Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Literator (Potchefstroom. Online)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2219-823720210001&lang=en vol. 42 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The Gothic genre, classical allusion and other influences in Oscar Wilde's <i>The Picture of Dorian Gray</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article will outline the aspects of influence and allusion in the novel, with reference to Victorian Gothic, classical mythology, the psychological double, monster theory, the Faustian bargain, the mask and a prominent memento mori in Huysmans' A Rebours, his description of Rodolphe Bresdin's lithograph, 'The Comedy of Death'. Wilde's novel is a complex, multi-layered text, and a richer, more profound understanding of it becomes possible when it is situated within this context of influence and allusion. <![CDATA[<b>New approaches and strategies for teaching African children initial reading</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the 1990s, during investigations at primary schools, the author tested the ability of Grade 2 African children to read, finding that about 80% of them could read. However, for the past 15 years the author has found that only about 20% of Grade 2 African learners can read, as also confirmed by the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) which in 2016 found that about 80% of Grade 4 children do not have basic reading skills, indicating a reading crisis in South Africa. For this article pedagogic reasons for the reading crisis, and possible solutions, were sought by means of a literature search regarding: the reading crisis, its causes and consequences; approaches to initial reading and their suitability to African languages; and departmental prescriptions for Grade 1. Two pedagogic reasons for the crisis were found: (1) The approaches to initial reading in use are not suitable for African children and African languages and (2) The Grade 1 Lesson Plan (instead of the Government's CAPS) used for teaching English second language, confuses children with written English, with another set of letter sounds, so that most cannot learn to read. This article proposes a new curriculum for Grade 1, and addresses the following gaps in the literature: it points out particulars about African languages that indicate the phonics approach to initial reading unsuitable for African children, while advocating the syllabic approach, long unknown and/or misjudged. This article is also significant for pointing out the injustice done to children who must do initial reading in two languages simultaneously. <![CDATA[<b>Die veld van gewone taal in Afrikaans oopgeskryf</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the 1990s, during investigations at primary schools, the author tested the ability of Grade 2 African children to read, finding that about 80% of them could read. However, for the past 15 years the author has found that only about 20% of Grade 2 African learners can read, as also confirmed by the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) which in 2016 found that about 80% of Grade 4 children do not have basic reading skills, indicating a reading crisis in South Africa. For this article pedagogic reasons for the reading crisis, and possible solutions, were sought by means of a literature search regarding: the reading crisis, its causes and consequences; approaches to initial reading and their suitability to African languages; and departmental prescriptions for Grade 1. Two pedagogic reasons for the crisis were found: (1) The approaches to initial reading in use are not suitable for African children and African languages and (2) The Grade 1 Lesson Plan (instead of the Government's CAPS) used for teaching English second language, confuses children with written English, with another set of letter sounds, so that most cannot learn to read. This article proposes a new curriculum for Grade 1, and addresses the following gaps in the literature: it points out particulars about African languages that indicate the phonics approach to initial reading unsuitable for African children, while advocating the syllabic approach, long unknown and/or misjudged. This article is also significant for pointing out the injustice done to children who must do initial reading in two languages simultaneously. <![CDATA[<b>'Why not follow our words bodily into the future tense?': Life, death and posthuman bodies in Don DeLillo's <i>Zero K</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The overarching problem foregrounded by the novel is how human mortality should be treated in the face of the inexorability of death, as well as the human desire for immortality. From the investigation of the role that the human body and self and life and death play in Zero K, it is evident that there is, in fact, evidence of a posthumanist framework: from technological practices (the body and cryonic freezing) and ethics (Zero K and Ross's decision), to aesthetics (ways of seeing and the role of art). The aim of this article is to read Don DeLillo's Zero K within the framework of the posthuman, specifically focusing on the following central aspects of the novel: the role of the human body and the concept of the posthuman; the relationship between the self, the body and language; death and the challenges of posthumanism; and the relationship between ways of seeing, art and death. The starting point is to explore how the literature, particularly fiction, creates a richer and more complex notion of the contexts and issues arising from the idea of the posthuman and/or new human. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring Grade 8 Khelobedu-speaking learners' writing challenges in Sepedi Home Language in Mopani District, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In South Africa, Khelobedu-speaking leaners learn Sepedi as their 'home language' at school because Khelobedu (sometimes referred to as 'Selobedu') is classified as a dialect of Sotho. This article draws on the challenges that Grade 8 Khelobedu-speaking learners experience when writing in Sepedi Home Language. This article will encourage teachers to reflect on their teaching and support the learners to write better. The study aimed to investigate the Selobedu-speaking leaners' writing experiences in Sepedi Home Language with reference to dialectical variations, exploring the strategies learners use to adapt and making recommendations to support them. A qualitative research study was conducted at two public high schools in Mopani District. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with four Sepedi teachers, learner group interviews with 30 learners from two high schools (15 per school) and 60 learner essays (30 per school). The data were analysed through content analysis and error analysis. Both the teacher interviews and learner focus group interviews revealed that the teachers used Khelobedu in the Sepedi classrooms. Moreover, teacher interviews also suggested that the learners also used Khelobedu words and pronunciation in their writing and spelt Sepedi words the way they pronounced them in Khelobedu. Further, the essays indicated that the learners struggled to write in Sepedi; they made spelling mistakes, had limited Sepedi vocabulary and struggled with conjunctive and disjunctive writing. Finally, the findings revealed that the dialectal variations between Khelobedu and Sepedi interfered with the learners' writing instead of being additive. The learners used Khelobedu words in their writing and spelt Sepedi words the way they pronounced them in Khelobedu. <![CDATA[<b>Echoes of <i>lithoko</i> in modern Sesotho poetry: An intertextual perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is the view of this article that since its inception in the early 1930s, modern Sesotho poetry (MSP) has played host to other literary genres; amongst them lithoko. This article therefore regards some of the content in MSP, reflective of and traceable back to lithoko. Amongst others, these echoes are in the form of eulogues and communicative devices. Nevertheless, the reviewed literature gives no indication of any scholar exploring this literary relationship between modern Sesotho poetry and lithoko. Hence this article sets out to explore this intertextual relationship between lithoko as the literary parasite, and MSP as the host. In doing this, firstly the article establishes what it considers as lithoko content in MSP, which is classified under eulogues and lithoko communicative devices. Then, from the Sesotho poetry texts within the clusters into which the texts under study have been divided, content that is regarded as the echoes of lithoko in MSP is identified and discussed. Using intertextuality as a guiding theory, the first category of eulogues is considered. The article reveals that this mother-child literary relationship between these two phenomena is manifested in a number of ways in MSP. This revelation goes a long way in not only opening up perceptions of both scholars and analysts of modern Sesotho poetry with regard to the structural content, but also poetic dynamics of the genre. Furthermore, the intertextual disclosure helps poetry scholars to have a full appreciation of MSP as literature and of its literariness. <![CDATA[<b>Esterhuizen en die gladde stiltes van die digkuns</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is the view of this article that since its inception in the early 1930s, modern Sesotho poetry (MSP) has played host to other literary genres; amongst them lithoko. This article therefore regards some of the content in MSP, reflective of and traceable back to lithoko. Amongst others, these echoes are in the form of eulogues and communicative devices. Nevertheless, the reviewed literature gives no indication of any scholar exploring this literary relationship between modern Sesotho poetry and lithoko. Hence this article sets out to explore this intertextual relationship between lithoko as the literary parasite, and MSP as the host. In doing this, firstly the article establishes what it considers as lithoko content in MSP, which is classified under eulogues and lithoko communicative devices. Then, from the Sesotho poetry texts within the clusters into which the texts under study have been divided, content that is regarded as the echoes of lithoko in MSP is identified and discussed. Using intertextuality as a guiding theory, the first category of eulogues is considered. The article reveals that this mother-child literary relationship between these two phenomena is manifested in a number of ways in MSP. This revelation goes a long way in not only opening up perceptions of both scholars and analysts of modern Sesotho poetry with regard to the structural content, but also poetic dynamics of the genre. Furthermore, the intertextual disclosure helps poetry scholars to have a full appreciation of MSP as literature and of its literariness. <![CDATA[<b>Différentes façons d'envisager la peur</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is the view of this article that since its inception in the early 1930s, modern Sesotho poetry (MSP) has played host to other literary genres; amongst them lithoko. This article therefore regards some of the content in MSP, reflective of and traceable back to lithoko. Amongst others, these echoes are in the form of eulogues and communicative devices. Nevertheless, the reviewed literature gives no indication of any scholar exploring this literary relationship between modern Sesotho poetry and lithoko. Hence this article sets out to explore this intertextual relationship between lithoko as the literary parasite, and MSP as the host. In doing this, firstly the article establishes what it considers as lithoko content in MSP, which is classified under eulogues and lithoko communicative devices. Then, from the Sesotho poetry texts within the clusters into which the texts under study have been divided, content that is regarded as the echoes of lithoko in MSP is identified and discussed. Using intertextuality as a guiding theory, the first category of eulogues is considered. The article reveals that this mother-child literary relationship between these two phenomena is manifested in a number of ways in MSP. This revelation goes a long way in not only opening up perceptions of both scholars and analysts of modern Sesotho poetry with regard to the structural content, but also poetic dynamics of the genre. Furthermore, the intertextual disclosure helps poetry scholars to have a full appreciation of MSP as literature and of its literariness. <![CDATA[<b>A comparative study that investigates the treatment of technical terms, acronyms and numbers in a Tsonga technical target text</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In each and every translated text, there is a certain intended meaning that is being communicated to the target reader or audience in their target language, which is equivalent to what is in the source text. Nonetheless, there is still a big debate on whether a translation should follow the communicative meaning or the semantic meaning when conveying the communicated message. This article provides an analysis and application of Toury's Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS) methodology on the treatment of technical terms, abbreviations or acronyms and numbers in a Tsonga target text. It also investigated the strategies applied by the translator to close the gap between the two languages in question (Tsonga and English), which vary significantly when we compare their instrumental value, hegemony and economic status. <![CDATA[<b>Students' perceptions of the inclusion of the English Word Power programme at one university in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: South Africa has incorporated Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into many university classrooms in order to help address ubiquitous concerns related to the limited English language proficiency of first-year university students. In the context of this study, the research site used the CALL application called the English Word Power (EWP programme). Research to establish students' perceptions of the CALL application is somewhat limited, although students' perceptions of a learning environment can be more useful in explaining their behaviour. Therefore, teachers' understanding of the students' perceptions towards a new learning programme is likely to assist them in tailoring the content according to the needs of the learners. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the students' perceptions of the use of the EWP, a computer-based programme used for improving English language proficiency. The researchers endeavoured to gain an understanding of the students' perceptions of the strengths and frustrations of the EWP programme. Specifically, the focus was on what the students perceived as their preferred mode of learning and what their views were regarding the contribution of the EWP programme in improving their language skills. METHOD: The study was qualitative in nature and a case study design was adopted. A purposive sample of 60 students from an Information and Communication Technology's (ICT) Foundation programme was used to collect data. Focus group interviews were conducted with 60 purposefully selected students and content analysis was used to process data. RESULTS: The study yielded mixed results, as some students were happy with some of the components of the EWP programme whilst others were frustrated with some components. Specifically, some students reported experiencing frustration with the irrelevant nature of the EWP content. On the contrary, the study revealed that students were satisfied with the EWP programme's accessibility, which facilitated their learning opportunities. Some students reported that their language proficiency concerning spelling and vocabulary had improved. The findings further revealed that the students preferred face-to-face learning to the EWP programme learning environment. CONCLUSION: The implication of the findings is that students need a language learning programme that is relevant to their field of study. They also require a programme that allows for student-student and lecturer-student interaction. <![CDATA[<b>De Beaumont's <i>Beauty and the Beast</i>: A feminist analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en De Beaumont's fairy tale La Belle et la Bête published in 1757 in France is examined in this article by analysing gender roles and performativity, using the feminist and new historicist frameworks. The characters of Beauty, her sisters and that of the Beast are analysed for evidence of typical, patriarchal behaviours and relationships or more modern, innovative ones. Adapting her tale from the much longer text by De Villeneuve, De Beaumont created an innovative tale which discusses gendered expectations and marriage relationships in modern ways. Her characters and their relationships are often inverted and they behave in ways unexpected and unaccepted by the overtly-gendered, 18th-century patriarchal rule. As her tale was created primarily to educate her younger 18th-century readers, the tale is an interesting commentary on gender roles of 18th-century France. De Beaumont provided alternatives to the typical female fairy tale characters, depicting an empowered Beauty who makes her own decisions and in doing so, is able to free the Beast from his imprisonment in a beastly body. De Beaumont faced a number of challenges in creating her tale, making it a subverted feminist rendition, often portraying contrasting female characters in ways subtler than more recent renditions of the classic tale. Beauty does not aggressively contrast patriarchal ideas of gender, and neither does the Beast; however, their characterisations present alternatives to these patriarchal expectations and stretch their boundaries on masculine and feminine behaviour. <![CDATA[<b>Agatha Christie's Poirot novels as fairy tales: Two case studies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The popularity of detective stories may result from the attraction of the hero, the entertaining thrill of the plot or the comforting power of the overall message which promises that evil will be defeated in the end: there is always someone able to fight it and determined to do so. But the immense success of detective stories can also be explained otherwise, which is the purpose of this article. In this research, Vladimir Propp's narratemes - understood as recurring, genre-specific structure elements of the plot - are evidenced in two successful detective novels by Agatha Christie. The nature of detective novels in general and the uniqueness of the detective Poirot as a character are outlined, followed by the presentation of Propp's narratemes. Then, the contents of two selected works by Christie, The mysterious affair at Styles and The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, are scrutinised and retold in terms of the narratemes identified in them. It is thereby claimed and confirmed through selected examples that the detective novels examined draw on a modified morphology typical of fairy tales, as is described by Propp. Consequently, further research is postulated to verify the hypothesis of similarities between detective novels and fairy tales as a factor contributing to the tremendous success of the former as a genre. <![CDATA[<b>Literary translation, symbolic development and inclusion in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Post-apartheid South African society remains characterised by significant social asymmetries and the need for development. Yet development should encompass not only meeting people's material needs to ensure survival, but also the attainment of higher social ideals such as solidarity, citizenship and inclusion. Literary translation involving local languages has been posited as one way of attaining such ideals, yet this postulation requires further investigation. The main objective of this article is to investigate the intersections between literary translation and social transformation in South Africa from the perspective of symbolic development, which is accompanied and complemented by a consideration of symbolic exclusion. The focus is firstly on the theoretical connections between literary translation, development and inclusion and secondly on the practical disjunctions between these. The article finds that in theory, there is ground to promote literary translation as a means towards symbolic development because of its ability to equalise language statuses and promote intercultural appreciation. Yet, the highly commodified nature of literature amidst the continuation of socioeconomic inequalities as well as the position of English in literature detract from translation's ability to foster symbolic development realistically within society at large, at least for the moment. From a theoretical perspective, the utility of incorporating development into translation studies remains significant, however, and translation studies could benefit from further investigation of translational development locally, mainly for its ability to direct research practically towards socially beneficial goals, specifically when combined with exclusion. <![CDATA[<b>Digital assistance for academic Afrikaans - first lessons from a development project</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article identifies digital assistance in the development of academic writing skills (specifically in Afrikaans) as a problem that can be partially improved with annotated data from an appropriate corpus. Reference is made to the corpus that ICELDA and SADILAR developed and annotated for informing the development of the software package, Skryfhulp Afrikaans. The emphasis in the article is on the purpose and usefulness of the annotated data within the context of ICELDA and SADILAR's mandates, and the preliminary findings of the first trial run with the data annotation indicating that the project is headed in the right direction, considered from a pedagogical perspective. <![CDATA[<b>The onomastic possibility of renaming the Sepedi and Sesotho sa Leboa (Northern Sotho) language names to restore peace, dignity and solidarity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The study embraced the onomastic possibility of renaming the Sepedi and Sesotho sa Leboa (Northern Sotho) language names that have caused and are still causing onomastic confusion to the first language (L1) speakers of the language under scrutiny, and also to the speakers of other languages. The study was conducted in 2019 at five selected South African universities - University of Johannesburg, University of South Africa, University of Limpopo, University of Venda and Tshwane University of Technology - which offered the language under investigation as an L1 module. In addition, language experts (practitioners) at the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB) and its sub-structures and the National Department of Arts and Culture, including Limpopo and Gauteng Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation, were also involved in the study. Quota sampling was used to select all the 267 participants in the study. The study found that both Sepedi and Sesotho sa Leboa (Northern Sotho) language names are rejected by onomastic principles of naming an official language. An overwhelming majority of the participants opined that this language should be renamed, with the anticipation that the new name will bring peace, unity and solidarity to the L1 speakers of Sepedi. <![CDATA[<b>Exposure to queer characters in Konigsberg's <i>Openly Straight</i> through social messaging</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372021000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Research conducted by The Other Foundation has indicated that South Africans view the lives of queer individuals as lifestyle choice (34%), illness (12%), sin (5.10%), results of these individuals' upbringing (3.80%) and/or resulting from the influence of ancestral spirits (3.70%). Advocacy and information about sexual orientation and sexual diversity through literary as characters may be instrumental in possibly changing negative perceptions of queer individuals. This article aims to show how a selected young adult queer novel, and the social messaging that emerges from the text, may be a potentially influential location for creating an awareness and better understanding of queer individuals. The aim of the investigation on which the article is based was to examine the possibility or viability of implementing critical literacy in secondary education systems in the language classroom as an opportunity to address social issues in heteronormative environments. The social messages found in queer texts may be used as entry points to fruitful discourse in language classroom environments. The study followed a qualitative approach with the use of critical hermeneutics as a strategy of inquiry and social constructivism as philosophical worldview. The queer text utilised was Openly Straight (2013) by Bill Konigsberg with the method of data generation being document analysis. The main findings were that queer texts should form part of the language classroom (as learners may read these texts critically and emphatically) and that Bill Konigsberg's Openly Straight contained social messages that can contribute to positive influences on queer- and heterosexual readers.