Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences ]]> vol. 12 num. 3 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Estimating the carbon emissions balance for South Africa</b>]]> The carbon footprint of materials and products is becoming an increasingly important factor in international trade. At present the carbon emissions balance of the South African economy is not well understood, especially the carbon emissions associated with imports and exports. An investigation was done of known economic input-output and life cycle analyses models addressing this shortcoming. The results reveal that South Africa is a major exporter of carbon; at least 129 per cent more carbon is associated with a dollar earned with exports than a dollar spent on imports, and the carbon footprint of the outflows on average, equates 37 per cent of the total carbon emissions of the economy. Such figures have serious policy-related implications in a future where international climate-change trade limitations will become stricter and binding. <![CDATA[<b>The economic consequences of a fuel levy reform in South Africa</b>]]> This paper assesses the economic effects of a hypothetical fuel levy imposed by South African provinces. The welfare effects of increasing the fuel levy by 10 per cent are negative but very small. Similarly, the marginal excess burdens for efficiency and equity (poverty) are quite low, suggesting much smaller impacts of the intervention on both economic activity and equity. Furthermore, a fiscal policy reform that raises fuel levy by 10 per cent is progressive as it has stronger negative effects on higher income households than on lower income households. A potential source of instability for the macroeconomy and total government revenue is the negative effect on economic activity induced by the fuel levy increase. The remedies suggested are that policymakers should make tax room elsewhere in the intergovernmental fiscal system to accommodate the fuel levy increase. <![CDATA[<b>Who would eat more with a food voucher programme in South Africa?</b>]]> A Computable General Equilibrium model is used to find the effects of a food voucher scheme on the economy in South Africa. If firms consider the issuing of vouchers as increased remuneration, they will hire fewer labourers. The higher labour cost increases the total cost of production and lowers supply. Real Gross Domestic Product decreases and the economy becomes worse off. However, depending on the size of the government's involvement in such a scheme as well as the tax policies that are used to fund it, a food voucher scheme could benefit the poor, and improve the distribution of wealth in the country. <![CDATA[<b>The general equilibrium effects of a productivity increase on the economy and gender in South Africa</b>]]> This study utilises a computable general equilibrium model to examine the effects of economy-wide (SIM 1) and partial (SIM 2) productivity increases on the economy, gender employment, wages, income and welfare in South Africa. SIM 1 results in 'output' led employment demand and increased earnings for all skill types of men and women. Skilled men benefit more than others in most sectors. Under SIM 2, productivity has a negative employment impact in the selected sectors, on all skills mostly in labour-intensive sectors. In general, productivity improves households' welfare due to reduced commodity prices and improved earnings. If productivity rises only in men-intensive sectors, men's wages rise while raising productivity in only women-intensive sectors affect women negatively. <![CDATA[<b>Using the Competing Values Framework (CVF) to investigate organisational culture in a major private security company</b>]]> The proliferation of crime, especially in the South African context, has placed considerable emphasis on the private security industry. This has also increased fierce competition in the private security domain with both national and international private security companies infiltrating the South African market. Like public policing private security has an important role to play in combating crime and other transgressions, with the exception that private security owes its existence to paying customers. By using the Competing Values Framework (CVF) as conceptual guide, the researchers are able to provide the managers of the company under investigation with insight on how their cultural orientation affects their functioning and ultimately their competitive advantage. <![CDATA[<b>Issues surrounding the classification of accounting information</b>]]> The act of classifying information created by accounting practices is ubiquitous in the accounting process; from recording to reporting, it has almost become second nature. The classification has to correspond to the requirements and demands of the changing environment in which it is practised. Evidence suggests that the current classification of items in financial statements is not keeping pace with the needs of users and the new financial constructs generated by the industry. This study addresses the issue of classification in two ways: by means of a critical analysis of classification theory and practices and by means of a questionnaire that was developed and sent to compilers and users of financial statements. A new classification framework for accounting information in the balance sheet and income statement is proposed. <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions of the role and contribution of human resource practitioners in a global petrochemical company</b>]]> The value-adding contribution of human resources departments in organisations has often been questioned. The objective of this study was to compare the perceptions of human resource practitioners in a global petrochemical company concerning expected and real contributions to business performance with those of their internal clients. The results showed that human resource practitioners and their line customers agree on the importance of the human resources roles that enable business performance, indicating that human resource practitioners have a good understanding of their job requirements. However, both human resource practitioners and their line customers perceive the performance of human resource practitioners to be average, which is lower than the expected level of performance as indicated by importance scales. <![CDATA[<b>Revised 004-8 considering the Harmonic Sequence "Paradox"</b>]]> Blavatskyy (2006) formulated a game of chance based on the harmonic series which, he suggests, leads to a St Petersburg type of paradox. In view of the importance of the St Petersburg game in decision theory, any game which leads to a St Petersburg game type paradox is of interest. Blavatskyy's game is re-examined in this article to conclude that it does not lead to a St Petersburg type paradox.