Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Literator (Potchefstroom. Online)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2219-823720190001&lang=en vol. 40 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Africa in Brathwaite: The matrix of cultural quest, identity and history as poetic vision</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>Released</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>ʼn</b><b> Woordaangedrewe vaartuig: Susan Smith se eko-digkuns</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>Nicola Hanekom se <i>In glas</i>: Die donker nadraai van onvervulde begeerte</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>'Tussen die abjekte en die eteriese': 'n Belangrike toevoeging tot Afrikaanse literêre vertalings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>An African's faith: Discourse and disclosure in selected works by Sindiwe Magona</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The recent attention to decolonisation in academia and other facets of the sociopolitical landscape has encouraged many to re-examine their tenets of faith and their methods of incorporating personal expressions of spirituality into their decision-making processes. The significance of faith practices for South Africans as they manoeuvre the challenges of navigating the post-apartheid context has been acknowledged across a number of disciplines, including law, education and healthcare. Yet for decades, South African writers have seamlessly included religious thought and practice into their works, evidencing the subtle influence of faith and tradition in their prose. For many, their religious faith has been vital to their identity development and cultural expression, and synonymous with their liberation. This article examines these metaphoric realities in the cohesive interplay of African traditions and western Christianity in the oeuvre of recognised black South African writer Sindiwe Magona. <![CDATA[<b>English as a medium of worship: The experiences of the congregants of a Pentecostal charismatic church in Soweto</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study examines the experiences of the congregants of a Pentecostal charismatic church (PCC) in Soweto regarding the use of English for communication. This particular church is peculiar in that English is its predominant language of religion. This is in stark contrast to many mainline churches (such as the Anglican, Lutheran and Roman Catholic churches) that use indigenous African languages (IALs) in most, if not entire, presentation of church services for black congregants. The curiosity then arises concerning the reasons for the predominant use of English during services in PCCs. The objectives of this study were to find out the general views of black congregants about the English language, how this view may impact on the congregants' view of the use of English within the context of the service and what their preferences about language use in the sermon are, and why. The findings suggest that the congregants view English positively and are receptive to its use in the service, particularly for conducting sermons. In addition, English is seen as an all-inclusive language but notably, not as a language of identity. Based on these findings, strategies for accommodating the diverse language concerns of the congregation were espoused. <![CDATA[<b>On the neo-<i>Vedanta</i> as reconceptualised by Vivekananda in his <i>Complete Works</i>: A cognitive linguistic analysis in light of Conceptual Metaphor Theory</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Die Blye Boodskap, vervreem</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Debuut van 'n ervare skrywer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Van kant gemaak, of met 'n growwer draad geweef?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Die baie stemme van Adam Small</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Literary and philosophical marginal notes regarding the transformation trilogy of Antjie Krog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In her published PhD thesis, 'baie worde : Identiteit en transformasie by Antjie Krog ['many becomings': Identity and transformation in the thought of Antjie Krog], Jacomien Van Niekerk directs her attention to the issues mentioned in the title of her thesis. In the discussion of the trilogy at hand a brief assessment is given of the place of works similar to these within the South African literature. The work of Van Niekerk is appreciated as a contribution to Krog studies, and as a reflection on identity within a South African context. According to Van Niekerk, the concept 'identity' and the concern for the possibility of the origination of new identities, such as a South African, Pan African and even a 'black' identity, occupies a central position in this work. The work of Van Niekerk is aligned with postcolonial thinking on identity, nationhood and becoming, as well as the investigation of 'whiteness', and 'blackness' as the opposite of the 'white' Eurocentrism of the colonial era. Van Niekerk shows that Krog understands identity as a process of becoming. According to Van Niekerk, the ultimate aim of her book is to launch an investigation into nationhood, while simultaneously highlighting Krog's rejection of Eurocentrism and the accompanying conception of the 'inherent superiority' of western modernity. A shortcoming in the work of Van Niekerk is the striking absence of references to writers such as F.A. van Jaarsveld, Fransjohan Pretorius, J.C. Steyn and Herman Giliomee, all of them authors who wrote extensively about these issues. This results in a particularly one-sided perspective on the past. Krog attempts to justify everything in terms of African thought. Her thinking often borders upon becoming superficial, emotional and ideologically driven. Sometimes it is even 'propagandistic' and non-intellectual in nature. Van Niekerk mentions the strong interest in African philosophy. However, both western philosophy and African philosophy are confronted with the same problems. In this article, attention is given to those philosophical problems that are implicit or explicit in the work of Van Niekerk. Among them are problems such as the issue of essentialism, the relationships between what is universal and what is individual, constancy and dynamics (persistence and change), the nature of the whole-parts relation, the question concerning identity-in-becoming, nation, ethnic groups and the state, the relationships between community and communality, the question regarding the assumed social constructs of human society, blackness and whiteness, and a postcolonial yearning to 'become otherwise'. Even though it may appear that these problems are not interrelated, the way in which they are scrutinised in more detail indeed makes it clear that they do cohere, apart from the fact that all these problems surface in Van Niekerk's work and in the publications of Krog. Ultimately all these problems are philosophical in nature. Investigating them does not elevate one or another 'thought-system' to become the norm for all the others. Rather attention is drawn to certain states of affairs, as well as exercising immanent criticism. <![CDATA[<b>South African Grade 5 non-native learners learning Mandarin as a second additional language with a focus on Chinese characters</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The South African Department of Basic Education (DBE) listed Mandarin as a second additional language (SAL) (Grades 4-9) in the National Curriculum Statement Grades R to 12 in 2015. We identified a gap in current research regarding the learning of Chinese characters by non-native learners of Mandarin as an SAL. The great number of characters, their complexity and the absence of grapheme-phoneme correspondences put a huge strain on learners' memory. Rote learning and repetitive exercises lead to boredom and lack of motivation to learn Mandarin. A qualitative research design (case study) was employed in this study. Individual and focus group interviews, questionnaires, classroom observation and a Chinese characters exercise for researchers were used as data collection tools. The data were analysed manually using an inductive process and organised according to categories, themes and conclusions. The study highlights how South African Grade 5 learners learning Mandarin as a SAL learn the Chinese characters and the challenges they encounter. We consider the educational implications for learning Chinese characters and offer recommendations. <![CDATA[<b>Character (and absence) as a narrative key in installation art</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre. <![CDATA[<b>Literêre subtiliteite onder 'n growwe oppervlak</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre. <![CDATA[<i><b>Uittogboek</b></i><b> - 'n ryk boek vir jou laaste reis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre. <![CDATA[<b>Van Dis is terug</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre. <![CDATA[<b>Leonine imagery in C.S. Lewis's series The Chronicles of Narnia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Throughout the centuries, lion images have figured prominently in literature, art, heraldry and statuary. In Chinese art, for instance, lions appear more predominantly than dragons as guardians of buildings and temples, whereas across Europe, warriors surged across continents conquering under the image of the roaring lion emblazoned on their monarchs' flags. Furthermore, numerous cultures and religious traditions symbolically embody their rulers, both divine and temporal, using leonine imagery. Through an investigation of this imagic representation, this article will explore the selection of the lion, Aslan, as the spiritual depiction of the Christ-figure in C.S. Lewis' series The Chronicles of Narnia. <![CDATA[<b>Kaka country: An intertextual reading of national dysfunction in Bulawayo's <i>We Need New Names</i> and Jinga's <i>One Foreigner's Ordeal</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Reading fictional narratives is a complex process that has been a preoccupation of scholars and critics in linguistics and literary criticism since Plato and Aristotle. The contention that texts are constructed (and reconstructed) through a network of prior and concurrent discourses problematises the view that a text functions as a hermetic, self-sufficient, closed system. This article examines selected Zimbabwean fictional narratives that are Bulawayo's We Need New Names and Jinga's One Foreigner's Ordeal focusing on how the texts speak to each other and reconfigure the African literary canon. The article draws from post-structuralist, Julia Kristeva's intertextuality theory in order to interrogate stylistic and thematic (re)configurations in the selected novels. Close textual analysis shows that the act of reading plunges the reader into a maze of textual relations and meanings that emerge from this never-ending interaction. Intertextuality is an insightful and essential interpretive framework that draws our attention to the complexities and multiplicities of discourses in fictional narratives. The framework points to the complex matrix of textual relations that oppose the fixation of meanings but rather suggests an infinite range of interpretations. This brings into sharp focus and conversation the question of the author's intentionality, the need for critical evaluation of textual interactions and the role of the reader in the production of meanings. Intertextuality engenders new horizons of reading and understanding literary texts by generating multiple sites of textual meanings. In other words, intertextuality theory posits that the textual interpretative trajectory is inconclusive, calling on readers to explore the textual entanglement and dialogic selves which facilitate a (re)discovering and (re)constructing of ambivalence and negotiation of meanings. <![CDATA[<b>'White' poverty and 'white' privilege in selected Afrikaans novels for young adults</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examines the representation of 'white' poverty in selected Afrikaans novels for young adults published between 1990 and 2014: Droomwa (1990) by Barrie Hough, Die optog van die aftjoppers (1994) by George Weideman, Vaselinetjie (2004) by Anoeschka von Meck, Roepman (2004) by Jan van Tonder, Lien se lankstaanskoene (2008) by Derick van der Walt and Iewers vlieg daar fairy dust (2014) by Marisa Haasbroek. In these novels, poverty functions as a feature of the so-called problem book and coming of age novel. The novels are analysed, however, by employing critical whiteness studies as an overarching theoretical framework. Indicators of the 'white' characters' poverty are identified with regard to description, dialogue, actions and place with the aim of determining how and why these representations are evident in the novels. Apartheid is the backdrop for two of the novels; here, 'white' poverty is portrayed in a nostalgic manner. In the other novels, 'white' poverty is portrayed as irreconcilable with 'whiteness'; 'white' privilege prevails. <![CDATA[<b>Reframing migrant identities: Namelessness and impersonation in Dinaw Mengestu's <i>All Our Names</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>Op die spoor van die verlede</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>Die medereisiger wat sin aan die reis gee</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>'n Vrou, 'n plaas en briewe uit die nag</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>A timely update to an important anthology of Afrikaans poems in translation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>Koningin Lear: Vlaamse Shakespeare getransformeer in Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>Albertyn lewer 'n onskatbare bydrae tot die Afrikaanse drama</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>Twee gedigte</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Drawing on Jacques Derrida's rationality about the decentring force of language and texts, postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha uses Derrida's notion of dissemination as a telling metaphor for transcending the idea of boundaries. Bhabha avers that dissemination is 'that moment of the scattering of the people that in other times and other places, in the nations of others, becomes a time of gathering'. His application of the notion of dissemination entails challenging notions of borders and historicity located in the idea of national identity. In this article, I explore the numerous ways in which dissemination is presented as a site for re-examination, refashioning and reinvention of the identity of the African protagonist in Dinaw Mengestu's All Our Names. I critically analyse the sojourner conceit in the novel in the light of impersonation as a narrative technique that the author employs to exemplify how the trope of namelessness reflects and inscribes notions of nomadic and migrant identities. This theme is evident in the anguish and trauma of the dislocated subject's search for belonging and for a sense of self-worth. This anguish is deepened by the racial fault lines that are also inscribed in the novel. I demonstrate that the problem of race performs a difficult task in the narrative, helping to expose 'some of the ways in which the African other is excluded from dominant discourse and rendered invisible through the racially demarcated topography' when he is away from his natal home. <![CDATA[<b>Narrative materiality and practice: A study of born-free negotiation of periphery and centre</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article explores a small story narrative, the community of practice and the orientations of a group of 'born-free' participants as these interact with the material discourses of the Gautrain station in the business district of Sandton in the Gauteng, South Africa. 'Born frees' are young people born after the end of Apartheid. They are of interest in social studies because of the enormous demographic, familial and educational changes they represent. The discussion of the article concerns, firstly, the genre of account, and the relation between story and trajectory. Trajectory and the spatial coordinates of the story are introduced to understand what Sandton and its material discourses represent for these participants. The Gautrain station is then approached through geosemiotics. Thirdly, the negotiation of social space implicit in the co-construction of the small story is analysed through axes of intersubjectivity applied to participant orientation and narrativisation. Methodologically, this article follows a new narrative turn that sees narrative as practice. It seeks to introduce materiality to analysis. As storytelling, from this perspective, is embedded within physically co-present texts, signs and representations, the methodology was to map samples of participant talk against a site. This allowed participant stories, isolated using qualitative audio annotation, to be situated in the exact place of their telling, and for analysis to include artefacts of the semiotic landscape, which is to say textual or visual ensembles such as notices, posters and billboards that are displayed in urban public space and that represent a circulation of wider discourses. <![CDATA[<b>'We live one in another': The Gothic and uncanny representation of the female double in <i>The Crime of Laura Sarelle</i> by Joseph Shearing (pseudonym of Marjorie Bowen)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Margaret Gabrielle Vere Long, née Campbell, was born in 1885 and died in 1952; she wrote mostly under the name of Marjorie Bowen. She was a prolific writer and produced historical romances, supernatural horror stories, popular history, biographies and an autobiography. Writing under the pseudonym Joseph Shearing, Bowen produced what can be considered Gothic mystery novels such as The Crime of Laura Sarelle (1941). In this article, I will conduct a close reading of this novel and will argue that Bowen's reimagining of the character Laura as simultaneously heroine and femme fatale, as well as eerily possessed by a ghostly past, makes an important contribution to the Gothic trope of the female double. Through a comparison of Bowen's evocation of the double and that of Daphne du Maurier's more famous evocation of the double in Rebecca (1938), I aim to demonstrate that Bowen's use of the double is more Gothically compelling and powerful than that of du Maurier. Moreover, I will contend that Bowen's unusual rendering of Gothic themes, along with her stylistic elegance, makes her work worthy of further scholarly study. <![CDATA[<b>Learners' attitudes towards the recognition and development of isiBhaca in the education space in Umzimkhulu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Attitudes towards varieties of a language have been an issue in educational contexts. For example, it is generally said that societies have a positive attitude towards the standard variety and a negative attitude towards the non-standard varieties of a language. The attitudes towards language varieties can affect their use in education and can have an impact on learners' learning and achievement. In some contexts, learners hold a view that dialect-speaking learners have lower academic potential than learners speaking the standard dialect. The learners' attitudes have significant implications for the use of dialects in the classroom as it can determine the value and emphasis given to the dialect in education. Therefore, this article establishes the attitudes held by learners towards the recognition and development of isiBhaca in the education space in Umzimkhulu. Using mixed methods, the study followed a survey research design. Data were gathered from 128 purposively selected learners from Grades 6 and 7 at six schools in Umzimkhulu. Mean scores about the belief statements were calculated in order to analyse the quantitative data, whereas the qualitative data were analysed thematically. The study found that learners held positive attitudes towards the recognition and development of isiBhaca in the education space, although they were unsure as to whether this recognition should extend to the language being given official status in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape, where it has a significant number of home language speakers. <![CDATA[<b>Cavafy, Vos, Dangor: A belated reply to Phil van Schalkwyk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The influence of the Alexandrian Greek poet Constantin Cavafy on South African literature in English has received some attention, but his impact on Afrikaans letters merits further investigation. The present article partly fills that gap by examining a small body of poetry and fiction by Cas Vos and Achmat Dangor. It draws on an article by Phil van Schalkwyk to show what it might mean to write in the manner of Cavafy. Thereafter, it discusses Vos's translations into Standard Afrikaans within his context. Achmat Dangor wrote his Cavafian poetry in a Vernacular Afrikaans. The article considers how writers and poets such as Mark Twain, David Dabydeen, Richard Rive and Adam Small have responded to the challenges and implications of writing in non-standard varieties of English and Afrikaans. Because irony and parody characterise Dangor's initial debt to Cavafy, this piece also considers these devices. It then moves to a detailed analysis of the relevant poems by Dangor, including comparisons with the poems by Cavafy they evoke, and then to work by Dangor on Cavafy in Standard English in which he reflects on why Cavafy has influenced him. It argues that Dangor discarded a literary vernacular medium for Standard English because of the former's implicit distinction between 'ordinary' (inarticulate, authentic) and 'extra-ordinary' (articulate, unauthentic) patois speakers. It concludes that Dangor's switch to Standard English may have resolved a personal dilemma, but leaves unanswered many questions about the literary use of a patois. <![CDATA[<b>Die komplekse towerkrag van taal en Tolkien</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100034&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The influence of the Alexandrian Greek poet Constantin Cavafy on South African literature in English has received some attention, but his impact on Afrikaans letters merits further investigation. The present article partly fills that gap by examining a small body of poetry and fiction by Cas Vos and Achmat Dangor. It draws on an article by Phil van Schalkwyk to show what it might mean to write in the manner of Cavafy. Thereafter, it discusses Vos's translations into Standard Afrikaans within his context. Achmat Dangor wrote his Cavafian poetry in a Vernacular Afrikaans. The article considers how writers and poets such as Mark Twain, David Dabydeen, Richard Rive and Adam Small have responded to the challenges and implications of writing in non-standard varieties of English and Afrikaans. Because irony and parody characterise Dangor's initial debt to Cavafy, this piece also considers these devices. It then moves to a detailed analysis of the relevant poems by Dangor, including comparisons with the poems by Cavafy they evoke, and then to work by Dangor on Cavafy in Standard English in which he reflects on why Cavafy has influenced him. It argues that Dangor discarded a literary vernacular medium for Standard English because of the former's implicit distinction between 'ordinary' (inarticulate, authentic) and 'extra-ordinary' (articulate, unauthentic) patois speakers. It concludes that Dangor's switch to Standard English may have resolved a personal dilemma, but leaves unanswered many questions about the literary use of a patois. <![CDATA[<b>W.L. van der Merwe daag die dood uit</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100035&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The influence of the Alexandrian Greek poet Constantin Cavafy on South African literature in English has received some attention, but his impact on Afrikaans letters merits further investigation. The present article partly fills that gap by examining a small body of poetry and fiction by Cas Vos and Achmat Dangor. It draws on an article by Phil van Schalkwyk to show what it might mean to write in the manner of Cavafy. Thereafter, it discusses Vos's translations into Standard Afrikaans within his context. Achmat Dangor wrote his Cavafian poetry in a Vernacular Afrikaans. The article considers how writers and poets such as Mark Twain, David Dabydeen, Richard Rive and Adam Small have responded to the challenges and implications of writing in non-standard varieties of English and Afrikaans. Because irony and parody characterise Dangor's initial debt to Cavafy, this piece also considers these devices. It then moves to a detailed analysis of the relevant poems by Dangor, including comparisons with the poems by Cavafy they evoke, and then to work by Dangor on Cavafy in Standard English in which he reflects on why Cavafy has influenced him. It argues that Dangor discarded a literary vernacular medium for Standard English because of the former's implicit distinction between 'ordinary' (inarticulate, authentic) and 'extra-ordinary' (articulate, unauthentic) patois speakers. It concludes that Dangor's switch to Standard English may have resolved a personal dilemma, but leaves unanswered many questions about the literary use of a patois. <![CDATA[<b>Verdienstelike gids tot die Boeddhisme en meditasie opnuut in Afrikaans uitgegee</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100036&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The influence of the Alexandrian Greek poet Constantin Cavafy on South African literature in English has received some attention, but his impact on Afrikaans letters merits further investigation. The present article partly fills that gap by examining a small body of poetry and fiction by Cas Vos and Achmat Dangor. It draws on an article by Phil van Schalkwyk to show what it might mean to write in the manner of Cavafy. Thereafter, it discusses Vos's translations into Standard Afrikaans within his context. Achmat Dangor wrote his Cavafian poetry in a Vernacular Afrikaans. The article considers how writers and poets such as Mark Twain, David Dabydeen, Richard Rive and Adam Small have responded to the challenges and implications of writing in non-standard varieties of English and Afrikaans. Because irony and parody characterise Dangor's initial debt to Cavafy, this piece also considers these devices. It then moves to a detailed analysis of the relevant poems by Dangor, including comparisons with the poems by Cavafy they evoke, and then to work by Dangor on Cavafy in Standard English in which he reflects on why Cavafy has influenced him. It argues that Dangor discarded a literary vernacular medium for Standard English because of the former's implicit distinction between 'ordinary' (inarticulate, authentic) and 'extra-ordinary' (articulate, unauthentic) patois speakers. It concludes that Dangor's switch to Standard English may have resolved a personal dilemma, but leaves unanswered many questions about the literary use of a patois. <![CDATA[<b>Notes on memory culture and the (un)translatable, with illustrative reference to Elfriede Jelinek's <i>Die Kinder der Toten</i> (1995)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100037&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Some commentators regard Austrian writer Elfriede Jelinek's major work, Die Kinder der Toten (1995), not only as a difficult novel but also as an untranslatable text. Various aspects of the novel seem to support this: not only does the text include a great many denotative and connotative 'untranslatables' but Jelinek's deconstructivist understanding of language also suggests a philosophically orientated slant to its untranslatability. The latter is first and foremost illustrated by her use of 'Sprachflächen' that subverts a linear reading of the novel. However, the very 'untranslatability' of the text should not be understood as an obstacle that defeats any and all attempts at its translation. As Apter (2014) and Cassin (2016) suggest, the untranslatable is precisely that which one does not stop (not) to translate. Viewed from this perspective, it seems as if the very untranslatability of Die Kinder der Toten can be understood as an invitation to engage with the complexities of the text and the memory culture it represents. These complexities can be related to the historical particularities of the Austrian memory culture that Jelinek presents and criticises in her novel. The untranslatable nature of Die Kinder der Toten illustrates that memory culture and its discursive artefacts have no definitive meanings that can easily be translated. And because the engagement with difficult pasts is continuous, no translation of the works created in its wake can be definitive. To a large extent, the untranslatable becomes the catalyst of continuous attempts to engage with a difficult past from an outsider perspective. <![CDATA[<b>Double standards on dress code and lust in the guise of tradition in the novel <i>Umshado</i> [<i>Marriage</i>], 2006, by N. Zulu: A feminist approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article critically reviews the differences in attitudes and in language used between men and women through dialogue, especially when it comes to dress code, and with specific reference to N. Zulu's novel Umshado. The various dresses worn by the protagonist, Tholakele, during her encounters with Bhekani portray her as a loose woman who always wishes to seduce men, and as one who is sexually available to men. But all that Tholakele seems to demand is that she should be allowed to dress in any attire she feels comfortable in, and to behave freely, as men do. She represents women who wish to introduce change, and who aspire to be placed on the same pedestal as their male counterparts. The novel, however, shows that women are chastised and ostracised when they try to break free from the shackles of patriarchy. Hence, we argue in this article that the juxtaposition of Tholakele's behaviour, so disapproved of by the society, and that of Bhekani's behaviour, shows double standards in the treatment of men and women. <![CDATA[<b>Iceni to iconic: Literary, political and ideological transformations of Boudica through time</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Boudica has captivated the imagination of generations of scholars, artists, writers and poets, eventually becoming firmly entrenched in popular culture which has attempted to articulate England's national identity through the dwelling on the heroic past and emphasising her position as a Muse. This article focuses on the use and manipulation of the image of Boudica to evoke the heritage of the 'noble savage' or as an example of 'native barbarianism' by successive regimes striving to establish a historical foundational past in an attempt to create a nationalist historiography. The representation of the image of Boudica through a detailed historical analysis, starting from the earliest mention in Tacitus to more recent representations of the icon, will illustrate how the dichotomy of interpretation has rendered her a chameleon: sometimes a villain and sometimes a heroine. However, through all these incarnations, Boudica never truly loses her place as a nationalistic icon, symbol of victory and figurehead of resistance for the emergent British people. <![CDATA[<b>Sitting pretty, but simmering with anger</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Boudica has captivated the imagination of generations of scholars, artists, writers and poets, eventually becoming firmly entrenched in popular culture which has attempted to articulate England's national identity through the dwelling on the heroic past and emphasising her position as a Muse. This article focuses on the use and manipulation of the image of Boudica to evoke the heritage of the 'noble savage' or as an example of 'native barbarianism' by successive regimes striving to establish a historical foundational past in an attempt to create a nationalist historiography. The representation of the image of Boudica through a detailed historical analysis, starting from the earliest mention in Tacitus to more recent representations of the icon, will illustrate how the dichotomy of interpretation has rendered her a chameleon: sometimes a villain and sometimes a heroine. However, through all these incarnations, Boudica never truly loses her place as a nationalistic icon, symbol of victory and figurehead of resistance for the emergent British people. <![CDATA[<b>Op die spoor van my voorsate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100041&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Boudica has captivated the imagination of generations of scholars, artists, writers and poets, eventually becoming firmly entrenched in popular culture which has attempted to articulate England's national identity through the dwelling on the heroic past and emphasising her position as a Muse. This article focuses on the use and manipulation of the image of Boudica to evoke the heritage of the 'noble savage' or as an example of 'native barbarianism' by successive regimes striving to establish a historical foundational past in an attempt to create a nationalist historiography. The representation of the image of Boudica through a detailed historical analysis, starting from the earliest mention in Tacitus to more recent representations of the icon, will illustrate how the dichotomy of interpretation has rendered her a chameleon: sometimes a villain and sometimes a heroine. However, through all these incarnations, Boudica never truly loses her place as a nationalistic icon, symbol of victory and figurehead of resistance for the emergent British people.