Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Curationis]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2223-627920160001&lang=en vol. 39 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792016000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD) was introduced as a strategy to circumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area OBJECTIVES: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongst professional and other category nurses (OCNs) at a public hospital in the North-West Province and describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working in the hospital METHOD: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs), 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005), which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18 RESULTS: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73) and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77) were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74) and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79). The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77) and OCNs (91%, n = 82) disagreed with the statement that 'level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD' CONCLUSIONS: The National Department of Health should consider a holistic approach to address all work-related conditions for nurses in order to curb the attrition rates. Policy makers and unions should urgently review OSD for all categories of nurses <![CDATA[<b>Navigating conflicting laws in sexual and reproductive health service provision for teenagers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792016000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The South African legal and policy framework for sexual and reproductive healthcare provision for teenagers is complex OBJECTIVE: The article outlines the dilemmas emanating from the legal and policy framework, summarises issues with implementation of the legal and policy framework in practice, and summarises recent changes to the law METHODS: In-depth analysis of the legal and policy framework. Training workshops with a purposive sample of nurses and other healthcare providers in the Western Cape FINDINGS: Tensions between consent and confidentiality imposed by the Termination of Pregnancy Act, the Children's Act, the National Health Act and the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act render conflicting obligations on healthcare providers. Healthcare providers' experiences with service provision in this context show that the conflicting roles they inhabit render their service provision to teenagers more challenging CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers need to learn about their legal obligations surrounding adolescent sexual and reproductive health services <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of activities performed by clinical nurse practitioners and implications for staffing and patient care at primary health care level in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792016000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The shortage of nurses in public healthcare facilities in South Africa is well documented; finding creative solutions to this problem remains a priority OBJECTIVE: This study sought to establish the amount of time that clinical nurse practitioners (CNPs) in one district of the Western Cape spend on clinical services and the implications for staffing and skills mix in order to deliver quality patient care METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted across 15 purposively selected clinics providing primary health services in 5 sub-districts. The frequency of activities and time CNPs spent on each activity in fixed and mobile clinics were recorded. Time spent on activities and health facility staff profiles were correlated and predictors of the total time spent by CNPs with patients were identified RESULTS: The time spent on clinical activities was associated with the number of CNPs in the facilities. CNPs in fixed clinics spent a median time of about 13 minutes with each patient whereas CNPs in mobile clinics spent 3 minutes. Fixed-clinic CNPs also spent more time on their non-core functions than their core functions, more time with patients, and saw fewer patients compared to mobile-clinic CNPs CONCLUSIONS: The findings give insight into the time CNPs in rural fixed and mobile clinics spend with their patients, and how patient caseload may affect consultation times. Two promising strategies were identified - task shifting and adjustments in health worker deployment - as ways to address staffing and skills mix, which skills mix creates the potential for using healthcare workers fully whilst enhancing the long-term health of these rural communities <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge and uptake of occupational post-exposure prophylaxis amongst nurses caring for people living with HIV</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792016000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Nurses caring for people living with HIV (PLWH) are at higher risk of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by needle sticks, cuts, getting body fluids in their eyes or mouth and skin when bruised or affected by dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To determine knowledge, insight and uptake of occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (OPEP) amongst nurses caring for PLWH. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used in this study. Stratified random sampling was used to sample 240 nurses. The study was conducted in a regional hospital in Limpopo province. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were employed to analyse data. RESULTS: A total of 233 nurses participated in the study. Sixty per cent (n = 138) of all nurses had a situation at work when they thought that they were infected by HIV and 100 (43%) nurses had experienced the situation once or more in the past 12 month. Approximately 40% did not know what PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) is, and 22% did not know or were not sure if it was available in the hospital. Only few participants (n = 68, 29%) had sought PEP and most (n = 37, 54%) of them did not receive PEP when they needed it. There was a significant association between the knowledge and availability of PEP (r = 0.622). CONCLUSION: The study recommend an urgent need for policy makers in the health sector to put in place policies, guidelines and programmes that will rapidly scale up PEP services in health care settings, so that preventable occupationally acquired HIV infection can be minimised amongst nurses. <![CDATA[<b>Students' views on the block evaluation process: A descriptive analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792016000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Higher education institutions have executed policies and practices intended to determine and promote good teaching. Students' evaluation of the teaching and learning process is seen as one measure of evaluating quality and effectiveness of instruction and courses. Policies and procedures guiding this process are discernible in universities, but it is often not the case for nursing colleges. OBJECTIVE: To analyse and describe the views of nursing students on block evaluation, and how feedback obtained from this process was managed. METHOD: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted amongst nursing students (n = 177) in their second to fourth year of training from one nursing college in KwaZulu-Natal. A questionnaire was administered by the researcher and data were analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 19.0. RESULTS: The response rate was 145 (81.9%). The participants perceived the aim of block evaluation as improving the quality of teaching and enhancing their experiences as students. They questioned the significance of their input as stakeholders given that they had never been consulted about the development or review of the evaluation tool, or the administration process; and they often did not receive feedback from the evaluation they participated in. CONCLUSION: The college management should develop a clear organisational structure with supporting policies and operational guidelines for administering the evaluation process. The administration, implementation procedures, reporting of results and follow-up mechanisms should be made transparent and communicated to all concerned. Reports and actions related to these evaluations should provide feedback into relevant courses or programmes. <![CDATA[<b>A systematic review: Are herbal and homeopathic remedies used during pregnancy safe?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792016000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Herbal and homeopathic remedies have been used to assist with childbearing and pregnancy for centuries. Allopathic ('Western') medicine is traditionally avoided during pregnancy because of limited drug trials and the suspected teratogenic effects of these medications. This has led to an increase in the use of herbal and homeopathic remedies, as they are viewed to have no teratogenic effect on the developing foetus. Health providers are faced with questions from their clients regarding the safety of these remedies, but much of the evidence about these herbal and homeopathic remedies is anecdotal and few remedies have been tested scientifically. OBJECTIVES: By conducting a systematic review, the primary objective was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes of ingested herbal and homeopathic remedies during pregnancy. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted to synthesise all the evidence with the purpose of evaluating the safety of herbal and homeopathic remedies based on adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Only randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that met all inclusion criteria were included in the review. RESULTS: The ingestion of ginger for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy was shown to have no harmful maternal or neonatal effects. Ingestion of castor oil for induction of labour showed a tendency towards an increase in the incidence of caesarean section and meconium-stained liquor, warranting further research into its safety issues. CONCLUSION: Larger randomised controlled trials need to be conducted, especially in South Africa, to establish the safety and efficacy of commonly-used remedies. <![CDATA[<b>An assessment of the outcomes of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-62792016000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: This article assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes amongst users of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the health outcomes (antiretroviral prophylaxis versus antiretroviral treatment, CD4 counts, World Health Organization (WHO) stages of illness, other illnesses) of women who had used these services, as well as the HIV status of their babies and the infant feeding method adopted. METHODS: A quantitative, cross sectional, retrospective cohort design was used. Document reviews were conducted with a sample of 384 mother-infant pairs (out of a population of 796) who had used PMTCT services. RESULTS: All respondents were using prophylactic antiretrovirals or antiretroviral therapy, but some were on the wrong treatment based on their CD4 counts. The CD4 counts increased four times more for women on antiretroviral treatment than for those on prophylactic antiretrovirals. The WHO's stages of HIV illness did not improve but deteriorated in some cases, and 52 other illnesses were recorded. Out of the 384 infants, 6.0% (n = 23) were HIV-positive. Most respondents opted for exclusive breast feeding but some used mixed feeding during the first six months of their infants' lives, despite having received health education related to infant feeding options. CONCLUSION: The respondents' improved CD4 counts were inadequate to improve their World Health Organization stages of HIV illness. Some babies received mixed feeding during the first six months of their lives and 6% of the babies were HIV-positive despite their mothers' utilisation of PMTCT services.