Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Literator (Potchefstroom. Online)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2219-823720200001&lang=en vol. 41 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Influence of Sepitori on standard Setswana of its home language learners at three Tshwane townships</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article established how a mixed language spoken as a lingua franca by black residents of Tshwane, known as Sepitori, influenced learners who studied Setswana as a home language at three high schools in GaRankuwa, Mabopane and Soshanguve; all these three townships are located north of Pretoria's central business district. Data were gathered from 90 learners (30 from each school) and six Setswana educators from the same schools. Learners wrote an essay in Setswana on an interesting and contemporary topic 'free education for all university students', while educators were interviewed individually. Data analysis showed that Sepitori significantly influenced the written output of learners. Some educators were adamant that it was unreasonable to wish away Sepitori in Setswana classrooms because learners and many educators (regardless of the subjects they taught) ordinarily spoke Sepitori at the three townships be it at school or at home. <![CDATA[<b>Towards a theory of parental support: Development of English First Additional Language for grade 4 learners</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article sought to conceptualise guidelines that can assist parents in supporting learners' development of skills in English First Additional Language (EFAL). It argues that there is a need for a theory of parental support with regard to the development of EFAL of learners. English is both a First Additional Language (FAL) and the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) in most schools in South Africa. English is a home language to less than ten percent of South Africans. Therefore, for learners who do not have English as their mother tongue, there is an urgent need for language support. This article demonstrates that parents, as key stakeholders in development of EFAL at home, need guidance on how to provide support. Eight (n = 8) parents were selected conveniently to form part of the focus group discussions and to gain understanding of their experiences with regard to supporting the development of EFAL. The results revealed that parental support is a complex process that requires one to consider the interface of systems around the parent and the child. Consequently, the theory of parental support describes how, through the interface of these principles, parents can support second language development. The results of this study have pragmatic and policy implications for parental support with regard to the development of EFAL. <![CDATA[<b>Verlange na die vleispotte van Pretoria en die Baai</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article sought to conceptualise guidelines that can assist parents in supporting learners' development of skills in English First Additional Language (EFAL). It argues that there is a need for a theory of parental support with regard to the development of EFAL of learners. English is both a First Additional Language (FAL) and the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) in most schools in South Africa. English is a home language to less than ten percent of South Africans. Therefore, for learners who do not have English as their mother tongue, there is an urgent need for language support. This article demonstrates that parents, as key stakeholders in development of EFAL at home, need guidance on how to provide support. Eight (n = 8) parents were selected conveniently to form part of the focus group discussions and to gain understanding of their experiences with regard to supporting the development of EFAL. The results revealed that parental support is a complex process that requires one to consider the interface of systems around the parent and the child. Consequently, the theory of parental support describes how, through the interface of these principles, parents can support second language development. The results of this study have pragmatic and policy implications for parental support with regard to the development of EFAL. <![CDATA[<b><i>The neverending story</i> keer terug as <i>Die eindelose storie</i> vir jong en ouer generasies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article sought to conceptualise guidelines that can assist parents in supporting learners' development of skills in English First Additional Language (EFAL). It argues that there is a need for a theory of parental support with regard to the development of EFAL of learners. English is both a First Additional Language (FAL) and the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) in most schools in South Africa. English is a home language to less than ten percent of South Africans. Therefore, for learners who do not have English as their mother tongue, there is an urgent need for language support. This article demonstrates that parents, as key stakeholders in development of EFAL at home, need guidance on how to provide support. Eight (n = 8) parents were selected conveniently to form part of the focus group discussions and to gain understanding of their experiences with regard to supporting the development of EFAL. The results revealed that parental support is a complex process that requires one to consider the interface of systems around the parent and the child. Consequently, the theory of parental support describes how, through the interface of these principles, parents can support second language development. The results of this study have pragmatic and policy implications for parental support with regard to the development of EFAL. <![CDATA[<b>Post-imperial imaginaries in Zimbabwe: Interrogating betrayal in the pre- and post-war years in Chinodya's <i>Harvest of Thorns</i> and <i>Child of War</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Shimmer Chinodya's novels, Harvest of Thorns and Child of War, indict betrayal in the post-war years of Zimbabwe. The post-war years had potentially promised an imagined realm where black hegemony would supplant white supremacy to establish black utopia. This article examines the angst that follows the post-imperial betrayal of these ideals in Zimbabwe and evaluates the extent to which this betrayal affected the masses after a hard-won independence. It highlights the extent of despair among war veterans and the masses after their marginalisation on the eve of independence. The article further demonstrates how the transmogrification of youth into pseudo-adults during the years of the struggle and their post-independence abandonment caused untold crises in Zimbabwe, highlighting the inconstancy of post-imperial politics in Zimbabwe and in many other African countries. The literature depicting the years of the struggle and post-independence was consulted extensively to interrogate the ideals of independence and how these have been betrayed. The article contends that the nationalist government only succeeded in dislodging the coloniser and started carving a new repressive state apparatus. Benjamin, in Harvest of Thorns, epitomises the bitterness of the guerrillas who are emasculated and pauperised after fighting for freedom in Zimbabwe. Chinodya's later novels and short stories together with those of his contemporaries from other African countries such as South Africa and Kenya particularly recoil at the intransigence immanent in the new leadership who have marginalised citizens and inaugurated corruption. <![CDATA[<b><i>Die mooiste meisie van Genua</i>: Die moderne mens in 'n globaliserende wêreld</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Shimmer Chinodya's novels, Harvest of Thorns and Child of War, indict betrayal in the post-war years of Zimbabwe. The post-war years had potentially promised an imagined realm where black hegemony would supplant white supremacy to establish black utopia. This article examines the angst that follows the post-imperial betrayal of these ideals in Zimbabwe and evaluates the extent to which this betrayal affected the masses after a hard-won independence. It highlights the extent of despair among war veterans and the masses after their marginalisation on the eve of independence. The article further demonstrates how the transmogrification of youth into pseudo-adults during the years of the struggle and their post-independence abandonment caused untold crises in Zimbabwe, highlighting the inconstancy of post-imperial politics in Zimbabwe and in many other African countries. The literature depicting the years of the struggle and post-independence was consulted extensively to interrogate the ideals of independence and how these have been betrayed. The article contends that the nationalist government only succeeded in dislodging the coloniser and started carving a new repressive state apparatus. Benjamin, in Harvest of Thorns, epitomises the bitterness of the guerrillas who are emasculated and pauperised after fighting for freedom in Zimbabwe. Chinodya's later novels and short stories together with those of his contemporaries from other African countries such as South Africa and Kenya particularly recoil at the intransigence immanent in the new leadership who have marginalised citizens and inaugurated corruption. <![CDATA[<b><i>They don't make plus size spacesuits</i>: A fat studies analysis of selected literary texts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article used feminist fat studies as the theoretical rubric through which the author has offered a critical analysis of the representations of fat female characters in the two selected literary texts: Fatropolis (2012) by Tracey L. Thompson and They don't make plus size spacesuits (2019) by Ali Thompson. Both these texts are set in alternative realities and offer sustained engagements with the ubiquitous and pernicious manifestations of fat phobia in the lives of female characters. Although these authors chose science fiction as a genre, no fat woman would be able to read the texts without wincing in recognition. From the fat phobic micro aggressions to the blatant violence and discrimination that shape daily fat lives, these texts offer our experiences writ large. The fat female body remains something of a blind spot in contemporary feminist studies, which is somewhat strange, considering the profound impact that fat, and the fear of becoming fat, has on the lives of women in almost every sphere of life. Diet culture, which is regarded as the capitalist commodification of fat phobia, is so rife and has become so normalised that most people have simply stopped noticing how their bodies and activities are being policed at both the most intimate and the most public levels of their lives. Diet culture and fat phobia constitute a violent assault on fat women, and the experiences of these characters offer a safe space where feminist scholars could explore the dynamics that function to hurt, minimise and isolate fat women beyond the texts. <![CDATA[<b>'n Baldadige rit saam met Pieter Fourie se Gert Garries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article used feminist fat studies as the theoretical rubric through which the author has offered a critical analysis of the representations of fat female characters in the two selected literary texts: Fatropolis (2012) by Tracey L. Thompson and They don't make plus size spacesuits (2019) by Ali Thompson. Both these texts are set in alternative realities and offer sustained engagements with the ubiquitous and pernicious manifestations of fat phobia in the lives of female characters. Although these authors chose science fiction as a genre, no fat woman would be able to read the texts without wincing in recognition. From the fat phobic micro aggressions to the blatant violence and discrimination that shape daily fat lives, these texts offer our experiences writ large. The fat female body remains something of a blind spot in contemporary feminist studies, which is somewhat strange, considering the profound impact that fat, and the fear of becoming fat, has on the lives of women in almost every sphere of life. Diet culture, which is regarded as the capitalist commodification of fat phobia, is so rife and has become so normalised that most people have simply stopped noticing how their bodies and activities are being policed at both the most intimate and the most public levels of their lives. Diet culture and fat phobia constitute a violent assault on fat women, and the experiences of these characters offer a safe space where feminist scholars could explore the dynamics that function to hurt, minimise and isolate fat women beyond the texts. <![CDATA[<b>Die Wonderwese - 'n klankryke verbeeldingservaring</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article used feminist fat studies as the theoretical rubric through which the author has offered a critical analysis of the representations of fat female characters in the two selected literary texts: Fatropolis (2012) by Tracey L. Thompson and They don't make plus size spacesuits (2019) by Ali Thompson. Both these texts are set in alternative realities and offer sustained engagements with the ubiquitous and pernicious manifestations of fat phobia in the lives of female characters. Although these authors chose science fiction as a genre, no fat woman would be able to read the texts without wincing in recognition. From the fat phobic micro aggressions to the blatant violence and discrimination that shape daily fat lives, these texts offer our experiences writ large. The fat female body remains something of a blind spot in contemporary feminist studies, which is somewhat strange, considering the profound impact that fat, and the fear of becoming fat, has on the lives of women in almost every sphere of life. Diet culture, which is regarded as the capitalist commodification of fat phobia, is so rife and has become so normalised that most people have simply stopped noticing how their bodies and activities are being policed at both the most intimate and the most public levels of their lives. Diet culture and fat phobia constitute a violent assault on fat women, and the experiences of these characters offer a safe space where feminist scholars could explore the dynamics that function to hurt, minimise and isolate fat women beyond the texts. <![CDATA[<b>Rosarium: A four-part collage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article used feminist fat studies as the theoretical rubric through which the author has offered a critical analysis of the representations of fat female characters in the two selected literary texts: Fatropolis (2012) by Tracey L. Thompson and They don't make plus size spacesuits (2019) by Ali Thompson. Both these texts are set in alternative realities and offer sustained engagements with the ubiquitous and pernicious manifestations of fat phobia in the lives of female characters. Although these authors chose science fiction as a genre, no fat woman would be able to read the texts without wincing in recognition. From the fat phobic micro aggressions to the blatant violence and discrimination that shape daily fat lives, these texts offer our experiences writ large. The fat female body remains something of a blind spot in contemporary feminist studies, which is somewhat strange, considering the profound impact that fat, and the fear of becoming fat, has on the lives of women in almost every sphere of life. Diet culture, which is regarded as the capitalist commodification of fat phobia, is so rife and has become so normalised that most people have simply stopped noticing how their bodies and activities are being policed at both the most intimate and the most public levels of their lives. Diet culture and fat phobia constitute a violent assault on fat women, and the experiences of these characters offer a safe space where feminist scholars could explore the dynamics that function to hurt, minimise and isolate fat women beyond the texts. <![CDATA[<b>Rewards and punishments as developing gendered ideologies in Grimm Brothers' <i>Briar Rose</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Fairy tale literature can be identified as didactic, as it shares moralistic and educational ideals through its characters and themes. Intending to instruct, fairy tales relate specific moralistic concepts, indicating accepted and unaccepted conduct. Researchers have postulated the correlation between a fairy tale and its social context, considering that these tales include contrived elements specific to the societal structure from which they originate. Specific to this research is the connection between a fairy tale and the gendered ideals held within the society as noted in Grimm Brothers' Briar Rose. The version analysed in this article is the Collins Classics collection of the Grimm Brothers' tales, which was published in 2013. This tale reflects content which perpetuates and supports the patriarchal expectations of the 19th-century Germany. The Grimm Brothers' treatment of the princess, 13th fairy and prince reinforce gender-specific roles for men and women. The rewards and punishments earned by the characters mould not only their behaviours, but also potentially the behaviours of the 19th-century readers. This article analyses the behavioural consequences faced by the characters in Briar Rose, with particular consideration of how these responses convey gender ideals to the readers, and how these influence their own subsequent behaviour and expectations. <![CDATA[<b>Crampton and Engerth: The 'mechanical brides' of J-K. Huysmans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article explores the startling comparison Huysmans introduces early in Á Rebours (1884) between two French steam locomotives, Crampton and Engerth, and representations of the female form. It suggests that the trope should be read as a modernist cameo proleptically anticipating the story's later interrogation of homoerotic sexual and gender identity. By detailing some of the railway technology involved, the article explains why the comparison between the female form and the steam engine is flighted between two locomotives rather than one, demonstrating that the bizarre literary figure presents more than a generalised personification of machinery. Baron Jean des Esseintes' judgement that the two locomotives are more beautiful than Woman plays itself out in significant variations through the texture of the novel, leading eventually to a painful recognition that his rarefied, decadent/aesthetic approach to existence is indeed Á Rebours, 'against nature', or 'the wrong way'. <![CDATA[<b>The / r / in Afrikaans: Phonetic and phonological features</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en One of the most common consonants in Afrikaans is the rhotic /r/ phoneme. In Afrikaans this phoneme has at least five allophone realisations. Firstly, an overview of the /r/ phoneme in Afrikaans is given. A comprehensive discussion is provided of the articulatory properties of the alveolar trill [r] and the uvular trill [ʀ]. This is followed by a discussion of the acoustical properties of [r] and [ʀ]. In-depth descriptions of the phonology of /r/ follow. Examples were taken from a variety of spoken databases. Extensive new examples are given of the phonological processes of /r/ omission, rhoticism, palatalisation, metathesis, and the influence of /r/ on the lowering and stretching of vowels. In some cases, these are complemented by audio clips. Basic statistical information is supplied about the extent to which processes are present in the standard variety of Afrikaans, and some other varieties. Secondly, we place the resultant findings concerning Afrikaans rhotic consonants within a broader linguistic framework. In 2001 Wiese encapsulates the essence of existing studies in this regard by looking into evidence of the role of rhotics as a systematic class in phonological patterning, their place in syllabic structures, and associated to that, the phonotactic unity of rhotics. The allophonic variation of rhotics, as well as the phonemic alternations thereof also gets attention. In 2009 Chabot reports that the arbitrary relation between the phonetic substance of rhotics and the associated phonological objects are devoid of any reference to phonetic categories. Our results are also in accordance with his conclusion in this regard. <![CDATA[<b>Imperialism and the abject Gothic double: Jane Goodwin Austin's 'After Three Thousand Years'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jane Goodwin Austin (1831-1894) published her short story 'After Three Thousand Years' in 1868. Austin's tale is one of the first narratives to deal with a malevolent female mummy and what is known as the mummy's curse. Her story has received limited critical attention unlike a similar story published by Louisa May Alcott in 1869, 'Lost in a Pyramid, or The Mummy's Curse'. This lack of scholarly attention makes Austin's short story more interesting to the researcher than that of Alcott. In my article, I will perform a close reading of 'After Three Thousand Years', examining how the imperialist theme is intertwined with the abject Gothic doubling of the mummy and the female protagonists, which I consider to be central to the plot of Austin's story. <![CDATA[<b>Eerbetoon aan Pieter Fourie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jane Goodwin Austin (1831-1894) published her short story 'After Three Thousand Years' in 1868. Austin's tale is one of the first narratives to deal with a malevolent female mummy and what is known as the mummy's curse. Her story has received limited critical attention unlike a similar story published by Louisa May Alcott in 1869, 'Lost in a Pyramid, or The Mummy's Curse'. This lack of scholarly attention makes Austin's short story more interesting to the researcher than that of Alcott. In my article, I will perform a close reading of 'After Three Thousand Years', examining how the imperialist theme is intertwined with the abject Gothic doubling of the mummy and the female protagonists, which I consider to be central to the plot of Austin's story. <![CDATA[<b>'n Viering van Afrikaans en Jaap Steyn</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jane Goodwin Austin (1831-1894) published her short story 'After Three Thousand Years' in 1868. Austin's tale is one of the first narratives to deal with a malevolent female mummy and what is known as the mummy's curse. Her story has received limited critical attention unlike a similar story published by Louisa May Alcott in 1869, 'Lost in a Pyramid, or The Mummy's Curse'. This lack of scholarly attention makes Austin's short story more interesting to the researcher than that of Alcott. In my article, I will perform a close reading of 'After Three Thousand Years', examining how the imperialist theme is intertwined with the abject Gothic doubling of the mummy and the female protagonists, which I consider to be central to the plot of Austin's story. <![CDATA[<b>Verdunde Tolkien vir die kinders</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jane Goodwin Austin (1831-1894) published her short story 'After Three Thousand Years' in 1868. Austin's tale is one of the first narratives to deal with a malevolent female mummy and what is known as the mummy's curse. Her story has received limited critical attention unlike a similar story published by Louisa May Alcott in 1869, 'Lost in a Pyramid, or The Mummy's Curse'. This lack of scholarly attention makes Austin's short story more interesting to the researcher than that of Alcott. In my article, I will perform a close reading of 'After Three Thousand Years', examining how the imperialist theme is intertwined with the abject Gothic doubling of the mummy and the female protagonists, which I consider to be central to the plot of Austin's story. <![CDATA[<b>Poësie met 'n mistieke ondertoon uit die Oos-Ortodokse tradisie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jane Goodwin Austin (1831-1894) published her short story 'After Three Thousand Years' in 1868. Austin's tale is one of the first narratives to deal with a malevolent female mummy and what is known as the mummy's curse. Her story has received limited critical attention unlike a similar story published by Louisa May Alcott in 1869, 'Lost in a Pyramid, or The Mummy's Curse'. This lack of scholarly attention makes Austin's short story more interesting to the researcher than that of Alcott. In my article, I will perform a close reading of 'After Three Thousand Years', examining how the imperialist theme is intertwined with the abject Gothic doubling of the mummy and the female protagonists, which I consider to be central to the plot of Austin's story. <![CDATA[<b>The plague of Athens</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jane Goodwin Austin (1831-1894) published her short story 'After Three Thousand Years' in 1868. Austin's tale is one of the first narratives to deal with a malevolent female mummy and what is known as the mummy's curse. Her story has received limited critical attention unlike a similar story published by Louisa May Alcott in 1869, 'Lost in a Pyramid, or The Mummy's Curse'. This lack of scholarly attention makes Austin's short story more interesting to the researcher than that of Alcott. In my article, I will perform a close reading of 'After Three Thousand Years', examining how the imperialist theme is intertwined with the abject Gothic doubling of the mummy and the female protagonists, which I consider to be central to the plot of Austin's story. <![CDATA[<b>Corrigendum: Narrative materiality and practice: A study of born-free negotiation of periphery and centre</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372020000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jane Goodwin Austin (1831-1894) published her short story 'After Three Thousand Years' in 1868. Austin's tale is one of the first narratives to deal with a malevolent female mummy and what is known as the mummy's curse. Her story has received limited critical attention unlike a similar story published by Louisa May Alcott in 1869, 'Lost in a Pyramid, or The Mummy's Curse'. This lack of scholarly attention makes Austin's short story more interesting to the researcher than that of Alcott. In my article, I will perform a close reading of 'After Three Thousand Years', examining how the imperialist theme is intertwined with the abject Gothic doubling of the mummy and the female protagonists, which I consider to be central to the plot of Austin's story.