Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences ]]> vol. 16 num. 5 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>SAJEMS Special Issue of the 5<sup>th</sup> Annual International Conference of Organisational Innovation (2011, ICOI, Thailand)</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>The relationships among business strategies, organisational performance and organisational culture in the tourism industry</b>]]> As societies develop, the tourism industry has become one of the most powerful and largest industries in the global economy. The industrial status and economic function of the tourism industry have increased in the economic development of cities. The tourism industry has helped to drive the city economy, create employment, and facilitate culture and the environment The tourism industry, as one of the supporting industries for economic development in China, presents diverse services that are not only competitive within the industry, but could also increase national consumption. In addition to the professional service items and quality, the adjustment of business strategies aimed at the changeable environment are considered as key success factors in the tourism industry. This study analyzes the effect of business strategies on organisational performance in the tourism industry. Owners, managers, and employees from the top ten travel agencies in Taiwan were selected as the research subjects and a total of 600 questionnaires were distributed. Within the retrieved 438 surveys, 43 were incomplete and removed to yield a total of 395 valid questionnaires. Within the empirical analyses business strategies appear to have significant positive correlations with job satisfaction, organisational objective and job performance in organisational performance. Moreover, organisational culture presents a partially moderating effect for the relations between business strategies and organisational performance. <![CDATA[<b>A study on the performance of labour outsourcing in the public sector</b>]]> Governments in many countries are gradually adjusting their traditional concepts and committing private businesses to conducting governmental business and services in order to achieve economic and operational goals and to introduce more dynamic technologies from private organisations for better financial flexibility. With a freely competitive mechanism in private markets, the quality and efficiency of public services could be effectively promoted in order to enhance economic benefits. Using data from garbage clean-up outsourcing in various districts under the 2008-2010Environmental Protection Bureau, Kaohsiung City Government, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist Productivity Analysis were combined to measure the total efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE), and scale efficiency (SE) of the garbage clean-up services in 11 districts in Kaohsiung City to provide follow-up information on the garbage clean-up outsourcing initiative of the Environmental Protection Bureau, Kaohsiung City Government. The empirical results for overall efficiency show that optimal total efficiency was reported in the Hsin-hsing District (0.99), optimal pure technical efficiency in the Hsin-hsing District (0.99), and optimal scale efficiency in the San-min District (1.00). <![CDATA[<b>Who influenced inflation persistence in China? A comparative analysis of the standard CIA model and CIA model with endogenous money</b>]]> In this paper, we examine the influencing factors of inflation persistence in China's economy using the DSGE approach. Two monetary DSGE models are estimated, namely, a standard CIA model and a CIA model with a Taylor rule. This article uses the Bayesian method to estimate the model, and the estimated and inferred results are credible due to the Markov chain reaching convergence. The results show that the augmented model outperforms the standard CIA model in terms of capturing inflation persistence. Further studies show that inflation persistence mainly comes from the persistence of the money supply, while money supply uncertainty, the reaction coefficient of monetary growth to productivity, productivity persistence and productivity uncertainty have a smaller impact on inflation persistence. Changes of monetary policy have little effect on inflation persistence. <![CDATA[<b>A Weighted linear combination ranking technique for multi-criteria decision analysis</b>]]> Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is an alternative approach, which provides a way to systematically structure and analyse complex decision problems. This study presents a novel method of applying the weighted linear combination ranking technique (WLCRT) to MCDA. The proposed WLCRT method is based on the linear combinations of matrix algebra calculations. It has distinct advantages in preference modeling, weight elicitation, and aggregation performance. In this method, the decision matrix of preferences is constructed using a 7-point Likert scale. The weights of criteria are elicited from the proximity matrix of preference relations using the eigenvector method. Then, the weighted generalised means are used to aggregate preference information as well as to rank the order of decision alternatives. The WLCRT method can flexibly reflect different decision attitudes for the decision maker. It is both technically valid and practically useful, and can be used in dealing with multiple criteria analysis problems involving ranking of alternatives. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of office space and colour on knowledge sharing and work stress</b>]]> With the aid of empirical research, this study aims to verify the effects of the variables Office Space and Colour on Knowledge Sharing and Work Stress. Taking the domestic technology industry as the research sample, purposive sampling was applied in a questionnaire survey. Three hundred and sixty-eight questionnaires were distributed to a total of 14 technology companies in the Hsinchu and Southern Taiwan Science Parks. After 21 invalid responses had been removed, 347 valid copies were retrieved. Reliability analysis, factor analysis and hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. The research outcomes show the significant effects of Office Space and Colour on Knowledge Sharing and Work Stress among employees. Based on the outcomes, certain conclusions and suggestions are proposed. <![CDATA[<b>Innovation and social entrepreneurship at the bottom of the pyramid - A conceptual framework</b>]]> The research aims to identify key success criteria for innovations by enterprises targeting the bottom of the pyramid. Innovation, social entrepreneurship and the bottom of the economic pyramid are defined in the light of academic literature and their varied criteria are explored. The two different academic opinions on fortune or opportunity existing in the BOP markets are also contrasted. The research philosophy is based on realism and the research methodology selected is inductive. The data have been collected through secondary sources using case study strategy to present four cases of innovations by social or corporate enterprises at the BOP. The case studies have been chosen from a variable range in terms of BOP countries, social enterprises and multinational companies, for-profit or not-for-profit organisations, and product or business model innovations. Success criteria identified from case studies in the light of academic literature include going beyond selling to the poor, considering BOP groups as producers and BOP engagement. A conceptual framework has been developed from identified criteria and further recommendations for empirically testing the framework to turn it into a model have been provided. <![CDATA[<b>High-tech industries overseas investment performance evaluation - application of data envelopment analysis</b>]]> With the rapid change of the social environment, Mainland China has become a new economic market due to the great domestic demand caused by its enormous population and the increasing economic growth rate. Taiwanese businesses have gradually turned to develop in China under the pressure of increasing domestic wages and land costs for expanding factories as well as the enhancement of environmental protection. Mainland China presents the advantages of ample land, low labor costs, monoethnicity, and easy language communication making it an attractive major investment location for Taiwanese high-tech industries. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied to measure overseas investment efficiency evaluation of Taiwanese high-tech businesses in China, where the Delphi Method is used for selecting the inputs of the number of employees, R&D expenses, and gross sales in total assets. Sensitivity Analysis is further utilized for acquiring the most efficient unit and individual units with operating efficiency. The research results show that 1.Three high-tech businesses that present constant returns to scale perform optimally with overseas investment efficiency 2.Two high-tech companies with decreasing returns to scale appear that they could improve the overseas investment efficiency by decreasing the scale to enhancing the marginal returns, and 3.Sixteen high-tech enterprises reveal increasing returns to scale, showing that they could expand the scale to enhance the marginal returns and further promote efficiency. <![CDATA[<b>The relationship between working overtime and knowledge sharing in the food catering service industry - with work stress as the mediator</b>]]> Working overtime has long existed in business enterprises, but past studies were generally focused on its negative aspects, such as costs, accidents and work-family conflicts. There has not been extensive exploration of the possibility that an appropriate amount of overtime could have a positive impact. Based on the literature review, we show that working overtime can have a significantly positive impact on knowledge sharing among employees, but significant differences are reflected in the effect of knowledge sharing due to varying degrees of working overtime. Also, through the introduction of work stress and leisure participation as mediation and regulatory factors, working overtime can be shown to have remarkable influences on employees' knowledge sharing. It is confirmed that varying degrees of working overtime will produce different levels of work stress. Work stress indeed has a partially mediating effect on the relationship between working overtime and knowledge sharing, but the regulatory effect of leisure participation is not obvious. Finally, in the light of our research results, we recommend that similar topics be studied from the perspective of organisational culture. <![CDATA[<b>A Research on comprehension differences between print and screen reading</b>]]> Since the 1980s, extensive research has been conducted comparing reading comprehension from printed text and computer screens. The conclusions, however, are not very consistent. As reading from computer screens requires a certain degree of individual technical skill, such variables should be objectively taken into consideration when conducting an experiment regarding the comparison between print and screen reading. This study analyses the difference in the level of understanding of the two presentational formats (text on printed pages and hypertext on computer screens) for people between 45-54 years of age (i.e. "middle-aged" adults). In our experimental findings there were no significant differences between the levels of comprehension for print and screen presentations. With regard to individual differences in gender, age group and educational level, the findings are as follows: gender and education effects on print reading comprehension performance were significant, while those on screen reading comprehension performance were not. For middle-aged computer learners, the main effect of age group on both print and screen reading comprehension performance was insignificant. In contrast, linear texts of traditional paper-based material are better for middle-aged readers' literal text comprehension, while hypertext is beneficial to their inferential text comprehension. It is also suggested that hypermedia could be used as a cognitive tool for improving middle-aged adults' inferential abilities on reading comprehension, provided that they were trained adequately to use available computers. <![CDATA[<b>A study of Chinese guanxi type in family business from the perspective of power-based and leadership behaviours</b>]]> In Chinese society, a guanxi network is based on kinship or family ties of affection. This special pattern has a historical background and is one of the important factors that have enabled many Taiwanese enterprises to continue operating through the decades. The personal links between people create a kind of social network known as guanxi, which is a unique characteristic of Chinese society. The study aims to investigate the guanxi type of managers in Taiwanese family businesses, and examines how the guanxi type may moderate the correlation between the managers' power and the influence tactics used to handle subordinates. We surveyed 178 managers who are working in Taiwanese family business. The results of the hierarchical regression modeling showed that as managers have more position power, especially those exercising the family guanxi, they are more likely to be assertive in their treatment of their subordinates. Managers possessing the friend guanxi often play a bridging role to complement the function of those managers with the family guanxi, who may use the assertive approach too strongly. Managers of this type can provide a "lubricant effect" and keep the family business running smoothly. We recommend that family business owners should pay more attention to relationship harmony and internal communication channels in their organisations. <![CDATA[<b>Financing gap in Malaysian small-medium enterprises: A supply-side perspective</b>]]> In Malaysia, the issue of financing gap in Small Medium Enterprise (SME) financing is common, but hardly discussed nor researched. The issue of financing gap or lacuna arises due to the mismatch between the demand and supply of institutional funds for SMEs. SMEs contend that finance for SMEs are abundant, however, the supply of bank financing is largely unavailable to them. Banks, on the other hand, maintain that lending to these SMEs remains low because of lack of qualified demand. This brought to the forefront the issue of financing lacuna; a perennial issue in many developing countries, including Malaysia. The objective of this paper is to discuss the financing lacuna in Malaysian SMEs, focussing on the supply side. This paper focuses on the supply perspective to fulfil the research gap in understanding the financing lacuna, which has often been overlooked due to the tendency to analyse financing lacuna from the demand side only. This has been based on surveyed data of SME entrepreneurs. This paper outlines the theoretical approaches and practices of SMEs financing in Malaysia, followed by an analysis of the factors that shaped the financing lacuna (gap). <![CDATA[<b>Labour market reform and potential inequality of outcomes: The Australian story</b>]]> The global knowledge economy has transformed the world of work in the last four decades. Over the last 40 years the Australian economy underwent major structural change a phenomenon that was initiated in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s. This paper discusses and analyses institutional change characterised by the decentralisation of collective bargaining structures that began in the early 1980s. The paper analyses the impact of these reforms by providing a simple analysis of job creation over a thirty year period. The paper concludes that institutional labour market change can at times produce negative welfare outcomes, particularly as it relates to employment creation. The impact of these effects is increasing inequality of earnings in the labour force.