Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Literator (Potchefstroom. Online)]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2219-823720190001&lang= vol. 40 num. 1 lang. <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Africa in Brathwaite: The matrix of cultural quest, identity and history as poetic vision</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100001&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>Released</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100002&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>ʼn</b><b> Woordaangedrewe vaartuig: Susan Smith se eko-digkuns</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100003&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>Nicola Hanekom se <i>In glas</i>: Die donker nadraai van onvervulde begeerte</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100004&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>'Tussen die abjekte en die eteriese': 'n Belangrike toevoeging tot Afrikaanse literĂªre vertalings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100005&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Brathwaite's invocation and experimental appropriation of 'nation language' is a significant mediation that destabilises and de-authorises coloniality, inscribing a new 'in-betweenness' that highlights how the subaltern can speak. I argue here that the poet-persona's minted vocabulary and his re-appropriation of canonical texts such as the Bible and Shakespeare's The Tempest inaugurates a meta-discursive enunciation of epistemic possibilities. In embracing the fragmented contours of Barbados and radically privileging the political complicity of Africa in the matrix of slavery, Brathwaite embosses languaging as the primus for problematising identity, belonging and becoming. Polysemy therefore emerges as a complex interplay of enunciation and emergence, agency, subjectivity and restlessness that recuperates the anguish of contact, marginality and resistance while at the same time celebrating the plurality of the interstitial self. <![CDATA[<b>An African's faith: Discourse and disclosure in selected works by Sindiwe Magona</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100006&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The recent attention to decolonisation in academia and other facets of the sociopolitical landscape has encouraged many to re-examine their tenets of faith and their methods of incorporating personal expressions of spirituality into their decision-making processes. The significance of faith practices for South Africans as they manoeuvre the challenges of navigating the post-apartheid context has been acknowledged across a number of disciplines, including law, education and healthcare. Yet for decades, South African writers have seamlessly included religious thought and practice into their works, evidencing the subtle influence of faith and tradition in their prose. For many, their religious faith has been vital to their identity development and cultural expression, and synonymous with their liberation. This article examines these metaphoric realities in the cohesive interplay of African traditions and western Christianity in the oeuvre of recognised black South African writer Sindiwe Magona. <![CDATA[<b>English as a medium of worship: The experiences of the congregants of a Pentecostal charismatic church in Soweto</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100007&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This study examines the experiences of the congregants of a Pentecostal charismatic church (PCC) in Soweto regarding the use of English for communication. This particular church is peculiar in that English is its predominant language of religion. This is in stark contrast to many mainline churches (such as the Anglican, Lutheran and Roman Catholic churches) that use indigenous African languages (IALs) in most, if not entire, presentation of church services for black congregants. The curiosity then arises concerning the reasons for the predominant use of English during services in PCCs. The objectives of this study were to find out the general views of black congregants about the English language, how this view may impact on the congregants' view of the use of English within the context of the service and what their preferences about language use in the sermon are, and why. The findings suggest that the congregants view English positively and are receptive to its use in the service, particularly for conducting sermons. In addition, English is seen as an all-inclusive language but notably, not as a language of identity. Based on these findings, strategies for accommodating the diverse language concerns of the congregation were espoused. <![CDATA[<b>On the neo-<i>Vedanta</i> as reconceptualised by Vivekananda in his <i>Complete Works</i>: A cognitive linguistic analysis in light of Conceptual Metaphor Theory</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100008&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Die Blye Boodskap, vervreem</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100009&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Debuut van 'n ervare skrywer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100010&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Van kant gemaak, of met 'n growwer draad geweef?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100011&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Die baie stemme van Adam Small</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100012&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (henceforth CW). Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars because his interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation for choosing his CW as the empirical domain for the current study. AntConc software was used to mine Vivekananda's CW for water-related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the CW. The data were then tagged using a convention inspired by the well-known Metaphor Identification Procedure - Vrije University (MIPVU). Then, a representative sample of the data was chosen, and the metaphors were mapped and analysed thematically. Five of these are referred to in this article, but special emphasis is placed on the theme of the Vedanta philosophy as the basis for neo-Hinduism, which has become synonymous with contemporary Hinduism, with Yoga as the practical wing, and Vedanta as the ideological basis for the practice; this aspect is expounded upon in more detail. The study's main aim was therefore to investigate whether Hindu religious discourse uses metaphors to explain abstract religious concepts in a specific way, and indeed one of the main findings was the pervasiveness of water as a source domain. Hence, the key finding in this article is that neo-Hindu thought, as reconceptualised by Vivekananda, relies heavily on the water frame (as is convention in the field of Cognitive Semantics, conceptual domains are written in upper case, including hypothetical frames and conceptual metaphors), which is not as pervasive in other religio-philosophical traditions. <![CDATA[<b>Literary and philosophical marginal notes regarding the transformation trilogy of Antjie Krog</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100013&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= In her published PhD thesis, 'baie worde : Identiteit en transformasie by Antjie Krog ['many becomings': Identity and transformation in the thought of Antjie Krog], Jacomien Van Niekerk directs her attention to the issues mentioned in the title of her thesis. In the discussion of the trilogy at hand a brief assessment is given of the place of works similar to these within the South African literature. The work of Van Niekerk is appreciated as a contribution to Krog studies, and as a reflection on identity within a South African context. According to Van Niekerk, the concept 'identity' and the concern for the possibility of the origination of new identities, such as a South African, Pan African and even a 'black' identity, occupies a central position in this work. The work of Van Niekerk is aligned with postcolonial thinking on identity, nationhood and becoming, as well as the investigation of 'whiteness', and 'blackness' as the opposite of the 'white' Eurocentrism of the colonial era. Van Niekerk shows that Krog understands identity as a process of becoming. According to Van Niekerk, the ultimate aim of her book is to launch an investigation into nationhood, while simultaneously highlighting Krog's rejection of Eurocentrism and the accompanying conception of the 'inherent superiority' of western modernity. A shortcoming in the work of Van Niekerk is the striking absence of references to writers such as F.A. van Jaarsveld, Fransjohan Pretorius, J.C. Steyn and Herman Giliomee, all of them authors who wrote extensively about these issues. This results in a particularly one-sided perspective on the past. Krog attempts to justify everything in terms of African thought. Her thinking often borders upon becoming superficial, emotional and ideologically driven. Sometimes it is even 'propagandistic' and non-intellectual in nature. Van Niekerk mentions the strong interest in African philosophy. However, both western philosophy and African philosophy are confronted with the same problems. In this article, attention is given to those philosophical problems that are implicit or explicit in the work of Van Niekerk. Among them are problems such as the issue of essentialism, the relationships between what is universal and what is individual, constancy and dynamics (persistence and change), the nature of the whole-parts relation, the question concerning identity-in-becoming, nation, ethnic groups and the state, the relationships between community and communality, the question regarding the assumed social constructs of human society, blackness and whiteness, and a postcolonial yearning to 'become otherwise'. Even though it may appear that these problems are not interrelated, the way in which they are scrutinised in more detail indeed makes it clear that they do cohere, apart from the fact that all these problems surface in Van Niekerk's work and in the publications of Krog. Ultimately all these problems are philosophical in nature. Investigating them does not elevate one or another 'thought-system' to become the norm for all the others. Rather attention is drawn to certain states of affairs, as well as exercising immanent criticism. <![CDATA[<b>South African Grade 5 non-native learners learning Mandarin as a second additional language with a focus on Chinese characters</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100014&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= The South African Department of Basic Education (DBE) listed Mandarin as a second additional language (SAL) (Grades 4-9) in the National Curriculum Statement Grades R to 12 in 2015. We identified a gap in current research regarding the learning of Chinese characters by non-native learners of Mandarin as an SAL. The great number of characters, their complexity and the absence of grapheme-phoneme correspondences put a huge strain on learners' memory. Rote learning and repetitive exercises lead to boredom and lack of motivation to learn Mandarin. A qualitative research design (case study) was employed in this study. Individual and focus group interviews, questionnaires, classroom observation and a Chinese characters exercise for researchers were used as data collection tools. The data were analysed manually using an inductive process and organised according to categories, themes and conclusions. The study highlights how South African Grade 5 learners learning Mandarin as a SAL learn the Chinese characters and the challenges they encounter. We consider the educational implications for learning Chinese characters and offer recommendations. <![CDATA[<b>Character (and absence) as a narrative key in installation art</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100015&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre. <![CDATA[<b>LiterĂªre subtiliteite onder 'n growwe oppervlak</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100016&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre. <![CDATA[<i><b>Uittogboek</b></i><b> - 'n ryk boek vir jou laaste reis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100017&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre. <![CDATA[<b>Van Dis is terug</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2219-82372019000100018&lng=&nrm=iso&tlng= Installation art has been critically interpreted with reference to themes or situations, the transgressive nature of this art form, place and space, material, or immersion and embodied perception. To a lesser degree, installation art's narrative possibilities have also been explored. However, the centrality of character as a narratological tool for the interpretation of installation art has not yet been comprehensively investigated. As the viewer in installation art is transformed into an active participant by virtue of physically entering and 'completing' the work, it is argued that he or she also becomes a character in the storyworld of the artwork. Furthermore, it is posited that this participant-character becomes a focaliser who co-constructs the narrative suggested by the work by engaging with the narrativised elements presented in the work, often together with suggested absences at which the work hints. This article shows that character as a narratological tool creates interpretative possibilities for installation art and adds new dimensions to the narrative potential of this art form. Using character (and absence) in the South African installation artist Jan van der Merwe's work Biegbak/Confessional (2003) as an example, an expansion of the narratological toolbox of installation art is suggested, that could find broader application in many works in this genre.