Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Yesterday and Today]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2223-038620120001&lang=es vol. num. 7 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device as a frame to study history curriculum reform in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article reflects on the usefulness of Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device to frame a (previously reported) study of history curriculum reform in South Africa: to what extent, and in what ways does the concept of Bernstein's pedagogic device assist in describing the recontextualising of the history curriculum? The article sets out the reasons for using the pedagogic device in that study as both a theoretical and methodological frame and a structuring frame which ordered the study and held the various parts together. This perspective locates the study in a field that engages with knowledge from a sociological lens. The article discusses the ways in which Bernstein's theoretical language supported and strengthened the research, and also shows how it was not specialised enough to engage specifically with the subject of history. Thus it was necessary to weave the field of history education and sociology of knowledge perspective together. <![CDATA[<b>History in Senior Secondary School CAPS 2012 and beyond</b>: <b>A comment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es History Education has been a neglected aspect of the great educational debate in South Africa in recent times. Despite its high profile in anti - apartheid education the subject has not received the same attention as science and maths in the post 1994 debates, and was to a large extent sidelined by Curriculum 2005 and OBE reforms because of the emphasis on constructivist notions of knowledge which devalued formal historical learning. Although partially rescued by Asmal's reforms in the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) of 2002, it has taken the CAPS curriculum of 2010-2011 to put it back at the centre of the educational picture by recognising the importance of history as a key aspect of the worthwhile knowledge to be offered at school. This article looks at the new CAPS curriculum for senior school (Grades 10-12) and recognises its value but also turns a critical eye to question the credibility of the new curriculum in terms of knowledge criteria and pedagogic viability. <![CDATA[<b>Citizenship education for Africans in South Africa (1948-1994)</b>: <b>A critical discourse</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The paper presents a critical discussion of the provision of citizenship education for Africans in South Africa during the period 1948-1994. A conceptual analysis of Johnson and Morris' critical citizenship framework and its four dimensions, namely, ideology, the collective, self and praxis, is presented. Utilising this framework, the author examines the goals and aims of the former National Party government in their project to provide citizenship education through history, social science and civics teaching in schools for African students. The study suggests that the goal of the state in promoting citizenship education during the former political dispensation as seen through the four dimensions did not create space for critical thinking and dialogue, crucial elements for critical citizenship education. Recommendations with regard to the form and content of citizenship education in future are made. <![CDATA[<b>Stereotypes, prejudices, self and 'the other' in history textbooks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article is a literature review of conceptions of stereotype, prejudice, underlying assumptions and images of self and other as relevant to history textbooks and related research. History textbooks are seen as representations of a nation's official history as they build identity and form conceptions of morality in their readers. I address questions like, what are the underlying assumptions of history texts that lead to picturing ourselves and others? Could an understanding of the other be seen as a liability, given the moral responsibility it introduces? In seeking answers, instead of a sociological approach analysing the social systems of power and oppression, the perpetuating of stereotypes is viewed from an individual, psychological perspective. Hence, I ask how the psychology of hatred could be understood and what this implies for viewing the self in relation to the other through history education. I conclude by stressing that moral responsibility starts with the self and not with the other; and that the bigger enemy of history teaching is not prejudice and stereotype contained in pedagogic texts, but indifference or bystander behaviour that such texts could encourage. <![CDATA[<b>The Three Million Gang in Maokeng Township (Kroonstad) and the reaction of the African National Congress's aligned structures</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es As early as 1989 when it was clear that there was a possibility of unbanning liberation movements in South Africa and securing the release of political prisoners, the African National Congress (ANC)-aligned structures in the different townships began openly and radically mobilising for the organisation. The ANC-aligned demonstrations and protests became everyday scenes around the country and it was evident that the South African Police (SAP) was gradually battling to control the ANC-aligned citizens in most townships. In mid-1989, a gang known as the Three Million emerged in Maokeng Township (Kroonstad) and was accused by the community members to be operating as a vigilante group. Therefore, incidents of vigilantism by the Three Million Gang became a regular scene in this township. Using the Three Million as a case in point, I attempted to show how the ANC-aligned structures reacted to this gang which was viewed as a vigilante group in the Maokeng Township. <![CDATA[<b>The potential and possibilities of oral history for skills development at undergraduate level</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Since 2003 the History Department of the University of the Free State (UFS) has been offering a third-year module on oral history. From the time of its inception this module has aimed at providing a balance between oral history theory and methodology, thus enabling students to master and apply the oral history technique in practice. Students are taught how to manage an oral history project from start to finish. The teaching approach is resource-based with a stronger emphasis on learning than on teaching, which is in line with a current international trend towards constructivism. During the past nine years it has become clear to the authors that apart from the theoretical knowledge gained by the students, various skills are also taught and developed in the practical session of this module. This is clearly revealed when the questionnaires, interviews and student evaluation forms are assessed and analysed. The main purpose of this article is to identify and interpret certain trends and patterns regarding skills development as both a direct and an indirect outcome of this oral history module by using data obtained from the mentioned questionnaires, interviews and evaluation forms. The article addresses certain questions which are crucial for understanding the potential and many possibilities of oral history as a tool for skills development in a transforming society. It is argued that oral history's potential creates new methodological approaches for developing a diversity of new skills required by a changing social environment. Understanding this potential and its possibilities provides a basis for further developing oral history as a skills development tool, which may also lead to the improvement and expansion of existing oral history courses offered at tertiary level. <![CDATA[<b>From a concentration camp to a post-apartheid South African school</b>: <b>A historical-environmental perspective in developing a new identity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The overall goal of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014, as proclaimed by the United Nations, is to integrate the principles, values and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning. This integrated and multi-dimensional approach is supported in South Africa by the White Paper for Education and Training and the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for History as part of the Social Science learning area. The aim of this article is to report on how a historical-environmental approach to education had been realised in the context of Eenheid primary school in Nylstroom (Modimolle) located on grounds used for a concentration camp during the South African War (October 1899 to May 1902)1. In particular, the researchers wanted to establish how a diverse group of learners experienced and internalised their historical-environmental events in creating their present identity. The findings of the school's learners (n=51) who participated in a case study suggest that the historical memory which developed from the unique location of the school not only expanded the learners perspectives on intercultural understanding, but also contributed to a better appreciation and responsibility of environmental and socio-cultural issues in a post-apartheid South Africa. In the process an ethic of sustainable living and the creation of a "new" South African identity developed. <![CDATA[<b>Analysing the construction of South African youth in historical-related images and texts around the time of 16 June 2011</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper aims to investigate how young people in post-apartheid South Africa are being constructed in negative ways in the fight of how we commemorate and teach the Anti-apartheid struggle. Is it possible to teach the stories of the past without burdening this generation with guilt and paralysing the youth in terms of their own struggles? It specifically focus on how the media are currently reconstructing the struggle icons as superhuman, and in so doing, implying that the youth can never live up to the achievements of these heroes. I am interested in how history, as it is taught in our schools can play a role in restoring agency and a healthy respect for the past. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>The Faculty of Education, University of Stellenbosch is hosting the 26<sup>th</sup> South African Society for History Teaching 2012 Annual Conference at Erinvale Estate Hotel & Spa, Somerset West on 4-5 October 2012</b>  ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862012000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper aims to investigate how young people in post-apartheid South Africa are being constructed in negative ways in the fight of how we commemorate and teach the Anti-apartheid struggle. Is it possible to teach the stories of the past without burdening this generation with guilt and paralysing the youth in terms of their own struggles? It specifically focus on how the media are currently reconstructing the struggle icons as superhuman, and in so doing, implying that the youth can never live up to the achievements of these heroes. I am interested in how history, as it is taught in our schools can play a role in restoring agency and a healthy respect for the past.