Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Literator (Potchefstroom. Online)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2219-823720220001&lang=en vol. 43 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>'Journeys into Dirt' in Robyn Davidson's <i>Tracks</i> (1980) and Patrick White's <i>Voss</i> (1957)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The 2019 Association for the Study of Australian Literature Conference took as its theme the subject of 'dirt', and inspired this paper which examines the 'journeys into dirt' by explorer figures in Patrick White's 1957 novel Voss and Robyn Davidson's 1980 memoir Tracks. Drawing on theory of dirt developed by material ecocritic Helen Sullivan and by philosopher Olli Lagerspetz we demonstrate that the narratives of their travels show them engaged in transformative encounters with the Australian desert. In doing so we challenge Tom Lynch's reading of the two texts as 'traversals' which portray the desert as 'alien, hostile and undifferentiated void'. Using Keith Garebian's distinction between 'desert' and 'garden' we examine how these explorers find and respond to 'the garden in the desert'. Davidson couches her memoir as an exploration narrative and treats the desert as a 'lived space' which she 'writes home'; having learned how to 'be' in it, and so to 'recover' the garden in the desert. Like her, Voss and his companions experience the desert as beautiful and inspirational, even, at times, nurturant and sustaining. Since Voss's orientation is spiritual and transcendent, however, White's treatment of the desert shows conceptual and corporeal boundaries between human and environment shifting and fading in their interaction with it. In both texts episodes occur of immersion in dirt - dust in Tracks and mud in Voss - which serve to illustrate and to emphasise the interconnectedness we humans have with the essential, elemental environment of dirt. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring multilingualism at the national department levels in South Africa post the <i>Use of Official Languages Act</i> of 2012</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The main objective of this article is to explore how multilingualism (i.e. the use of three or more languages) is practised at the level of national departments in South Africa since the passing of new language legislation called the Use of Official Languages Act (No. 12 of 2012). In support of this main objective, the article seeks to establish the attitudes held towards languages and official multilingualism (i.e. multilingualism which is recognised by government) by national departments' employees responsible for matters related to language and communication. It also seeks to establish the perception of the general public on how public servants treat language when communicating with them. Data were gathered through document analyses, survey questionnaires (completed by employees at two national departments), and face-to-face interviews (with members of the public). Participants (i.e. national departments' employees and members of the public) held positive attitudes towards official multilingualism by supporting the development and use of all 11 official languages, particularly the historically marginalised Black South African languages (BSALs). Also, as far as these two national departments are concerned, the Use of Official Languages Act (No. 12 of 2012) was yet to be fully implemented as per its objects set out in its Preamble, as the language policies developed by these national departments were yet to be implemented. <![CDATA[<b><i>By die dag</i>: Eunice Basson se bedrewe omgang met die brose daaglikse werklikheid</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The main objective of this article is to explore how multilingualism (i.e. the use of three or more languages) is practised at the level of national departments in South Africa since the passing of new language legislation called the Use of Official Languages Act (No. 12 of 2012). In support of this main objective, the article seeks to establish the attitudes held towards languages and official multilingualism (i.e. multilingualism which is recognised by government) by national departments' employees responsible for matters related to language and communication. It also seeks to establish the perception of the general public on how public servants treat language when communicating with them. Data were gathered through document analyses, survey questionnaires (completed by employees at two national departments), and face-to-face interviews (with members of the public). Participants (i.e. national departments' employees and members of the public) held positive attitudes towards official multilingualism by supporting the development and use of all 11 official languages, particularly the historically marginalised Black South African languages (BSALs). Also, as far as these two national departments are concerned, the Use of Official Languages Act (No. 12 of 2012) was yet to be fully implemented as per its objects set out in its Preamble, as the language policies developed by these national departments were yet to be implemented. <![CDATA[<b>The elevation of Sepedi from a dialect to an official standard language: Cultural and economic power and political influence matter</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study explored the role played by economic, cultural, and political power and influence when a particular dialect was elevated to the status of an official standard language. This was a qualitative study that employed text analysis where journal articles, dissertations, theses, academic books and Parliamentary Joint Constitutional Review minutes were considered for data collection and analysis. In order to supplement the above-mentioned method, 267 research participants involving students (undergraduate and postgraduate) and lecturers from the selected five South African universities, including members of the language authorities, were also invited to participate in the study. Self-administered survey questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were chosen as qualitative methods for data collection. From a dialectal point of view, this study indicated that all official standard languages were dialects before. However, these dialects were considered superior and elevated to the status of official languages because of socio-economic power and political influence. This article further recorded that the status type of language planning in the South African context is quite political in nature, not less linguistic. It was against this background that the researchers claim that there is no official standard language that was not a dialect before. <![CDATA[<b>Contested selves and postmodern hybridity: Authorial renunciation and gender revisionism in Patrick White's <i>Memoirs of Many in One</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article attempted to reclaim Patrick White's final novel, Memoirs of Many in One, from the margins of White scholarship. The novel was a significant omission from the first major study of White's oeuvre to appear in over 25 years, entitled Remembering Patrick White: Contemporary Critical Essays, edited by Elizabeth McMahon and Brigitta Olubas. Reviled by critics such as David Tacey as demonstrating White's systematic repudiation and trivialisation of his literary legacy, most palpably commemorated in the form of the 1973 Nobel Prize for Literature, the novel has been largely ignored by White scholars. Bridget Grogan's ground-breaking new monograph on White's work, Reading corporeality in Patrick White's fiction also did not include a study of Memoirs. But, this was most probably because the novel does not fit the theoretical focus of her study. As I hope to demonstrate, using postmodernist, Lacanian and film theory, the book may be reinterpreted as a conscious renunciation by its author of the realist tenets, which saw the author as a God-like, omniscient figure. By placing himself as just another character in his novel and fracturing his gendered and narratological (author)ity in the form of multiple, never fully inhabited selves, White revealed the ultimate fraudulence of any claim to authorial and narrative transcendence. <![CDATA[<b>A blatant disregard of Section 6 (1) of the Constitution of South Africa by higher education institutions and language authorities: An onomastic discrepancy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The primary focus of this article is the onomastic discrepancies that are considered a blatant disregard of Section 6 (1) of the Constitution of South Africa (Act No. 108 of 1996). The article employs a qualitative research approach where text analysis is used, focusing on constitutional documentation, legislative frameworks on language-related matters and higher education policy documentations, as well as language policy documentation from the selected 10 South African universities that offered Sepedi as a first language or conversational module. It is found that there is a constitutional disregard by competent organisations such as universities, financial institutions, Google and language authorities (such as Pan South African Language Board, Sesotho sa Leboa National Language Body and Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit), since most of the policies are inconsistent with Section 6 (1) of the South African Constitution, 1996. In summary, the article records that the policies supersede the Constitution, since the language name 'Northern Sotho/Sesotho sa Leboa' is the most used name to refer to the official standard language rather than its counterpart, Sepedi. <![CDATA[<b>Intertwined in a living world: The conversation about Ingrid Jonker on Instagram</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ingrid Jonker is a legend in Afrikaans literature who is sometimes compared with figures such as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley and James Dean. Because she is such an important figure in Afrikaans literature, the current study examines the conversation around her on the social media platform, Instagram. The current study conducts an analysis of hashtags used in conjunction with #ingridjonker in order to determine which texts, people, places, films, musicians, plays, visual arts, emotions and the like are associated with her on this platform. Her strong connection with André P. Brink is highlighted and it is also shown how she remains relevant across language and medium boundaries. <![CDATA[<b>Erratum: The plague of Athens</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372022000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ingrid Jonker is a legend in Afrikaans literature who is sometimes compared with figures such as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley and James Dean. Because she is such an important figure in Afrikaans literature, the current study examines the conversation around her on the social media platform, Instagram. The current study conducts an analysis of hashtags used in conjunction with #ingridjonker in order to determine which texts, people, places, films, musicians, plays, visual arts, emotions and the like are associated with her on this platform. Her strong connection with André P. Brink is highlighted and it is also shown how she remains relevant across language and medium boundaries.