Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Literator (Potchefstroom. Online)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2219-823720180002&lang=pt vol. 39 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>From pencil and eraser to blending materials and flipping the classroom: A short history of <i>Teksredaksie</i> and Text Editing</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372018000200001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article will take a historical perspective on the topic of text editing and highlight the following: (1) The origin and history of the Text Editing project and book productions in different languages (2003-2018) and (2) The latest programme developments from printed book to teaching with it, or learning from it and especially the development of a state-of-the-art training approach. In an attempt to evaluate whether these developments are defensible, also from the point of view of its users, a small-scale usability study was carried out among two groups of master's degree students (N = 37) who undertook inverted and/or flipped-blended-collaborative text editing. As inverting classrooms with blended materials (online and contact) and introducing a collaborative approach to learning are innovative within this domain, the question of the programme's effectiveness deserves central attention. Quantitative and qualitative student evaluation data (online Likert-scale questionnaire with open questions and critical evaluation reports) show that Text Editing is more than a well-founded theoretical guide or handbook. The programme is experienced as authentic and effective and has a high impact on the users' self-efficacy and professional profile. As such the project is sustainable. <![CDATA[<b>Political strategies of activists for the official recognition of Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372018000200002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Five language activists followed different political strategies between 1875 and 1925 to ensure Afrikaans became one of the official languages of South Africa. S.J. du Toit tried to promote Afrikaans, but realised that in the nineteenth century Cape Colony, he could only do it by helping the Dutch advocates acquire several rights. Through the apt manoeuvrings at the National Convention in 1908, General J.B.M. Hertzog and President M.T. Steyn secured official status for Dutch and English in the Union of South Africa, as well as the equal treatment of these two languages. Without language equality, official recognition could easily exist only in name. By choosing a language design, they also ensured that the final recognition of Afrikaans was merely a formality. J.H.H. de Waal and C.J. Langenhoven were the only important activists who were outright anti-Dutch. Through their political actions, they established Afrikaans for certain functions, even before official recognition. Langenhoven also accelerated the standardisation of Afrikaans, thus facilitating official recognition. <![CDATA[<b>Dictionary didactics within a comprehensive dictionary culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372018000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article argues that the curricula of language and linguistics departments should include a component on lexicography. It is indicated that within a comprehensive dictionary culture, users need to be familiar with a variety of dictionary types and need to be able to execute a successful retrieval of information from the data on offer in dictionaries. A comprehensive dictionary culture has both general language and specialised dictionaries in its scope. Users need to be made aware of these dictionary types. Lexicographic training can be directed at three groups, namely dictionary users (who need to become familiar with dictionary using skills), future lexicographers (who need to master those aspects of meta-lexicography needed for the compilation of dictionaries) and future trainers of lexicography (who need a sound theoretical basis). The contents of a tertiary course in lexicography could commence with a broad context of the development of both the lexicographic practice and the theory of lexicography. A second focus could be on the contents, the different lexicographic tools, as well as the medium - printed or online format. Proposals are made for issues that could be discussed, regarding the treatment of meaning in monolingual and translation equivalents in bilingual dictionaries. <![CDATA[<b>The development of [</b><b>ʃ</b><b>] in Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372018000200004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This is a follow-up study on a seemingly recent development of the consonant system of Afrikaans that Wissing, Pienaar and Van Niekerk (2015) reported on. They show that the voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ is produced as the [ʃ], a voiceless postalveolar or alveopalatal fricative when immediately following the rhotic /r/, but as [s] in contexts other than this. To establish whether this phenomenon is characteristic of present-day Afrikaans in contrast to the pronunciation of previous generations, a survey was conducted in which the readings of news bulletins by two groups of radio presenters were analysed regarding their acoustic properties. These groups are representative of two generations of Afrikaans speakers, characterised as Oud [Old] and Jonk [Young]. Apart from the fact that the reading by Oud were recorded one to two decades ago (2000-2006), and those by Jonk during 2017, the average ages of these groups were at the time of recording 29 years for Jonk, and 50 years for Oud. A significant difference between the acoustic properties of the fricative /s/ following /r/ of these two groups was found. More specifically, Jonk, unlike Oud, clearly produced this phoneme as [ʃ]. This shows that notable sound shifts might happen within a relatively short time span. The article is concluded by considering a possible explanation of this recent phenomenon within the realm of theories of internal sound change. <![CDATA[<b>Norms of <i>huidiglik</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372018000200005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In Afrikaans, huidiglik is a truly Janus-faced word: it is being used with high frequency in especially spoken language, while at the same time being one of the biggest language pet-peeves of language practitioners (and even ordinary speakers of Afrikaans). When asked why huidiglik should be avoided, these language practitioners and language users often cannot provide any reasoning about it. A comprehensive literature review also reveals that linguists and language practitioners often give contradictory, or even linguistically incorrect reasons for why huidiglik is supposedly not acceptable in (standard) Afrikaans. By comparing a variety of normative grammaticographic sources (such as reference guides and prescriptive grammars), this article shows that: (1) huidiglik originated, on a balance of probability, in the 1970s in the South African Parliament; and (2) apart from stylistic preferences (e.g. that it sounds pretentious, feigned and affectatious), none of the linguistic arguments against huidiglik holds water. In a supplementary article in this issue of the journal it is being illustrated that huidiglik is alive and well in written (Standard) Afrikaans. <![CDATA[<b>The downgrading of Afrikaans: A political stupidity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372018000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Afrikaans is a partly creolised language, based on Dutch (dialects). It originated as the lingua franca of the dominated population of servants and slaves (the bruinmense), and was taken over by the dominant white population, which standardised it and developed it into a fully-fledged cultural language, comparable with other small Germanic languages such as Danish or Norwegian. It is the only example of a 'creoloid' that reached that level. Politically, it is a very bad idea to downgrade Afrikaans as a language of instruction at universities. This will lead to frustration and a renewed rise of Afrikaner nationalism. One should avoid unnecessary political tensions in a country that has to face matters that are far more urgent, such as the racially based inequality in wealth. <![CDATA[<b>Afskeid</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372018000200007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Afrikaans is a partly creolised language, based on Dutch (dialects). It originated as the lingua franca of the dominated population of servants and slaves (the bruinmense), and was taken over by the dominant white population, which standardised it and developed it into a fully-fledged cultural language, comparable with other small Germanic languages such as Danish or Norwegian. It is the only example of a 'creoloid' that reached that level. Politically, it is a very bad idea to downgrade Afrikaans as a language of instruction at universities. This will lead to frustration and a renewed rise of Afrikaner nationalism. One should avoid unnecessary political tensions in a country that has to face matters that are far more urgent, such as the racially based inequality in wealth.