholders having a common understanding of this process. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the stakeholders' perspectives on the positioning of PNCs in higher education. METHOD: The study followed a qualitative grounded theory design. Purposive and theoretical sampling were utilised to achieve a sample size of 40 participants, including representatives from the Department of Higher Education and Training; professional associates; nursing educators; student leaders; nursing leaders; and nurses from the healthcare setting. Data were collected through observations, interviews and document analysis. RESULTS: It emerged from the study that the integration of PNCs into higher education is a result of the country's political and legal context. A number of policy and legal frameworks emerged as contextual conditions that provided a basis for the change. The integration of PNCs into higher education was conceptualised as a functional shift in the governance of colleges; a political tool to transform nursing education; a means to enhance the quality of college-based nursing programmes, and a vehicle for the greater professionalisation of nursing. Conflicting legislation and funding emerged as two issues of concern. CONCLUSION: Integrating PNCs with higher education came about because of political changes and the resolution of the ruling party to improve the quality of graduates produced, who will in turn improve the quality of healthcare service delivery offered. <![CDATA[<b>An exploration into the quality of life of women treated for cervical cancer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer mainly occurs among women from the developing world, and women face unique challenges in terms of their disease and treatment. Most women present with advanced cervical cancer and receive the standard curative treatment with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the quality of life (QOL) of women treated for cervical cancer during treatment (M0), at 6 months after completing treatment (M6) and at 12 months after treatment (M12 METHODS: A cross-sectional design, calculated sample size (n = 153) and convenience sampling were used. Data were collected through structured interviews, and the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ CX24 served as data collection instruments. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare the mean responses across the groups (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 50.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 11.9). The global health status improved significantly in contrast with the functional scores. Financial difficulties were rampant, especially during the treatment phase. Insomnia and urinary frequency were the most cumbersome problems and remained so even after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an improvement in the global health, cervical cancer and its treatment had a negative influence on the QOL in all domains of lives of these women. Assessing the QOL of patients during treatment and follow-up visits would allow nurses to develop interventions to address distressing problems timeously. In addition, Africa's nurses should assess social functioning and develop programmes to prevent social dysfunction. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges of quality improvement in the healthcare of South Africa post-apartheid: A critical review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: There is overwhelming evidence that the quality of health care in South Africa has been compromised by various challenges that impact negatively on healthcare quality. Improvement in quality care means fewer errors, reduced delays in care delivery, improvement in efficiency, increased market share and lower cost. Decline in quality health care has caused the public to lose trust in the healthcare system in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify challenges that are being incurred in practice that compromise quality in the healthcare sector, including strategies employed by government to improve the quality of health delivery. METHOD: Literature search included the following computer-assisted databases and bibliographies: Medline (Medical Literature Online), EBSCOhost, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect. Furthermore, websites were used to source policy documents of organisations such as the National Department of Health in South Africa and the World Health Organization. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles were selected from 1366 retrieved. These articles quantify problems facing quality care delivery and strategies used to improve the healthcare system in South Africa. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that there were many quality improvement programmes that had been initiated, adapted, modified and then tested but did not produce the required level of quality service delivery as desired. As a result, the Government of South Africa has a challenge to ensure that implementation of National Core Standards will deliver the desired health outcomes, because achieving a lasting quality improvement system in health care seems to be an arduous challenge. <![CDATA[<b>Educational challenges as experienced by pregnant student nurses at a college in Mpumalanga</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Student nurses at a college in Mpumalanga fall pregnant before they complete their training, and some commence training while pregnant and face educational challenges in both theoretical and clinical learning areas. It becomes impossible for them to complete their training on time OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to explore and describe educational challenges as experienced by pregnant student nurses at a college in Mpumalanga and to formulate recommendations that can be used by the college and pregnant student nurses to address their educational challenges METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Ten student nurses were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by means of in-depth unstructured individual phenomenological interviews between September and November 2016. Data were analysed using Giorgi's qualitative thematic analysis method RESULTS: The central theme that emerged from this study confirmed that pregnant student nurses experienced educational challenges negatively. Four main themes that emerged were academic challenges, failure to write examinations, support system and maternity leave. These findings had a negative impact on their education CONCLUSION: There is a need for the college to minimise the identified educational challenges to promote completion of training on time <![CDATA[<b>Bachelor of Nursing students' HIV and AIDS knowledge in KwaZulu-Natal province: An evaluation study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Currently, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS) education and training in nursing suffer from various inadequacies and lack any real formalisation in their governance. As a result, Bachelor of Nursing students find themselves challenged in providing effective HIV and AIDS healthcare management, largely because of the deficit in training identified. An HIV and AIDS education intervention programme was introduced at a selected KwaZulu-Natal university to assist in bridging the perceived knowledge gap. This article communicates programme evaluation findings OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to determine levels of HIV knowledge achieved following an HIV education intervention programme METHODS: A pure, descriptive quantitative research design was employed, using total population sampling (N = 133). A modified G3658-11 Collecting Evaluation Data: End-of-Session Questionnaire, developed by the University of Wisconsin-Extension, was administered for data collection RESULTS: Females predominated in the study, and most participants were African with 1 to 3 years of education programme exposure. Perceived HIV knowledge increase was evident: pathophysiology (n = 93, 70.2%); immunology (n = 97, 72.9%); transmission (n = 116, 87.5%); diagnosis (n = 109, 81.8%); prevention strategies (n = 118, 88.4%); staging and monitoring (n = 106, 80%); pre- and post-test counselling (n = 104, 78% CONCLUSION: Pre- and ongoing in-service HIV and AIDS training can improve perceived HIV knowledge levels for both nursing students and professionals. Mandatory HIV and AIDS healthcare management training is therefore recommended in planning for its effective impartation by nursing educators <![CDATA[<b>Use of scenarios to explore conflict management practices of nurse unit managers in public hospitals</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Workplace conflict is common among nurses globally. Learning how to manage it may reduce related adverse consequences. Inappropriate management of conflict is attributed to decreased productivity, poor morale and financial loss for organisations. Nurse unit managers can play a key role by effectively managing workplace conflict in the units OBJECTIVES: To explore how nurse unit managers manage conflict in public hospitals and subsequently to make recommendations on how to optimise conflict management skills of nurse unit managers METHOD: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was conducted to explore how nurse unit managers managed conflict based on a scenario provided to them. Purposive sampling was used to select nurse unit managers working in three public hospitals. Eleven nurse unit managers participated in the study. Data were collected in two phases. In phase 1, a conflict scenario was developed in consultation with experienced nurse managers. The conflict scenario was used during phase 2, which involved individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurse unit managers until data saturation. Tesch's method of thematic synthesis was used to analyse the data. Literature review was undertaken to ascertain what is considered as an appropriate intervention in conflict management RESULTS: Three themes emanated from data analysis: nurse unit managers managed conflict appropriately, nurse unit managers avoided the conflict and nurse unit managers managed conflict inappropriately CONCLUSION: While some of the nurse unit managers managed conflict appropriately, additional and continuous education and training is required to optimise the capacity and develop their conflict management competency. The findings could be integrated into orientation, training and preparation of nurse managers by health care organisations and educational institutions <![CDATA[<b>Use of scenarios to explore conflict management practices of nurse unit managers in public hospitals</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Workplace conflict is common among nurses globally. Learning how to manage it may reduce related adverse consequences. Inappropriate management of conflict is attributed to decreased productivity, poor morale and financial loss for organisations. Nurse unit managers can play a key role by effectively managing workplace conflict in the units OBJECTIVES: To explore how nurse unit managers manage conflict in public hospitals and subsequently to make recommendations on how to optimise conflict management skills of nurse unit managers METHOD: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was conducted to explore how nurse unit managers managed conflict based on a scenario provided to them. Purposive sampling was used to select nurse unit managers working in three public hospitals. Eleven nurse unit managers participated in the study. Data were collected in two phases. In phase 1, a conflict scenario was developed in consultation with experienced nurse managers. The conflict scenario was used during phase 2, which involved individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurse unit managers until data saturation. Tesch's method of thematic synthesis was used to analyse the data. Literature review was undertaken to ascertain what is considered as an appropriate intervention in conflict management RESULTS: Three themes emanated from data analysis: nurse unit managers managed conflict appropriately, nurse unit managers avoided the conflict and nurse unit managers managed conflict inappropriately CONCLUSION: While some of the nurse unit managers managed conflict appropriately, additional and continuous education and training is required to optimise the capacity and develop their conflict management competency. The findings could be integrated into orientation, training and preparation of nurse managers by health care organisations and educational institutions <![CDATA[<b>Nurses' practice of integration of HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health services in Ntcheu District, Malawi</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Nurses play a critical role in their practice of integrating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and sexual and reproductive services to combat the spread of HIV and promote family planning in resource-constrained countries like Malawi OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine and describe the nurses' practice of integration of HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services as a strategy to effectively combat the spread of HIV and promote family planning in Malawi METHODS: A descriptive qualitative case study was used. The research question was: How do nurses practise the integration of family planning and HIV prevention services in Ntcheu District, Malawi? Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews from a sample of 10 participants. Manual data analysis, using the five steps for interpretive content analysis, was used to analyse data RESULTS: Five themes were identified as (1) facilitation of access and acceptability of comprehensive HIV and family planning services, (2) educating and counselling patients, (3) early detection of HIV among women of child-bearing age, (4) professional benefits of integrating family planning and HIV prevention services and (5) resentment of integration of family planning and HIV prevention services CONCLUSION: The nurses' practice of integration of HIV prevention and SRH services has more benefits for both nurses and patients as a strategy to combat the spread of HIV and promote family planning in a resource-constrained country like Malawi <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions of midwives on shortage and retention of staff at a public hospital in Tshwane District</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Midwifery is the backbone of women and child healthcare. The shortage of staff in maternity units is a crisis faced by many countries worldwide, including South Africa OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the perceptions of midwives on the shortage and retention of staff at a public institution METHOD: The study was conducted at one of the tertiary hospitals in Tshwane District, Gauteng Province. A total of 11 midwives were interviewed through face-to-face and focus group interviews. An explorative, descriptive generic qualitative design method was followed, and a non-probability, purposive sampling technique was used. Thematic coding analysis was followed for analysing data RESULTS: The impact of shortage of midwives was reported to be directly related to poor provision of quality care as a result of increased workload, leading to low morale and burnout. The compromised autonomy of midwives in the high obstetrics dependency units devalues the status of midwives CONCLUSION: Midwives are passionate about their job, despite the hurdles related to their day-to-day work environment. They are demoralised by chronic shortage of staff and feel overworked. Staff involvement in decision-making processes is a motivational factor for midwives to stay in the profession. The midwives need to be in the centre of the decision-making processes related to their profession. The revision of the scope of practice and classification of midwifery profession away from general nursing complex by the South African Nursing Council (SANC) could place midwifery in its rightful status <![CDATA[<b>Experiences of auxiliary nursing trainees of poverty alleviation programme regarding nursing and nursing profession in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The Limpopo Department of Health and Social Development introduced a system to train children from poor families as auxiliary nurses as a poverty alleviation strategy in 2003. The programme targeted the needy families, those who depended on social grants, orphaned or child-headed families. The programme has been implemented for more than 10 years and the experiences of trainees were never explored OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of auxiliary nurse trainees of the poverty alleviation programme regarding nursing and the nursing profession METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. Purposive sampling was used to sample 15 auxiliary nurses who were trained under poverty alleviation programme in four of the seven hospitals of Vhembe District. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews. One central question 'As a beneficiary of poverty alleviation programme, could you describe your experiences of training as a nurse and of the nursing profession in this hospital'. Data were collected until no new information emerged. Note taking and a voice recording was performed to capture all the information reported by the participants. Open coding method was used to analyse data RESULTS: Two themes emerged, namely experiences of being a nurse and about nursing as a profession, and interpersonal relationships between auxiliary nurses and the ward staff CONCLUSIONS: The Department of Health in Limpopo Province was commended and to be encouraged to develop other programmes as poverty alleviation strategy for other government departments, so that the affected children can have a wider career choice. The managers and supervisors in the wards to have moral and legal obligations to support initiatives that foster effective mentoring of neophyte nurses in the nursing profession <![CDATA[<b>Resilience of auxiliary nurses providing nursing care to patients with intellectual disabilities at a public mental healthcare institution</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Although mental health is regarded by the International Council of Nurses as a very important element of wellness, healthcare to patients with intellectual disabilities still remains neglected and under-resourced in most societies. Auxiliary nurses are crucial in providing nursing care to patients with intellectual disabilities. These nurses may not be prepared to handle challenges in providing nursing care to these patients, but their resilience can help them to manage these challenges. Limited research is available with regard to the resilience of auxiliary nurses providing nursing care to patients with intellectual disabilities. OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the perceptions of auxiliary nurses providing nursing care to patients with intellectual disabilities on their resilience and protective mechanisms and vulnerability factors that influence their resilience when providing nursing care to these patients. METHOD: A qualitative, descriptive inquiry approach was used. The population comprised approximately 220 auxiliary nurses providing nursing care to patients with intellectual disabilities at a mental healthcare institution. Auxiliary nurses were selected through purposive sampling with the assistance of a mediator. The sample size was determined by data saturation. The data were collected through four focus group interviews with altogether 32 participants. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged from the data. Practical wisdom was applied by the participants. They also made use of different forms of interactions, including the application of strategies such as utilising induction programmes and being willing to learn, in order to remain resilient. Protective mechanisms and vulnerability factors influence their resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations to strengthen the resilience of auxiliary nurses caring for patients with intellectual disabilities were formulated from the research findings, including recommendations for nursing practice, education and nursing research. Informal peer support, as well as addressing ethical issues, improving nurse-patient communication, training to handle adverse working conditions, and continuing education and further research on the practical wisdom of auxiliary nurses, is recommended. <![CDATA[<b>Nurse graduates' experiences and support needs: A qualitative systematic review of South Africa's community service programme</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The student-to-nurse graduate transition is a pivotal phase in the professional development of nurses. In South Africa, this transition is part of a compulsory community service programme, which requires newly graduated nurses to work in rural and/or underserved areas for a period of 1 year OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review nurse graduates' experiences and support needs during their transition in the compulsory community service programme METHODS: A qualitative systematic review of experiences was conducted. Qualitative research studies that addressed nurses' experience in South Africa (2008-2017) were identified in Cochrane, Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PubMed, SABINET, Science Direct, SCOPUS and Google Scholar databases. The systematic review methods included searching, sifting, abstracting and quality assessment of relevant qualitative studies by two reviewers and cross-checking by a third reviewer. Two reviewers independently performed blinded data extraction and quality assessment using the confidence in qualitative synthesis findings (ConQual) approach RESULTS: A total of 1257 studies were identified of which 12 met the inclusion criteria. Seven of the 12 studies were published articles and six were theses. The quality of the studies was found to be of high standard based on the ConQual rating. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) rich developmental experiences through practice exposure, (2) difficulties in reconciling theory and practice, (3) contextual challenges in the workplace and (4) need for professional support structures, educational measures and public guidelines CONCLUSION: Although positive experiences were reported, various challenges emerged, indicating the need for more systematic support mechanisms during transition <![CDATA[<b>Challenges affecting the implementation of the Policy on Integration of Mental Health Care into primary healthcare in KwaZulu-Natal province</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Since the publication of the White Paper for the Transformation of the Health System in South Africa in 1997, which included Policy on Integration of Mental Health Care into primary health care (PHC), there has been an emphasis on the promotion of health as well as the re-engineering of PHC to include the integration of mental health care into PHC. Although South Africa has made significant advances at the level of health-related policy development and legislation in trying to bring the country in line with international trends, there have been challenges with regard to implementation of policies, including that of integration of mental health care into PHC OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the challenges affecting the implementation of the Policy on Integration of Mental Health Care into PHC in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province of South Africa and to seek possible solutions METHOD: A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used to determine the challenges affecting the implementation of the Policy on Integration of Mental Health Care into PHC in KZN. The sample consisted of 42 participants of whom 4 were PHC managers, 6 were operational managers and 22 were professional nurses who were directly involved in implementing the policy at the operational level RESULTS: The challenges identified included lack of training in mental healthcare services for staff working in PHC, unavailability of mental health policies, inadequate resources, poor communication between management and staff, lack of skills among PHC nurses in identifying signs of mental illness and misdiagnosis of patients CONCLUSION: Considering the challenges pertaining to PHC nurses' abilities and skills to implement the Policy on Integration of Mental Health Care into PHC, PHC-trained nurses should engage in lifelong learning and be encouraged to develop their knowledge, skills and competence throughout their professional lives <![CDATA[<b>Factors influencing high absenteeism rate of student nurses in clinical areas at a nursing college in the Lejweleputswa District</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Student nurse attendance during training is mandatory, and the South African Nursing Council (SANC) stipulates that students must attend 80% of hours for both theory and practice during their training. Unauthorised student nurse absenteeism, especially in the clinical areas, has become an increasing problem in nursing education institutions and in the universities. This study explored student absenteeism with the aim of generating solutions that are specifically relevant to the context of the Free State College of Nursing. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to describe perceived personal reasons and reasons related to clinical areas that contribute to student nurses' absenteeism from the clinical areas and to explore the relationship between demographic data and reasons for absenteeism. METHOD: A quantitative research design with descriptive and exploratory strategies was used. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0. One hundred and fifty-two student nurses were sampled after permission to conduct the study was requested and obtained. RESULTS: The results showed that 72.4% of respondents agreed that students are absent because of physical illness. The majority of students (97.3%) at the selected campus are absent from clinical areas because they are covering staff shortages. The findings showed no particular relationship between gender and absenteeism as absenteeism was present throughout. CONCLUSION: Student nurses at a selected campus are generally absent at the clinical areas because they are physically ill and are funded for studying but not paid for working. It was recommended that accurate records of attendance should be kept and absenteeism rates be calculated at frequent intervals. <![CDATA[<b>Reproductive health outcomes: Insights from experts and verbal autopsies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Reproductive health outcomes are a measure of maternal and neonatal health. South Africa's state of maternal health is of particular concern because of the two Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets for monitoring maternal health, namely MDG 5a, to reduce the maternal mortality rate by three-quarters, and MDG 5b, to achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015. Maternal mortality ratio and universal access to reproductive health receive unequal responsiveness from government. Monitoring the maternal mortality ratio has received favourable attention compared to ensuring universal access to reproductive health, hence the limited published research findings on the latterOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to report on the insights from reproductive health experts and verbal autopsies on the determinants of poor reproductive health outcomesMETHOD: Individual interviews with a purposively selected sample of six reproductive health experts were conducted, augmented by verbal autopsies of 12 next of kin of women and newborn babies who died within the previous 2 years period of the study. Burnard's (1995) approach of content analysis was used to analyse the dataRESULTS: The findings revealed lack of empowerment, inaccessible reproductive health services and separation of patients living with human immune deficiency virus and those patients diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndromeCONCLUSION: To meet the reproductive health needs, especially of the rural population, urgent attention is needed to reduce their vulnerability to the risks of poor reproductive outcomes <![CDATA[<b>Lived experiences of couples in a relationship where one partner is diagnosed with a mental illness</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: A partner with mental illness can be challenging in a couple's relationship. Mental illness brings about disintegration in the relationship because the partner without mental illness takes on more responsibilities than before. The partner without mental illness can be subjected to multiple risks, including stress and burden of care. The lived experiences of couples in a relationship where one partner is diagnosed with a mental illness is an under-researched area of mental healthOBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the lived experiences of couples in a relationship where one partner is diagnosed with a mental illnessMETHOD: A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory and contextual research design was utilised. A purposive sampling method was used to sample participants for this study. Five couples, where one partner was diagnosed with a mental illness, participated in the study. Ten in-depth, individual, phenomenological interviews were conducted to provide rich descriptions of the couples' experiences. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. An independent coder assisted with the data analysis. A consensus discussion was held between the independent coder and the interviewing researcher to agree on the identified themesRESULTS: Four themes with categories emerged from the data analysis: couples experienced changed social roles in their relationship, emotional upheaval was experienced by the individual partners in the couple relationship, interpersonal distance was experienced in the couple's relationship and a changed relationship with the self was experienced by the individual partners in the couple relationshipCONCLUSION: The results concluded that couples experienced that the presence of mental illness in their relationship adversely affects the relationship, thus emphasising the need to empower the couples dealing with challenges of being in a relationship where one partner is diagnosed with a mental illness <![CDATA[<b>Experiences of family caregivers of persons living with mental illness: A meta-synthesis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Meta-synthesis is used to generate and understand new insights from a qualitative perspective. Caregiving is associated with a range of physical and psychological symptoms. Caregivers bear the brunt of caregiving and this has become worse since the inception of de-institutionalisation, as more patients are discharged into the community under the care of their familiesOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to synthesise phenomenological qualitative studies and create a comprehensive chronicle of phenomena of family caregivers' experiences of caring for relatives living with mental illnessMETHOD: Google Scholar and different electronic databases, which included CINAHL, MEDLINE, EBSCO and PubMed, were searched using keywords for relevant studies published from 1994 to 2014. To obtain an in-depth view of caregivers' lived experiences, a qualitative meta-synthesis was employed to review the findings of 10 studiesRESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included in the meta-synthesis. The family caregivers described their caregiving experiences under four themes: perceived responsibility of caregiving, experiences of emotional effect, experiences of support needs and experiences of changed perspectiveCONCLUSION: The meta-synthesis revealed a lack of emotional coping among the family caregivers. This calls for robust family caregiver interventions to facilitate their mental health <![CDATA[<b>Coping strategies of mothers with preterm babies admitted in a public hospital in Cape Town</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Most pregnancies run a normal course, ending in a healthy mother-infant relationship, but sometimes, it can also be a life-threatening and stressful condition. The stress levels of mothers are more aggravated when they deliver preterm babiesOBJECTIVES: To explore the coping strategies of mothers of preterm babies with the stress of preterm delivery and subsequent admission of the preterm neonate to a neonatal care unitMETHOD: A qualitative research approach applying an exploratory and descriptive design was applied to explore the coping strategies of mothers with preterm babies admitted in a neonatal care unit. The study applied a purposive sampling technique to select mothers with preterm babies. The population for this study included women who delivered preterm babies and whose babies were admitted in the neonatal care unit at a public hospital in Cape Town. Semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached, and 11 mothers with preterm babies in the selected public hospital participated in the study. Data were analysed manually using thematic content analysis with an inductive approachRESULTS: Results were deductively interpreted and supported by the Brief COPE model. The main themes that emerged from data analysis included praying, attachment with baby and acceptance of the situation. Under praying the following subthemes emerged, namely praying for God's strength, God's grace, babies' survival and thanksgiving to God for babies' health and preferred gender. The theme of attachment with the baby emerged with the following subthemes: bonding with the baby and seeing the baby. The last theme that was acceptance of the situation emerged with the following subtheme: perseverance in the situation and mother's awareness of her responsibilityCONCLUSION: Even though the mothers of preterm babies cope differently after delivery, their coping abilities, which included praying, attachment to baby and acceptance of the situation, were greatly determined by the condition of their babies as well as the support they receive from significant others <![CDATA[<b>Difficulties of unit managers in selected district hospitals in Cameroon</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Being appointed to a managerial position because of one's clinical skills seems to be prestigious, even powerful. However, being a unit manager in a resource-constrained district hospital can be a daunting task. Also, managing a ward unit with no previous training in leadership and management can be very challengingOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the difficulties, in the day-to-day activities, of unit managers in selected Cameroonian district hospitalsMETHOD: A constructionist, descriptive Husserlian phenomenological inquiry was conducted to describe the difficulties of unit managers in two district hospitals. Ten unit managers were selected through a purposive sampling scheme, and then interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Coliazzi's qualitative data analysis method was used for analysisRESULTS: This study revealed that unit managers looked for assistance because it is not easy to be in their position. Their role implied facing difficulties and making sacrifices for something that is not even worth the trouble. Therefore, as a way to overcome their difficulties, they asked for assistance from the organisation, from their families and from God as strategies to face their difficultiesCONCLUSION: The difficulties faced by unit managers in the selected district hospitals revealed the need to prepare nurses for managerial positions by ensuring they are trained as managers before commencing employment as a manager <![CDATA[<b>Professionalism experiences of undergraduate learner nurses during their 4-year training programme at a Higher Education Institution in the Western Cape, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792019000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Professional socialisation of student nurses needs to be integrated into the formal teaching and learning during the nursing programme. Embedded in the training programme are professional values that are used synonymously with nursing professionalism. Professionalism is the conduct, qualities, values, vision, mission and/or goals that characterise a profession, and describes behaviours that are expected within the profession's members. However, one's values are shaped by one's experiences, influence one's behaviour and interactions with others, and are manifested in many aspects of professional behaviour. New nurses to the profession are expected to display behaviours of professionalism, thus requiring nurse training schools to help students internalise these behaviours. Nurse educators therefore carry a responsibility to shape future nurses' growth towards professionalismOBJECTIVES: This article reports on the experiences of undergraduate student nurses regarding nursing professionalism during their 4-year training programme at a Higher Education Institution in the Western Cape, South AfricaMETHOD: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design was applied. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with first- to fourth-year student nurses registered for the undergraduate nursing programme. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using open coding. Ethical principles and trustworthiness were maintained throughout the studyRESULTS: Six main themes indicated that undergraduate student nurses experienced issues with role modelling, language barriers, their own understanding of professional behaviour, reasons for students and practitioners' unprofessional behaviour, prejudice towards degree students and students' professional or unprofessional behaviour experienced as contributing to the image of the professionCONCLUSION: Student nurses received mixed messages leading to emotional turbulence. They needed clear guidance from role models to demonstrate how to behave professionally