Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Yesterday and Today]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2223-038620180001&lang=en vol. num. 19 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862018000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Virtues in Danish History textbooks since enlightenment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862018000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The above quoted statement by the famous Russian author, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, can to my opinion be interpreted as a dream of devitalization of good, old Russian virtues, which the communist regime had silenced and placed in the corner. Then I reflected on the status of virtues in my own country, and especially what history education had done to stick to virtues, which I have encountered in my earlier research as dominant in the 18th century educational discourse? My provisional examinations are presented in this article, where I focus on the impact of virtues in a sample of more popular Danish history textbooks over three centuries. Research in textbooks is closely connected to the societal context and a brief summary of the development in Denmark since the Enlightenment is appropriate, especially for the foreign reader, in order to understand the textbooks in a proper context. In the 18th century the Danish king was the absolute ruler of Denmark, Norway and the North Atlantic islands. Moreover he was the sovereign in the deuces Schleswig and Holstein and of course in the colonies in India, Africa and Caribbean. This multicultural state was transformed in the 19th century; in 1814 Norway was ceded to Sweden, and in 1864 Schleswig and Holstein were after a bloody war, taken over by Prussia. Hence Denmark was one of the smaller countries in Europe, however now a national state. In 1814 compulsory seven-year school attendance was implemented for all girls and boys, and in the second half of the century agriculture and industry underwent a remarkable growth. In 1849 the absolute ruling king signed a constitution, which introduced partial democratic elections. Although literacy was acquired by nearly all Danish children, the development of secondary education was slow, illustrated by the fact that only 89 students in 1849 finished their upper secondary education in the Kingdom of Denmark. In 1921 it rose to nearly 2% of a year group, whereas today 75 %, equivalent to 60.000 teenagers are prepared for further studies. The upper secondary education also consisted of lower secondary schools, which prepared the students for trade and public services. Over the three centuries history education was mandatory for all upper secondary students. In this article I shall give some provisional answers to the questions: What happened to virtues in history textbooks over 300 years and why? <![CDATA[<b>Mobile concepts in a mobile environment: Historical terms in LSP lexicography</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862018000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Historical terms have a tendency to be "mobile" in terms of geographical space and historical time. The presentation of historical terms by means of a mobile dictionary enabling university students to access such terms by means of a smartphone, tablet or laptop adds to the dimension of mobility. The article describes the continuous change in meaning of historical concepts over time and space with reference to democracy and nationalism, which are known as substantive concepts. An analysis of the emergence and development of these concepts within different historical contexts indicates the extent to which static definitions are inadequate with regard to fostering historical understanding. A tendency to continuous change in the meaning of the above-mentioned terms has important implications for the compilation of a Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) dictionary of historical terms at university level, and for the consequences thereof for mobile LSP lexicography. The LSP dictionary called MobiLex has a pedagogical purpose and changes in the design and features of the dictionary to enhance teaching and learning of historical terms have pedagogical consequences regarding the learning of such terms. In an ever-changing environment, adaptions to mobile lexicography would be possible with the advancement of technology. Trends and development in technology offer the possibility of changing the face of lexicographical support in a mobile environment, motivated from a pedagogical theoretical point of view. <![CDATA[<b>Implementing Flipped Classroom in History: The reactions of eighth grade students in a Portuguese school</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862018000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Despite the difficulties of integrating every student, every teacher and every school in the digital revolution of the 21st century, there are new tendencies in education using digital technology that are trying to change the everyday life in schools. The Flipped Classroom is one of them. This is a blended learning model that reverses the traditional teaching learning model, putting the student in focus, using digital technology (or not) to learn the contents for homework, usually in small videos, and spend the class time in the application of resources, usually in motivating activities. Following this path, this paper is the result of a case study that we performed in the school year of2015/2016, with about 80 students, with average ages of 13, in the classroom of History. To complete this experience, we planned an inverted History class, pursuing the main ideas of this methodology, using apps installed in the students' personal mobile phones and asking students to develop some activities during the class and after the end of class time. The outcome of this case study aims to be a contribution to the idea that Flipped Classroom can be an innovative strategy that reinforces the dialogues between Historical Education and the use of ICT, as well as an original and well-succeeded methodology in History teaching. <![CDATA[<b>A comparative investigation into the representation of Russia in apartheid and post-apartheid era South African History textbooks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862018000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this comparative study we employed a quantitative approach, underpinned by the interpretivist paradigm, to analyse the content on Russia as found in Apartheid and post-Apartheid History textbooks. This was done by means of qualitative content analysis. The focus of the analysis was exclusively on the historical content or substantive knowledge as it related to Russia. What emerged was that the political eras Russia was studied under remained remarkably similar across the Apartheid and post-Apartheid eras. However, clear discernible similarities and differences were otherwise detectable. While big men dominated the content of both eras the approach adopted by the post-Apartheid era History textbooks towards them were generally more critical. While a fear of Communism was imbedded in the Apartheid era History textbooks, the opposite can be said of the post-Apartheid era textbooks. What this points to is that during both political eras the content on Russia was adapted to suit the prevailing identity politics, national narratives and ideology of the time - closed and insular under Apartheid and open and critical in the post-Apartheid era. <![CDATA[<b>Reimagining the journey - expanding the History curriculum to teach for depth of understanding in the FET Phase</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862018000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en While the NSC CAPS does prescribe topics to be taught in the FET Phase of schooling, it does not restrict an educator from teaching additional topics or extending topics. It will be argued that there is a necessity for learners to develop a deeper understanding of prescribed CAPS topics in Grade 12, which includes the Research Task. It is suggested additional topics in the Grade 10 curriculum, such as aspects of the "American War of Independence"and the "Abolition of Slavery"in both the British Empire and United States of America need to be taught, and the sub-topic in Grade 11 on Pan-Africanism needs to be extended for this purpose. In asking why history educators do not extend aspects of the curriculum, this paper explains what and how expanding the history curriculum should be undertaken through the three-year programme of the FET Phase. More importantly, it is suggested this approach provides learners with insights to engage and contribute to current debates in South Africa and the world at large. The paper will conclude with recommendations on how this in-depth understanding can be incorporated into the curriculum. <![CDATA[<b>Book Reviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2223-03862018000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en While the NSC CAPS does prescribe topics to be taught in the FET Phase of schooling, it does not restrict an educator from teaching additional topics or extending topics. It will be argued that there is a necessity for learners to develop a deeper understanding of prescribed CAPS topics in Grade 12, which includes the Research Task. It is suggested additional topics in the Grade 10 curriculum, such as aspects of the "American War of Independence"and the "Abolition of Slavery"in both the British Empire and United States of America need to be taught, and the sub-topic in Grade 11 on Pan-Africanism needs to be extended for this purpose. In asking why history educators do not extend aspects of the curriculum, this paper explains what and how expanding the history curriculum should be undertaken through the three-year programme of the FET Phase. More importantly, it is suggested this approach provides learners with insights to engage and contribute to current debates in South Africa and the world at large. The paper will conclude with recommendations on how this in-depth understanding can be incorporated into the curriculum.