Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Radiology ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2078-677820190001&lang=en vol. 23 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Solid to cystic: A case report of imaging findings of atypical lung metastases</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2078-67782019000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The imaging spectrum of pulmonary metastases varies greatly, with solid and partly cavitating nodules being the most common. When imaging the oncology patient, specifically follow-up imaging post-treatment, the radiological aim is to assess for disease regression and thus treatment response, usually with resolution of these nodules. We report an interesting case series of a patient with primary endometrial carcinoma presenting with pulmonary metastases. This imaging series eloquently depicts the temporal evolution of the metastatic solid pulmonary nodules to cavitating nodules and finally to thin-walled cysts. Baseline imaging in this scenario is vital to exclude pre-existing cystic lung disease. The progression of solid pulmonary metastases to simple cysts is an uncommon therapy-related consequence, but an important entity to recognise, not only as an indicator of good treatment response, but also to evaluate for potential life-threatening complications such as spontaneous pneumothoraces. <![CDATA[<b>Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree in a paediatric patient - A rare cause of obstructive jaundice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2078-67782019000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in the paediatric age group, ranking fourth in frequency after central nervous system tumours, neuroblastomas and nephroblastomas. Embryonal RMS of the biliary tree is considered a rare entity, with the most common clinical presentation being that of obstructive jaundice. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with hepatomegaly and obstructive jaundice. Biochemically, there was evidence of elevated ductal enzymes with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features were consistent with a biliary RMS with the differential diagnosis of a choledochal cyst initially included based on the computed tomography images. The diagnosis of embryonal biliary RMS was later confirmed on histology. This case illustrates the importance of considering malignant aetiologies in paediatric cases of obstructive jaundice, as this entity is infrequently described in the literature and may mimic the appearance of a choledochal cyst. The demonstration of enhancement of intraductal material within the biliary tree on MRI and the presence of arterial waveforms within the intraductal mass on ultrasound assists in the differentiation between biliary RMS and a choledochal cyst. <![CDATA[<b>Cost analysis of violence-related medical imaging in a Free State tertiary trauma unit</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2078-67782019000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Violence is a leading public health problem worldwide. Beyond the pain and suffering, violence has a significant economic impact on a country's health, policing and judicial services. Because of the lack of current and comprehensive data in South Africa, local violence-related economic impact studies are largely estimations. Violence-related imaging expenditure, as a component of a public hospital's expenditure, is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to measure the violence-related patient burden on Pelonomi Tertiary Hospital's (PTH) trauma and radiology services, determine the imaging-component cost of violence-related injuries and calculate the financial burden violence has on the hospital's expenditures. METHOD: From the PTH's trauma unit patient registry, 1380 patients with violence-related injuries were consecutively sampled for 6 months ending 31 December 2017. Imaging investigations were documented and categorised according to the South African National Department of Health's 2017 Uniform Patient Fee Schedule (UPFS). Descriptive analysis and cost calculations were performed using the 2017 UPFS tariff schedule and hospital-specific health efficiency indicators - patient-day equivalent and expenditure per patient-day equivalent. RESULTS: Violence-related injuries accounted for 50.64% of all trauma department visits and received a total of 5475 imaging investigations. Violence-related imaging investigations represented 14.81% of all investigations performed by the radiology department in the study period. Overall violence-related admission costs amounted to R35 410 241.85 (8.33% of the hospital's total expenditure), of which 20.08% (R7 108 845.00) was attributed to imaging investigations. CONCLUSION: Violence-related admissions had a high patient and financial burden on PTH. The pinnacle of healthcare cost saving is violence prevention; however, the cost-conscious radiologist could assist with cost saving if responsible and ethical imaging practices are followed.