Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Yesterday and Today]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2223-038620170001&lang=pt vol. num. 17 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The effect of multimedia use on the teaching and learning of Social Sciences at tertiary level: a case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Instructors in higher education are under pressure to provide their students with more effective and efficient learning environments and educational experiences. Instructional systems and educational technology have been receiving great attention from educators in order to enhance students' learning. Educational technologies such as multimedia presentations are becoming commonplace. The aim of the research reported in this article was to establish which multimedia combinations are best for the teaching and learning of Social Sciences content. A quasi-experimental research design was used to establish how exposure to different multimedia combinations on digital videodisc may affect the achievement of pre-service teachers. The results of the study indicate that when using various multimedia combinations, the unique nature of Social Sciences can be addressed effectively. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of social media on History education: a view from England</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The paper examines recent ideas about the use of new technology in History education, contrasting the ideas of policy makers, initial teacher education curriculum specifications, and expert practitioners in the field of school history and new technology. The paper draws on Stephen J Ball's theoretical framework which considers changes in education policy in the light of the context of influence (who were the policy makers in charge at the time), the context of text production (what were the key policy documents influencing change), and the context of practice (what were the views of practitioners). A more developed explanation of this framework can be found in Phillips, 1998:5-7). It argues that there has been a disconnection between the views of expert practitioners and those making policy, and considers the implications of radical recent changes in the way that young people get their information about the past - and the present. This raises the question of what it means 'to be good at ICT' as a History teacher; what should our priorities be in terms of the training of History teachers? The concluding section of the paper argues that less attention should be given to issues of general technological competence, and greater emphasis should be placed on the development of skills of information literacy, in a society that has recently been widely described as a 'post-truth' society. Although the focus of the paper is largely on developments in England, the issues explored have relevance to History education in other countries. <![CDATA[<b>Student protest and the culture of violence at African universities: An inherited ideological trait</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Since the advent of independence in African countries, education generally focused on transforming these nations and redressing the ills of colonialism. Education in countries like Ghana, and Kenya, amongst others aimed at redressing the colonial legacy by creating a new world order marked by equality, mutual benefits and participation. However, this drive for equality, mutual benefits and participation has been beset by several challenges, ranging from access to funding. The recent and most devastating challenge has been the wave of violent student protests that have swept across African universities over the past decade. These protests led to the destruction of university structures and public property, as well as disruption of educational processes. While the reasons for these protests have been different in different countries, they all have become violent. This article argues that the culture of violence exhibited by students and their advocates is an inherited ideological trait that is gradually manifesting itself among students. In support of this argument, student protest is examined in the five regions of Africa; North, South, East, Central and West, spanning more than 20 different nations. The article concludes that because the culture of violence is an inherited one, the process will continue unless urgent steps are taken to ensure transformation and decolonisation. It also argues that universities need to create environments where students are comfortable to learn, thereby eradicating the need for protest. <![CDATA[<b>"Word generation" and skills around learning and teaching History</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The Word Generation Programme (WordGen), produced by Harvard University Education School in 2006, presents ways of engaging with and improving literacy skills in school going students. WordGen comprises a set of freely available lesson plans, structured to be taught every day throughout the week, that focus on students engagement with material and concepts through processes of discussion, debate, and perspective taking. The materials engage the students' everyday lives, as well as the knowledge that the unit is intended to teach. As everyday life examples are used, it is possible to imagine a contextual translation from the United States of America, to South Africa. This article explores the possibility of using the materials created by the Strategic Education Research Project (SERP) - who have pioneered the "WordGen" programme-as a basis to create materials for South African classrooms, specifically to teach History for the Intermediate Phase (Grade 4 - 6). In this article I argue that the WordGen lessons engage important skills for learning and teaching History. I outline the skills that are generated when History is taught in a compelling and iterative way and then engage with WordGen concepts and content and with the WordGen material specifically designed to teach History: SoGen. The article considers the case of third year education students at the University of Johannesburg and their responses to the WordGen material. The experiences gained from this translation into a tertiary context indicates that Word Generation may garner similar positive outcomes as those seen in the primary school context. <![CDATA[<b>Underperformance in Social Studies in Grades 5-7 in Namibian primary schools: a case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focuses on the challenges of learners' underperformance in Social Studies in Namibia. The study investigated the possible factors that may contribute to learners' underperformance in Social Studies in the selected schools. The following research question guided the investigation: What are the possible causes of underperformance of learners in Social Studies in Grades 5-7 at primary schools in Namibia? The aim was thus to investigate the possible factors which may contribute to learners' underperformance in Social Studies. Data were collected from selected teachers and principals via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, lesson observations and an analysis of appropriate documents. Different data collection methods were used to assure the validity and reliability of the research through triangulation. Triangulation was used through the collection of data by means of questionnaires, interviews, observation, an analysis of relevant documents and a literature review. A number of factors that constitute obstacles and inhibit performance were identified. In addressing the challenges in the teaching and learning of Social Studies, teachers need to be empowered to address these factors and implement the curriculum effectively. Findings from the data identified a number of possible causes for the underperformance of learners and recommendations are made to address these problems. <![CDATA[<b>Learners' encounter with archaeological fieldwork: a public participation archaeology account of the East Fort Archaeological Project</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Public Archaeology as a concept is generally defined as civic involvement during the various public phases of Cultural Resources Management. The practice of archaeology in South Africa seldom extends towards public participation in archaeological activities or the production of knowledge. Public Archaeology constitute the active participation of the public in the archaeological excavation and the documentation of an archaeological site. The aim of the East Fort Archaeological Project is to provide an opportunity to members of the public interested in archaeology, as well as to assist high school learners and prospective tertiary students considering archaeology as a career, to participate in an active archaeological project regardless of their skills level. Initially the project was only aimed at high school learners, since heritage is included in the History curriculum for high school learners. Later members of the general public and primary school learners were included due to the interest shown in the project. This article provides an overview of the project from 2013 to the present. It looks at the different aspects thereof, consisting of an orientation course, educational excursion and practical archaeological field work. The project can be considered a success as it proves that the public can participate in and assist with the production of archaeological knowledge. It is foreseen that History teachers could be involved in similar projects that can be used to make history come alive for learners. It is also a first step in creating a heritage-literate society. <![CDATA[<b>Contemporary relevance - a category of historical science and of the didactics of history and its consequences in teacher training</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Public Archaeology as a concept is generally defined as civic involvement during the various public phases of Cultural Resources Management. The practice of archaeology in South Africa seldom extends towards public participation in archaeological activities or the production of knowledge. Public Archaeology constitute the active participation of the public in the archaeological excavation and the documentation of an archaeological site. The aim of the East Fort Archaeological Project is to provide an opportunity to members of the public interested in archaeology, as well as to assist high school learners and prospective tertiary students considering archaeology as a career, to participate in an active archaeological project regardless of their skills level. Initially the project was only aimed at high school learners, since heritage is included in the History curriculum for high school learners. Later members of the general public and primary school learners were included due to the interest shown in the project. This article provides an overview of the project from 2013 to the present. It looks at the different aspects thereof, consisting of an orientation course, educational excursion and practical archaeological field work. The project can be considered a success as it proves that the public can participate in and assist with the production of archaeological knowledge. It is foreseen that History teachers could be involved in similar projects that can be used to make history come alive for learners. It is also a first step in creating a heritage-literate society. <![CDATA[<b>Nostalgia, memory and History teaching and learning</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt "... there is a twilight zone between history and memory; between the past as a generalized record which is open to relatively dispassionate inspection and the past as a remembered part of, or background to, one's own life" (Hobsbawm, 1987:3). Nostalgic writing, as a cultural phenomenon, allows the writer to occupy the present whilst searching in the experienced past for a historical narrative. The writer seeks a specific narrative, one which connects the recorded past to his/ her lived experience. This article explores the use of nostalgic writing in pre-service teachers as they attempt to define the "length of the twilight zone". By allowing the pre-service teachers to engage in nostalgic writing the writer finds that through personal reflection they are able to experience its limitations and seek to remedy this myopia through the development of a historical gaze. Using Svetlana Boym's (2001) concepts of restorative and reflective nostalgia the article shows how pre-service teachers are enabled to plumb the depths of their own twilight zones. In doing so they identify areas of anxiety which shape and mis-shape the lenses with which they view the recorded past. <![CDATA[<b>Crossing the "chalkboard-keyboard-divide" on a shoestring budget</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focusses on creative ways that history teachers can use technology in their classroom especially where resources are limited. Ideas are shared on how to make the teaching and learning process fun and how to use online assessments to assist in assessing learners without the burden of marking. <![CDATA[<b>A Jacana pocket history - Poverty in South Africa: past and present</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focusses on creative ways that history teachers can use technology in their classroom especially where resources are limited. Ideas are shared on how to make the teaching and learning process fun and how to use online assessments to assist in assessing learners without the burden of marking. <![CDATA[<b>The art of life in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862017000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article focusses on creative ways that history teachers can use technology in their classroom especially where resources are limited. Ideas are shared on how to make the teaching and learning process fun and how to use online assessments to assist in assessing learners without the burden of marking.