Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Verbum et Ecclesia]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2074-770520110001&lang=pt vol. 32 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Cities of God in northern Asia minor: Using Stark's social theories to reconstruct Peter's communities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article used seven hypotheses from R. Stark's Cities of God (2007) as a heuristic tool to investigate the rise of Christianity in the five Roman provinces mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1. It affirmed that the Christian communities in these provinces were located in an urban, not rural, setting. Building on the research of Hort and Hemer, seven major cities in these provinces were proposed to test Stark's hypotheses with. These cities are Sinope and Amisus in Pontus, Ancyra in Galatia, Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Dorylaeum in Asia and Nicea and Nicomedia in Bithynia. An important factor noted in several of these cities was their prominence as a commercial seaport and the presence of a Diaspora Jewish community. Utilising this methodological approach helped to elucidate more fully the audience of 1 Peter's geographic and historical background. <![CDATA[<b><img src="/img/revistas/vee/v32n1/Untitled.jpg" width="65" height="22">[witness] in John 1-4: Towards an emerging, missional ecclesiology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Gender representation in Christian book covers: A case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, we described how gender is represented on two Christian book covers by popular author, John Eldredge, namely Wild at Heart. Discovering the Secret to a Man's Soul (2001) and Captivating. Unveiling the Mystery of a Woman's Soul (2005). Through semiotic visual analysis, we explored how the active male-passive female opposition functions on these covers. This opposition is constructed by visually associating the male figure on the cover of Wild at Heart with active outdoor adventurism and the female figure on Captivating with passive situatedness in nature. The titles of the two books also contribute to positioning the male as active and the female as passive. We further investigated how certain myths are created on these covers in support of an active male-passive female opposition and its underlying ideologies. The cover of Wild at Heart creates and also taps into the colonial myth of conquest. The cover of Captivating creates and taps into the myth of the fairytale and visually represents the female figure in a whimsical manner, thus constructing her as a representation of the spiritual or divine. The article questioned the role this information design plays in prescribing the expectations of gendered identity. <![CDATA[<b>F.F. Bosworth: A historical analysis of his ministry development using social cognitive career theory</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The purpose of this article was to discuss the findings related to research on the life history of Fred Francis Bosworth (1877-1958). This article explored his life story and critically analysed the influential factors that may have contributed to his success in the ministry. It seeks to answer the question: 'How did Bosworth develop into a famous healing evangelist?' The historical case study method was used as the research design. It also employed a variant of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), which suggests that a person's career choice can be determined by his or her self-efficacy beliefs, goals and expected outcomes. This article is the first to offer a critical analysis of Bosworth's entire life and ministry and is also the first to use the concepts of SCCT to show how his adulthood success may have been influenced by the experiences of his childhood and youth. This article argued that several factors played a critical role in Bosworth's development. Although Bosworth and others have attributed his success primarily to his Pentecostal experience, this study contends that his childhood, as well as secular and business experiences played a more important role than has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, this article showed that Bosworth's path to success can be understood through the elements of SCCT. Through SCCT, one can see how Bosworth developed an interest in the healing ministry, how he chose to pursue the ministry as a career, and how he performed and set goals as an evangelist. <![CDATA[<b>Die kerk en mense op straat in die informele behuisingsgebiede in Mangaung/Bloemfontein</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The challenges posed by informal settlements are enormous, also in the Bloemfontein/Mangaung area. The question asked in this article was how the church can reach out to people on the streets and in the informal settlements. Research was conducted to establish the views of the church and the task it has from randomly approached people on the streets. The Bible speaks positively on the task of the people of Israel and the church to reach out to foreigners. The church in informal settlements should see the people on the streets as its responsibility. A very important aspect is to gain structures in the informal community for the churches to be present in a more concrete way. Although the church remains the people of God and is not limited to structures, the presence of structures can in many ways enhance the positive help and influence of the church in the community; even to the people on the streets. <![CDATA[<b>Sabbath controversy in Matthew</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Jesus' attitude towards the Sabbath plays a crucial part in Matthew's argument. Some scholars argue that Jesus provocatively broke the Sabbath law; however, an attentive reading of the Sabbath controversies revealed a different reality. Matthew strategically places the Sabbath stories after he has firmly stated Jesus' teaching on the continuing validity of the law and the requirement of greater righteousness. The law and the prophets are fulfilled in the Person of Jesus, who demonstrated a fresh approach to Sabbath observance. God's intention with the Sabbath must also be recognised. Matthew argues not if the Sabbath should be observed, but how it should be done to experience true rest according to the will of God. <![CDATA[<b>Oorsake van kerkkrimping binne die tradisioneel Afrikaanssprekende gereformeerde kerke in Suid-Afrika</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The focus of this article was to pursue factors regarding the declining numbers in the traditional Afrikaans speaking reformed churches in South Africa. This intertwined phenomenon was studied according to theonome reciprocity as portrayed in the covenant and embedded in the Great Commission. The unstoppable drive of the Spirit is recognised in a levelling wave approximately every 500 years. It is also recognised in the wave where mainstream Christianity moves from the northern to the southern hemisphere, as well as cyclic movements typical to the Christian religion. Man's involvement is categorised as factors that are difficult to measure, as well as factors that can be measured. Paradigms, as factors difficult to measure and contributing to the decline of churches, form the background to the manifestation of the measureable factors. <![CDATA[<b>A structured approach to pastoral care and poverty</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Although the plight of the poor and Christian benevolence is a topic often discussed in scientific and popular literature, the existing research is not nearly enough to address the many complicated issues surrounding the subject. Many reasons for this sad state of affairs may exist, one being the lack of the necessary skills to apply biblical and economic principles in order to make a marked difference. This article presented a biblical perspective on the caring of the poor and suggested a few contextual principles for pastoral counselling. Forces were joined with economic insights and the experience of Local Economic Development to empower the church to make a substantial difference to the plight of the poor. This approach could give structure to efforts that often achieve very little in terms of lasting results. <![CDATA[<b>A missiological reflection on African ecclesiology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The 21st century challenges African Protestant missiologists to push the boundaries of African Protestant ecclesiology beyond the current status quo by ‘isolating the crucial issues, mapping out the challenges and identifying past and current traps’ (Maluleke 1996:3). As African theologians propose, African ecclesiology represents two major concerns for the Christian mission in Africa: firstly, to Africanise the Christian message, and secondly, to contextualise the liturgies that have prompted this need for Africanisation in order to dissociate the African tradition from faith in Christ. Indeed, it is necessary to read the Gospel with renewed attention to the comments of the Fathers of the Church and yet be indifferent to the strategic directives of Catholic ecclesiology. This article set out to analyse and demonstrate the contribution of African ecclesiology to Protestantism in order to gain a better understanding of the role of the Church today. The critical-theological research method was used. <![CDATA[<b>Churches' public role in a pluralistic South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt South Africa's diversity provides significant challenges to public involvement by churches. In some circles it is even believed that this diversity disqualifies churches from any form of public involvement. This diversity is protected by a liberal constitution and nurturing it is one of the explicit aims of the South African consolidating democracy. The German theologians Michael Welker and Wolfgang Huber typify the diversity of democratic societies as 'pluralism'. In this article, both theologians' conceptualisation of 'pluralism' was considered and used to set conditions for the South African churches' public involvement. <![CDATA[<b><i>Khōra</i></b><b> table: An attempt at a vulnerable Time-Play-Space for a local practical theological voice seeking global harmonies and offering prophetic discord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper sought to investigate a possible grammar for a practical theological voice. The paper begins by reflecting on the different grammars currently dominating the voice of theology in South Africa and seeking a way beyond such dominating grammars towards a more playful grammar that is acutely aware of the incompletion and thus vulnerability of the play as there are unheard voices still to join it. In an attempt to interpret such a space I have made use of Derrida's understanding and use of Khōra and brought to this interpretation a specifically Second Testament and kingdom image of the table. The 'table' is a place of invitation, celebration, sharing, hospitality and expectation. By bringing these two together, Khōra and table, I sought to describe the space of practical theology, as an open vulnerable grammar, that gives voice to a local theology, which seeks global harmonies and offers prophetic discord in the global dialogue. <![CDATA[<b>Liturgical singing as ritual symbol</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Liturgical singing is more than text and melody; it is also symbol and ritual. It is part of the ensemble of rituals within the worship service. As a ritual symbol, it is closely connected to the culture or subculture where it is conducted. Meaning is not only immanent in the text (lyrics), but assigned on a continuous base and differs from culture to culture. As a ritual symbol, liturgical singing does not only point to another reality, but presents the other reality within the cultural context of the worship service; within ritual the music and melody are more important than text and lyrics. Liturgical singing as a ritual symbol is never static, but in a continuous process of change. <![CDATA[<b>A pastoral investigation of the phrase <i>'go tloša Setšhila'</i> [traditional purification] as the last phase in the process of bereavement mourning amongst the Basotho</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article investigates and attempts to provide answers from pastoral perspectives regarding the perception the Basotho have on the issue of traditional purification. The aim of this article is to find out why the bereaved, that have not yet been purified traditionally, are not allowed to be part of certain activities, like going to the church and also performing certain community activities. The investigation was conducted by way of qualitative research. Three different Sotho Reformed congregations were selected, namely one from the Northern-Sotho speaking congregations, one from the Setswana speaking congregations and one from the Southern-Sesotho speaking congregations. Respondents included oneminister, oneolder man, one older woman, and two young members including a man and a woman from each congregation in order to get a broader perspective. For the sake of confidentiality the names of the congregations and participants remained anonymous. The results of the article indicate that the rights of the bereaved to perform certain duties in the community are reduced till such time that they are purified traditionally. <![CDATA[<b>Auto-ethnography as self-help for ministers with ministry-fatigue: Exploratory remarks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article addressed the possible benefits of auto-ethnography as a form of self-help for ministers suffering from ministry-fatigue. Given the fact that the ministry is a vocation with little or no support for its workers, ministers must develop self-help skills to manage fatigue. Auto-ethnography is an exciting new development in the field of qualitative research methodology. In recent times, a number of researchers have used this method to shed light on various phenomena, especially those of a personal nature. This article explored the notion that, apart from making a contribution to science, auto-ethnography also has therapeutic value for writers who implement this method. This article made some exploratory remarks on this issue, with special reference to the therapeutic possibilities that it may have for ministers suffering from ministry-fatigue. <![CDATA[<b>'So they do not profit this people at all' (Jr 23:32). A critique of prophecy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible - A comparative-philosophical analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article provides a brief comparative philosophical clarification of the concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible. Utilising the format of a presentation presented by Ryan (2008), four philosophical definitions of wisdom were compared with similar sentiments in ancient Israelite religion: (1) wisdom as epistemic humility, (2) wisdom as factual knowledge, (3) wisdom as useful knowledge, and (4) wisdom as successful living. Cumulatively the four criteria might approximate a functional list of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for instantiating the property of being wise. <![CDATA[<b>Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes 'from above' and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1). One can make a case for the 'natural' universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal) connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of 'official' religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day. But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect) in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the 'supernatural' is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out 'from below' in terms of the human constitution. <![CDATA[<b>Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills). Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypothesised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking) should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl's eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness). In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA) within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of God-images on religious association and existential life experiences. <![CDATA[<b>From primordial curse to eschatological restoration: Ecological challenges from Genesis 3:14-20 and Romans 8:18-25</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This work employs a comparative study of the theologies of Genesis 3:14-20 and Romans 8:18-25 as it relates to the problem of ecological imbalance. It attempts to re-interpret from a Christian theological point of view the primary and the secondary causes of decay from Genesis and the implications of those for the ecosystem,identifies Paul's eschatological theology of restoration, and then re-reads the import of his eschatological hope in Romans for the restoration of the creation. By interacting the curse theology of Genesis 3 with the restorative theology of Romans 8, the work shows the drift of the 'very good' world from its initial, harmonious state to its present state of chaos and the challenge to redress the contemporary ecological imbalance. <![CDATA[<b><i>Missão Integral</i></b><b> [holistic mission or the 'whole Gospel'] applied: Brazilian evangelical models of holistic mission in the Arab-Muslim world</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In this article, I will first show the historical development of this theological approach within the Brazilian and Latin American evangelical spheres through the work of the Latin American Theological Fraternity - a movement founded in 1970 that maintained historic evangelical values (i.e. a high view of Scripture, the necessity of conversion) whilst also taking Latin America's great social needs into account. Nurtured by thinkers such as René Padilla (Ecuador), Orlando Costas (Puerto Rico), Samuel Escobar (Peru), and later Valdir Steuernagel (Brazil), the movement has not only responded to the concerns raised by Liberation theologians, but it has also influenced the direction of the Lausanne Movement - an expression of global evangelicalism. Secondly, I will discuss how missão integral has found its way into the missional 'bloodstream' and become a central value for some Brazilian and Latin American missions organisations, including Missão Antioquia (1975) and PM International (1984). Finally, based on 55 interviews conducted in 2009-2010 with Brazilian workers and mission leaders focusing on the Arab world, I will show how Brazilian workers are demonstrating missão integral through their ministries and also why this approach is relevant in the Arab-Muslim world. <![CDATA[<b>Obeying God? obeying Paul? Bridging the socio-cultural context in the interpretation of Biblical imperatives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt When do we encounter God in the Pauline imperatives, or when is it Paul, the man of his times, that we are dealing with? This article develops a model to help us determine the reach of the imperatives into our socio-cultural context today. The imperatives are shown to be more than ad hoc injunctions but, rather, legitimate expressions of the new symbolic world in which both Paul and believers participate by faith. The imperatives carry an illocutionary force which relies on such a shared symbolic world. By analysing Paul's imperatives in terms of this symbolic world it is clear that he, at times, simply accepted the dominant cultural interpretation of reality of his day at the cost of limiting the expression of his symbolic world. At other times he modified the dominant cultural interpretation by calling believers to act contra-culturally in the light of the gospel's new interpretation of reality. There are also instances where Paul directly rejects certain aspects of the culture of the day in the light of the symbolic world. Paul's flexibility to develop a variety of responses towards the dominant culture of his day in the light of the indicatives of the gospel message provides an important key to developing a model to determine 'if?', 'when?' and 'how?', to apply the imperatives into our context today. <![CDATA[<b>The church's response towards orphans and vulnerable children as a result of HIV AIDS: A theological biblical perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt By its very nature the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) should invoke response and challenge fromall sectors of society, including the church and the academia (theological practitioners). However, in the early years of HIV and AIDS, more or less 30 years ago, the church has been apathetic in its response and engagement with issues relating to HIV and AIDS. Due to the fact that the HI-virus and the AIDS disease raises moral, ethical, gender, cultural, sexual and spiritual matters, it took a considerable long time for the church to become involved. In theological practice the responseand involvement in HIV and AIDS matters was also initially characterised by theological impotency. This article therefore, provides a philosophical, theological and biblical basis and reflection to the church especially, in Africa, to effectively respond to the plight,crisis and scourge of HIV and AIDS and its impact to orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC). The effects and repercussions of this pandemic are everywhere glaring, especially in developing nations. This worldwide epidemiology of HIV and AIDS has evoked resources from many national governments (particularly in developing countries), the United Nations bodies, Non-Profit Organisations, etcetra. Indeed, the bone-chilling statistics emanate from the World HealthOrganisation, AIDS conferences and newspaper articles The latest statistics on people infected with HIV and people living with AIDS, including the OVC, sends shock waves throughout the world. The apathetic and largely disengagement by the church towards the OVC, paucity and dearth of theological publications in current times on this subject and topic indicate that the church in Africa needs to come to terms with her theological and biblical mandate to care for the OVC. Thisarticle therefore provides a synopsis and survey of how God's people (Israel in the Old Testament and the Church in the New Testament) were commanded by God to care for OVC. Based on the biblical text, the contemporary church in Africa should break the vicious and dangerous cycle of silence, apathy and disengagement and start alleviating the plight of OVC. <![CDATA[<b>Die sing van psalms in die erediens: Twintig jaar later</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100023&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt About 20 years ago the HSRC (Human Sciences Research Council) conducted an empirical investigation on the singing of psalms in three Afrikaans reformed churches. Vos and Müller (1990) dealt with different aspects of this investigation, especially the questions of which melodies are sung in the churches, what the frequency of the use of the different psalms is, the way in which new songs are introduced, the situation in the different churches and the influence of church attendance on the love of the psalms. In an investigation undertaken in 2008 (Van Rooy 2009) these matters were investigated in the Reformed Churches in South Africa, a denomiation that introduced a new hymnal in 2003. The comparison of the two investigations revealed that the number of favourite psalms and the same psalms remained fairly constant. The acceptance of new hymns is related to a number of factors, especially the melody and the liturgical usefulness of the new hymns. The new metrical version of the psalms is still not used very frequently in the Reformed Churches in South Africa. This can partly be ascribed to the lack of structured programmes to learn the new hymns. <![CDATA[<b>Christianity and the African traditional religion(s): The postcolonial round of engagement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100024&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article concerned itself with the modern encounter between Christianity and African Indigenous Religion (AIR) in Africa. It is essentially a postcolonial approach to what AIR and its essential characteristics is: God and humanity, sacrifices, afterlife and ancestors. The rapid growth of many religions in Africa and the revival of AIR in postcolonial Africa have made inter-religious dialogue an urgent necessity. Unlike the colonial encounter with AIR, which was characterised byhostility and the condemnation of AIR, the postcolonial encounter should be characterised by mutual respect, understanding, tolerance, and some level of freedom, liberation and genuineness. In this way, suspicion will be reduced, because despite the adherents' confession of Christianity, AIR is not about to be extinct. <![CDATA[<b>The Pedi year: A comparison with the year of the other biblical nations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100025&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The investigation grounds arguments on facts that there is correlation between Sepedi and Hebrew calendars particularly in relation to similarity as well as difference between the two nations' beliefs which are related to the number (twelve months) of the months of the year. This means that Sepedi and Hebrew believe that the year comprised twelve months. Adding to this, the four Hebrew's early names of the months of the year, namely Abib, Ziv, Ethanim and Bul, of uncertain meaning, differ from the contemporary Hebrew calendar months. This featuristic phenomenon appears also in the Sepedi naming of the months of the year where a month is named after two or more names, such as Dibokwane (February), Hlakola (March), Mopitlo (May), Phupu (June) and Ngwatobošego (June) as well as Mosegamanye (July). The arrangement of the months of the year brings forth certain similarity to the two calendars of these two languages. However, there is difference between the two calendars in relation to the number of the days of the week. <![CDATA[<b>Sound: Conceivably the creative language of God, holding all of creation in concert</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100026&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper revolved around the idea that sound within light is the primary medium God used to bring all of creation into existence (creatio). The theory is that the harmonic tones embedded within the initial spoken light of Genesis 1:3 are still reverberating within creation today (concursus) and can be used for the benefit of all (providentia). This simply means that nature is providentially geared to move in a specific direction, according to God's overall plan for everyone's benefit. <![CDATA[<b>The function of the Easter moment in the observance of the Eucharist amongst Christian communities framed by traditional African and current Western time-concepts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100027&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Problematic elements in both the traditional African and current Western time-concepts seem to manifest in a manner that - in some or other way - causes humanity to become disconnected with the fulfilment of life in a future destiny that breaks through the entrapment of the perpetual present and cyclical past. In their research, the authors asked in what sense and to what extent time concepts can hinder the Christian worshipper in anchoring his or her life in the consummating, witness-energising power of communion with the living, time-transforming Christ and faith in the imminence of his return. In addressing this research problem, key elements in traditional African and current Western time conceptualisation were described, as well as the role of the Easter moment (as it manifests in the observance of the Eucharist) in transforming problematic elements in these particular manifestations of time conceptualisation. In conclusion, preliminary theoretical anchors were formulated for the function of the observance of the Eucharist and its role in transforming various enslaving and disconnecting aspects of cultural time conceptualisation. <![CDATA[<b>'Within the enclave' - Profiling South African social and religious developments since 1994</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100028&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The paper investigated religious and social transformations within a specific religious tradition in South Africa. After clarifying the charged concept of 'transformation', the authors showed that transformation is about more than changed systems and structures, for, on a deeper level, it is also about the change in relationships and attitudes between the different cultural groups in South Africa. The argument was supported by making use of data from the SA reconciliation barometer 2010 and the 2009 Transformation audit. In the next part of the paper, the authors took a closer look at the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) as a case in point. The basic question they asked was how do these social transformations affect the religious transformations within the DRC and vice versa? By making use of Mary Douglas's concept of 'the enclave' it was proposed that a new enclave developed in the DRC after 1994, the characteristics of which were investigated in the remainder of the paper. <![CDATA[<b>The Nimrod story: Reconsidering his achievements</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100029&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The Ham/Nimrod story has been used to oppress Black people in South Africa and the USA. This paper looks afresh at Nimrod and attempts to restore his dignity and that of black people. This will be done in five stages below. Firstly, we briefly highlight the identity of Noah's children in order to place into context Nimrod, who is the focus of this study. Secondly, we examine the negative portrayal of Nimrod by certain scholars. Thirdly, we discuss the use of Ham/Nimrod's storyin the oppression or enslavement of black people. Furthermore, we will critique such a use of the story to oppress black people. Fourthly we discuss Nimrod's achievements. The focus here will be on his three major achievements as a great ruler, mighty hunter and builder. The aim of this section is to counter the negative interpretation that Nimrod has previously received. In addition, we will offer a positive interpretation of the curse on Ham/Cush/Nimrod. Fifth and, finally, we willspell out the significance of the Nimrod story for those who have been oppressed and enslaved on the basis of this text. The focus here will be on South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>A critical analysis of Gretha Wiid's sex ideology and her biblical hermeneutics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100030&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Gretha Wiid and Angus Buchan have established themselves as the moral gurus of the Afrikaner Christian community with their 'Worthy Women' and 'Mighty Men' mass conferences. Wiid is also often invited by the broadcast media to participate in TV and radio talks to discuss her views on relationships and sex - she is even invited by popular Afrikaans singers to share the stage with them. Recently, Gretha Wiid was again on the front pages of popular magazines to promote her and her husband's views on sex and sexuality based 'on the Bible'. She suggests that women hand over their sexuality, their bodies and their sexual decisions completely into the hands of men. Her view is that the husband is the king, prophet and priest in the family and should be honoured accordingly. The aim of this article was to use Wiid's public appearances and publications as a case study to analyse her statements, hermeneutic principles and procedures and to demonstrate how her interpretation of sex and sexuality is infused by heteropatriarchal biblical discourse. The purpose of the article was to unveil the hermeneutic principles 'ordinary' Christians such as Wiid apply in interpreting biblical texts and how these are culturally inscribed on women's and children's bodies. <![CDATA[<b>The kingdom of God as a systematic-theological category in the work of J.A. Heyns</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100031&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Heyns was probably the most noteworthy Afrikaans speaking theologian of the 20th century, considering the quantity of Afrikaans theological publications from his pen. It is a well known fact that he used the kingdom of God as a systematic-theological category that flows like a perennial river of opportunity through all of his writings. It created an opportunity to be consistent in both his systematic theology and in his ethics, show clearly how man and God can be coworkers in a dialogical relationship and to integrate philosophy with theology. Unfortunately, there was sometimes flooding, because he filled the kingdom of God with philosophical concepts and viewed it as an ontological cosmic-universal entity. His philosophical background also occasionally led to inadequate speculations in his theology and inadmissibly he didn't always use the Bible appropriately, although his doctrine of Scripture and hermeneutics were satisfactory. Lastly, his philosophical modus operandi helped him to differentiate between important theological concepts, which have problem solving abilities. <![CDATA[<b>King Saul's mustering of all Israel (1 Sm 11:6-7): An idealised leadership</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100032&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt 1 Samuel 11:6-7 report the beginning of Saul's public life and demonstrate his leadership over Israel. However, the verses do not clearly indicate his role in the specific events related in verses 1-11. This article clarifies Saul's idealised kingly leadership by examining some of the literary-critical issues of 1 Samuel 11:1-11 in their broader context. Saul's leadership was then considered against its larger ancient Near Eastern context. The article aimed to show that both Saul's religiousauthority and also his political ability were welcomed in his emerging kingship. <![CDATA[<b>Theology amongst the sciences: A personal view from the University of Oxford</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100033&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The paper focuses on two individuals who have each made a seminal contribution to the debates between theology and the sciences in Oxford - Charles Darwin (in the mid-19th century), and Richard Dawkins (from the 1990s to the present day). It introduces Darwin by way of a more personal and visual view from Worcester College Chapel. The restoration of the chapel took place at about the same time as the debates between Huxley and Wilberforce in the Oxford University Museum over Charles Darwin's On the Origin of the Species. The first part of the paper then traces these debates back: first to an earlier period of disputation represented by Galileo Galilei (c. 1564-1642), and then to a period of greater accommodation represented by Isaac Newton (1643-1727). Darwin represents a third, more controversial, stage. The paper then looks at a fourth period, from the mid-20th century onwards, which is marked by more eirenical attempts to demarcate science and theology by seeing the former again as asking the 'how' questions and the latter, the 'why' questions. It then focuses on a fifth, more disputatious stage, which was initiated by Richard Dawkins, professor in the Public Understanding of Science until 2008. Professor Dawkins challenges the idea that theology cannot be studied, because its focus is a non-existent object, 'God'. The second part of the paper looks at various Oxford projects and Oxford theologians who have risen to this contemporary challenge. They include the work of the Ian Ramsey Centre; Justin Barret's and John Trigg's joint £ 2 million project, supported by the John Templeton foundation, which examines scientific ideas about religion and the mind; Richard Harries, Bishop of Oxford from 1987 to 2006, who has conducted a number of media interviews with Richard Dawkins; Keith Ward, who has written several books engaging not only with Dawkins but is also the Cambridge Professor of Mathematics, Stephen Hawking; and Alistair McGrath, who has a doctorate in both science and theology, and who has similarly written and entered into public debates challenging Dawkin's ideas. The paper ends by referring to John Barton, Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture at Oxford, who argues that provided that theology is a subject which is properly critical, open to alien truth and combines both intellectual and emotional modes of perception, it can set an example for almost any academic discipline, both in the humanities and the sciences. The conclusion is therefore that, far from theology having to become more like another science, the sciences might be challenged to become more like theology. <![CDATA[<b>A vision for the sending of the church in Botswana</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100034&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The purpose of this article was to present a vision (of a preferred future) for the southern African ecclesia, based on an accurate understanding of what can be termed a missional ecclesiology. This concept was explored using the current context of my ministry, that of the Republic of Botswana, as a primary interlocutor. <![CDATA[<b>Prakties-teologiese riglyne vir die drie kategorieë van visuele prediking</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100035&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Met die verskyning van die TV-medium binne die Suid-Afrikaanse milieu in die laat sestigerjare en vroeë sewentigerjare (vgl. Barnard 2009:192), het 'n nuwe wyse van kommunikasie die lig gesien. Grotendeels het dit meegebring dat die kommunikasiemedium van die woord deur die kommunikasiemedium van die beeld vervang is (vgl. Sweet 1999:200).Visuele kommunikasie het die mees ingrypende verskuiwing geword wat oor die afgelope vyf dekades plaasgevind het. Uiteraard het dit 'n nuwe generasie na vore gebring, wat as die visuele generasie bekend staan, en binne die visuele taalkode kommunikeer. Visuele uitbeelding word in hierdie artikel gestel as 'n legitieme vorm van homiletiese aanbieding naas die oratoriese aanbieding van die prediking. In hierdie artikel word drie kategoriee van visuele prediking word geidentifiseer, naamlik, (1) die visuele beeldpreek, (2) die visuele uitbeeldingspreek en die (3) visuele verbeeldingspreek. Praktiese riglyne vir elke vorm van visuele prediking word in hierdie artikel ontwikkel, sodat die visuele geletterdheid van die prediker kan verhoog. <![CDATA[<b>From Pentecost to Patmos: Acts to Revelation. Introduction and Survey</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100036&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Met die verskyning van die TV-medium binne die Suid-Afrikaanse milieu in die laat sestigerjare en vroeë sewentigerjare (vgl. Barnard 2009:192), het 'n nuwe wyse van kommunikasie die lig gesien. Grotendeels het dit meegebring dat die kommunikasiemedium van die woord deur die kommunikasiemedium van die beeld vervang is (vgl. Sweet 1999:200).Visuele kommunikasie het die mees ingrypende verskuiwing geword wat oor die afgelope vyf dekades plaasgevind het. Uiteraard het dit 'n nuwe generasie na vore gebring, wat as die visuele generasie bekend staan, en binne die visuele taalkode kommunikeer. Visuele uitbeelding word in hierdie artikel gestel as 'n legitieme vorm van homiletiese aanbieding naas die oratoriese aanbieding van die prediking. In hierdie artikel word drie kategoriee van visuele prediking word geidentifiseer, naamlik, (1) die visuele beeldpreek, (2) die visuele uitbeeldingspreek en die (3) visuele verbeeldingspreek. Praktiese riglyne vir elke vorm van visuele prediking word in hierdie artikel ontwikkel, sodat die visuele geletterdheid van die prediker kan verhoog. <![CDATA[<b>Introduction to the prophets</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100037&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Met die verskyning van die TV-medium binne die Suid-Afrikaanse milieu in die laat sestigerjare en vroeë sewentigerjare (vgl. Barnard 2009:192), het 'n nuwe wyse van kommunikasie die lig gesien. Grotendeels het dit meegebring dat die kommunikasiemedium van die woord deur die kommunikasiemedium van die beeld vervang is (vgl. Sweet 1999:200).Visuele kommunikasie het die mees ingrypende verskuiwing geword wat oor die afgelope vyf dekades plaasgevind het. Uiteraard het dit 'n nuwe generasie na vore gebring, wat as die visuele generasie bekend staan, en binne die visuele taalkode kommunikeer. Visuele uitbeelding word in hierdie artikel gestel as 'n legitieme vorm van homiletiese aanbieding naas die oratoriese aanbieding van die prediking. In hierdie artikel word drie kategoriee van visuele prediking word geidentifiseer, naamlik, (1) die visuele beeldpreek, (2) die visuele uitbeeldingspreek en die (3) visuele verbeeldingspreek. Praktiese riglyne vir elke vorm van visuele prediking word in hierdie artikel ontwikkel, sodat die visuele geletterdheid van die prediker kan verhoog. <![CDATA[<b>McKenzie's new 'Introduction to the Historical Books: Strategies for reading'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100038&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Met die verskyning van die TV-medium binne die Suid-Afrikaanse milieu in die laat sestigerjare en vroeë sewentigerjare (vgl. Barnard 2009:192), het 'n nuwe wyse van kommunikasie die lig gesien. Grotendeels het dit meegebring dat die kommunikasiemedium van die woord deur die kommunikasiemedium van die beeld vervang is (vgl. Sweet 1999:200).Visuele kommunikasie het die mees ingrypende verskuiwing geword wat oor die afgelope vyf dekades plaasgevind het. Uiteraard het dit 'n nuwe generasie na vore gebring, wat as die visuele generasie bekend staan, en binne die visuele taalkode kommunikeer. Visuele uitbeelding word in hierdie artikel gestel as 'n legitieme vorm van homiletiese aanbieding naas die oratoriese aanbieding van die prediking. In hierdie artikel word drie kategoriee van visuele prediking word geidentifiseer, naamlik, (1) die visuele beeldpreek, (2) die visuele uitbeeldingspreek en die (3) visuele verbeeldingspreek. Praktiese riglyne vir elke vorm van visuele prediking word in hierdie artikel ontwikkel, sodat die visuele geletterdheid van die prediker kan verhoog. <![CDATA[<b>A rounded guide to the work of Hendrik M. Vroom</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100039&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Met die verskyning van die TV-medium binne die Suid-Afrikaanse milieu in die laat sestigerjare en vroeë sewentigerjare (vgl. Barnard 2009:192), het 'n nuwe wyse van kommunikasie die lig gesien. Grotendeels het dit meegebring dat die kommunikasiemedium van die woord deur die kommunikasiemedium van die beeld vervang is (vgl. Sweet 1999:200).Visuele kommunikasie het die mees ingrypende verskuiwing geword wat oor die afgelope vyf dekades plaasgevind het. Uiteraard het dit 'n nuwe generasie na vore gebring, wat as die visuele generasie bekend staan, en binne die visuele taalkode kommunikeer. Visuele uitbeelding word in hierdie artikel gestel as 'n legitieme vorm van homiletiese aanbieding naas die oratoriese aanbieding van die prediking. In hierdie artikel word drie kategoriee van visuele prediking word geidentifiseer, naamlik, (1) die visuele beeldpreek, (2) die visuele uitbeeldingspreek en die (3) visuele verbeeldingspreek. Praktiese riglyne vir elke vorm van visuele prediking word in hierdie artikel ontwikkel, sodat die visuele geletterdheid van die prediker kan verhoog. <![CDATA[<b>Patristische bezüge zu Moses</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052011000100040&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Met die verskyning van die TV-medium binne die Suid-Afrikaanse milieu in die laat sestigerjare en vroeë sewentigerjare (vgl. Barnard 2009:192), het 'n nuwe wyse van kommunikasie die lig gesien. Grotendeels het dit meegebring dat die kommunikasiemedium van die woord deur die kommunikasiemedium van die beeld vervang is (vgl. Sweet 1999:200).Visuele kommunikasie het die mees ingrypende verskuiwing geword wat oor die afgelope vyf dekades plaasgevind het. Uiteraard het dit 'n nuwe generasie na vore gebring, wat as die visuele generasie bekend staan, en binne die visuele taalkode kommunikeer. Visuele uitbeelding word in hierdie artikel gestel as 'n legitieme vorm van homiletiese aanbieding naas die oratoriese aanbieding van die prediking. In hierdie artikel word drie kategoriee van visuele prediking word geidentifiseer, naamlik, (1) die visuele beeldpreek, (2) die visuele uitbeeldingspreek en die (3) visuele verbeeldingspreek. Praktiese riglyne vir elke vorm van visuele prediking word in hierdie artikel ontwikkel, sodat die visuele geletterdheid van die prediker kan verhoog.