Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Verbum et Ecclesia]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2074-770520100001&lang=pt vol. 31 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>'n Johannese perspektief op die huwelik, geslagsrolle en seksualiteit in 'n postmoderne konteks</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The hypothesis offered in this study is that the Johannine texts are authoritative, canononical documents with the inherent potential that is applicable to the practical lives of the faithful. Since Biblical texts are the product of the patriarchal culture within which they originated, a hermeneutic of suspicion becomes essential. In the interaction between the Biblical text and the contemporary context, a creative space is being created which requires a humble attitude from the exegetes to acknowledge the temporary nature of their findings. We need to look past the patriarchal nature and language towards a more inclusive paradigm. The Bible does not bind us to a rigid way of living, but liberates us for the appreciation of the healing power of God's grace in our context. We need to move past stereotypes and to see others through the eyes of Christ. Jesus took a radical stance against the culture of his day. From the beginning of his public ministry, we find in him the tension between his prophetic role and the dominant culture of day. This tension leads to Jesus becoming a marginalised Jew, who stands outside the Jewish inner circle. He does not fit into the conventional social roles of his day. Jesus rather associates himself with the marginalised. This illustrates Jesus' radical commitment to God and his passionate commitment to the truth of the Gospel. <![CDATA[<b>Prejudice as moral action in Christian ethical decision-making</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Given the many approaches regarding the use of the Bible, the ethical work in biblical interpretation and the work of being concerned with an ethical issue affecting the Christian as a moral agent cannot be separated from one another. This article deals with that affinity between the approach of the interpreter as moral agent, using the Bible in his or her ethical decision-making and aspects that constitute fundamental starting points for him or her in this ethical decision-making, with regard to the liberation of prejudices as that which makes understanding for moral action possible. It is maintained in the article that prejudices that are conformable to the ways in which responsibility should qualify Christian ethics in general make for responsible use of the Bible in Christian ethical decision-making. Prejudices (pre-understanding) that are grounded in an ethics of responsibility allow for the interpreter to adhere to the truth claim of a text, which can only be had from hermeneutical work that promotes prejudices in an intentional and critical way as the link between past text and current interpreter. <![CDATA[<b>Rather different than elsewhere: Gerrie Snyman's contribution in the context of Reformed theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Prof Gerrie Snyman's book Om die Bybel anders te lees: 'n etiek van Bybellees (2007) attracted considerable attention in Afrikaans-speaking reformed circles in South Africa. In this article, some of the responses to and reviews of the book are studied in order to assess the publication's impact. Moreover, the article aims to determine whether the book will contribute to future reflections and discussions on the use of the Bible in this context. It is concluded that the preferred method of interpretation in the Reformed Church in South Africa calls for a thorough revision. The so-called 'grammatical-historical method' of interpretation can no longer be regarded as the most appropriate and sole 'Reformed method' of interpretation. <![CDATA[<b>To read, see, talk and believe differently - a response to other readers' reading of 'Om die Bybel anders te lees: 'n Etiek van Bybellees'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt As any exegesis is necessarily preceded by certain theological convictions, the author of the book Om die Bybel anders te lees: 'n Etiek van Bybellees (2007) responds to criticism on the book flowing from a seminar - especially the remarks made by Hans van Deventer and Jurie le Roux. Firstly, the ideas on a changed view of the deity are discussed. This conversation is augmented by a discussion of the criticism levelled at the idea that reading the Bible has consequences for other people, and that a different reading would lead to a different concept of God. Van Deventer's comments regarding the difficulty of debating theological issues are strengthened by a critical discussion of a debate in Die Kerkblad regarding the grammatical-historical method. His critical remarks regarding the value of a historical consciousness are discussed by way of a question on the relationship between a liberal theology and a conservative political point of view. Le Roux's struggle with Snyman's utilisation of apartheid as a rhetorical strategy leads the discussion to a recent example of overcoming racism while using unreflectingly racist imagery. This example indicates how theology effects cosmetic changes, without taking on the real issue. For this reason, the author concludes that a critical reading of the own Western tradition in Africa has become necessary. <![CDATA[<b>Deathly silence and apocalyptic noise: Observations on the soundscape of the Book of the Twelve</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper proposes a reading of the Book of the Twelve (used interchangeably with 'Twelve' and 'Book' for convenience) that concentrates on the sound that is included in the description of the world of the text. Three onomatopoeic devices are singled out. First, the mourning cry hôy is considered. This interjection is used differently in several of the writings: in Amos (5:18; 6:1) the prophet cries out in compassion with the addressees. By contrast, in Nahum 3:1 and Habakkuk 2:6-19, hôy is uttered in a mood of mockery. In Zechariah 2:10 a third, joyful hôy is used. It appears that the different usages cohere nicely with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Secondly, the interjection has likewise shows different usages. In Amos 6:10 and 8:3, it simulates the last breath of Israelites dying when the land is devastated. By contrast, in Habakkuk 2:20, Zephaniah 1:7 and Zechariah 2:17, the addressees are directed to be silent before YHWH. This command should be perceived as an act of reverence. Again, the sequence of the occurrences coheres with the overall structure of the Book of the Twelve. Of special relevance is that the last three instances build a frame around the Babylonian exile, which lies between Zephaniah and Haggai. The third example is the phrase hamônîm, hamônîm in Joel 4:14. The author employs an irregular double plural to construe this place as the loudest spot ('apocalyptic noise') within the Twelve. <![CDATA[<b>Afrikaner Christianity and the concept of empire</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Not many Protestant countries in the world have been as influenced by faith as South Africa. Although South Africa was never officially a Christian country, politics, economic development, social life and the culture of the 'rainbow nation' was either moulded on, or influenced by, the Calvinistic Christianity that came to the country along with the European merchants. The privileged position of Christianity ended in 1994 when South Africa became a neutral state with guaranteed religious freedom for all. Although more than 80 per cent of the population claim that they are Christians, it seems as if the word is not meant any more as a religion with a value system and moral obligations, but only as a convenient label. The reason behind the contrast between theory and practice must be investigated. One possible reason could be found in the traditional Afrikaans-speaking churches' participation of, and contribution to, the 'empire' concept. The responsibility of the individual to practise his or her faith was taken over by the power of the state and church. <![CDATA[<b>The mission of the church according to Luke 10:1-16</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The sending out of seventy-two disciples by Jesus in Luke 10:1-16 provides both a theological justification and a modus operandi for the church's participation in God's mission to the world as described in Luke-Acts. Participating in the Missio Dei, the church must be willing to cross all economic and ethnic boundaries. Luke emphasises that the mission of the church is the result both of God's initiative and the influence of Jesus' continuing presence through his church. The primary focus of the church's mission is to establish a new household-based community in which all are welcome. For those who reject the message of peace of the seventy-two, however, the eschatological ramifications will be dire. <![CDATA[<b>Pastoral counselling for spiritually wounded people</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt On the one hand, religion could fulfil an edifying and enriching role; on the other, it could be destructive and devastating if it uses unethical, manipulating and controlling techniques and coercive measures to promote the goals of a leader or a system. Insecurity and doubt regarding a person's own competence and worth flowing from painful events in the past tend to make people vulnerable. Often, spiritual wounds lead to a warped image of God; a warped self-identity as a Christian; intense pain in family relationships; overwhelming feelings of disillusionment; problems with personal borders; a lack of basic life skills; a lack of trust and purpose in life, as well as fluctuating phases of opposite emotions, like depression, anger and joy. Once denial has been overcome, counselling towards healing can start. Such counselling should primarily focus on joining a support group, spiritual healing, healing with regard to habits of thought, social recovery as well as physical healing. <![CDATA[<b>Living oracles from God to us: The implication of λόγια ζῶντα</b><b> in Acts 7:38</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In what turned out to be his final sermon on earth, Stephen the Deacon used the expression λόγια ζῶντα to describe the authoritative oracles from God as the people of Israel received them from God and his angels through Moses. From a philological understanding of this passage, the use of λόγια instead of λόγοι has important implications for Bible translation and theological understanding of the verse. Acts 7:38 indicates early Christianity's understanding of the nature of the Law, and claims a divine origin for the same. It was not sanctioned by God, but it literally came from God. Luke and Stephen esteem the λόγια ζῶντα as divine oracles, with relevance far beyond Moses. These were the living oracles, not in the least because of their lasting empowerment by the Author. In the mind of the author of Acts of the Apostles, the λόγια ζῶντα received their power and lasting relevance from God rather than from the Israelites as a religious community. <![CDATA[<b>Some more translation headaches in Romans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The historical development of Presbyterian ordination polity as background to the gay and lesbian ordination debate in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. united in 1983 to form the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Since 1978, these three denominations have been involved in an ongoing debate regarding same-gender relationships. Subsequently, General Assemblies and General Assembly Permanent Judicial Commissions (GAPJC) - the highest denominational court - have formed a polity regarding the election and ordination and/or installation of gays and lesbians as officers, i.e. deacons, elders, and ministers of the Word and Sacrament, as well as same-gender blessings and marriages. This first of three papers will focus on the historical development of Presbyterian ordination polity with emphasis on specific markers such as the Adopting Act of 1729 with its emphasis on scrupling and essentials, the five fundamentals of 1910 and the SpecialCommission of 1925 regarding subscription, G-6.0106b Book of Order, and relevant GAPJC rulings. <![CDATA[<b>The polity debate regarding gay and lesbian ordination and/or installation in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The paper summarises the formation process of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)'s (PC(USA)) polity regarding the ordination and/or installation of partnered gays and lesbians as officers, i.e. deacons, elders and ministers of the Word and Sacrament, in light of General Assemblies' decisions and General Assembly Permanent Judicial Commissions' ecclesiastical rulings since the 1970s. <![CDATA[<b>The polity debate regarding same-gender blessings and marriages in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This paper will examine how the decision made by the Presbyterian Church in 1927 - to use polity rather than theology to solve its theological issues - has guided the same-gender blessing and marriage debate since the 1980s. The paper summarises the formation process of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)'s polity regarding same-gender blessing and marriage ceremonies in light of General Assemblies' decisions and General Assembly Permanent Judicial Commissions' ecclesiastical rulings. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of evangelical revivals on global mission: The case of North American evangelicals in Brazil in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of the current article is to show that an important element behind the establishment of evangelical missions to Brazil - particularly during the pioneering stages - was evangelical revival, especially that which occurred in North America during the nineteenth century. Following a brief introduction to the general relationship between eighteenth- and nineteenth-century revivals and evangelical missions, I shall endeavour to support historically the commonly accepted, yet often unsubstantiated, correlation between such movements of revival and mission. Firstly, I will show the significant paradigm shift in missional thinking, which took place in the nineteenth century, as North American evangelicals began to regard Roman Catholic countries in Latin America as mission fields. Secondly, I shall argue that the influence of nineteenth-century revivalist evangelicalism (particularly that sourced in North America) on missions to Brazil and Latin America can best be observed in the Brazilian evangelical identity that emerged in the twentieth century, which has, in turn, propelled the Brazilian evangelical church into its own significant involvement in global missions (Noll 2009:10). <![CDATA[<b>Liturgical aspects of funeral services in Reformed Churches of African origin</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt How can the Reformed Churches of African origin arrive at a Biblical and contextual liturgy for their funeral services? Liturgy in death situations teaches people the meaning of death, and to the African, a proper funeral service or burial is a sign of respect to the deceased. Guidelines are given on how funeral services may be conducted so that they can help focus on the resurrection of the body, and the new life waiting ahead, rather than on ancestral veneration. These guidelines comprise a liturgy for mourning and funeral service, especially that at the graveside. This article is liturgical and does not intend to be dogmatic in its research. <![CDATA[<b>Titus 3:3 as self-vilification: A rhetorical option</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The rhetorical function of the vice list in Titus 3:3 remains to be accounted for. This article proposes that self-vilification, a novel rhetorical technique, be considered to investigate and propose a rhetorical function for Titus 3:3. The result is the identification and formulation of the overarching rhetorical objective of the verse in its totality. Titus 3:3 expresses a valuable corrective to Christian attitudes that could compromise the evangelistic or missiological mandate of the Church today. <![CDATA[<b>The reception of a Job poem in some contemporary poems</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article investigates the intertextual influence of an ancient poem on a few modern-day poems. Other literary creations on which ancient poems have left their mark also come to the fore. The ancient poem under discussion here is a Job poem. This study reveals the remarkable creative influence that Job has exerted on literature. In Afrikaans poetry, a range of poets have concerned themselves with Job in their work. This article explores one such unpublished Afrikaans poem and an English translation thereof in order to point out how contemporary and relevant the Job poem really is. <![CDATA[<b>Deconstructing the body: Body theology, embodied pastoral anthropology and body mapping</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article is an effort to deconstruct narratives regarding the body. Body theology as developed by James B. Nelson forms the basis for a literature study as well as an exploration of an embodied pastoral anthropology, within the context of a postfoundationalist practical theology and an openness to interdisciplinary dialogue. Qualitative interviews and the body-mapping process were used within the context of narrative research to narrate people's stories regarding their bodies in relation to their spiritual journey as well as to increase an awareness of a holistic, embodied spirituality. <![CDATA[<b>The relationship between Christology and ethics in Colossians - praxis for the postmodern believer and church</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt In Colossians, there is a close relationship between Christology and ethics. This relationship provides answers to the many questions that face the postmodern believer and the church in the current secular world. Believers constantly battle to apply their faith in a practical way. The reason for this is that believers do not have a reference point from which to apply their faith in practice. The relationship between Christology and ethics in the letter to the Colossians presents such a reference point, namely the believer's identity in Jesus Christ. This identity in Christ, and not nomalism, should determine all ethical decisions of the believer. <![CDATA[<b>Psalm 137: Perspectives on the (neuro-) psychology of loss</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The neuro-psychological imperative first implies the formation of neural networks through exposure to the external environment, both physically and ideologically, giving us our 'selves'. It in turn implies the projection of this internal world onto the outer to achieve neuro-environmental consonance. Situations like bereavement, immigration or exile break down this consonance and are accompanied by strong negative emotions. When viewing Psalm 137 through the lens of the neuro-psychological imperative, its intense experience of the loss of land (and 'self') becomes transparent as this psalm vividly recalls the devastating experience of the Babylonian exile. The shocking end of the psalm, detailing the desire for the brutal annihilation of enemy infants, expresses the understandable ideological drive of the exiles to, ironically, retrieve their lost 'selves.' Although understandable as an upholding of the established internal world, the manner in which this is to be achieved is not to be emulated by modern civilised societies. <![CDATA[<b>The one who is to come: 'Messianic texts' in the Old Testament and other Jewish writings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt According to the New-Testament authors, the life of Jesus, as Christ, should be seen in light of the Old-Testament texts. It seems that all the messianic texts in the Old Testament had been fulfilled in Jesus. The Messiah, who had been expected for a long time, was born in Bethlehem. This interpretation by the New-Testament authors has caused the church and Christians throughout the centuries to read the Old Testament as a prophecy, which is fulfilled in Jesus Christ. This interpretation has caused impatience with Jews, who did not accept Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah. This article addresses the question: How did ancient Israel understand the concept 'messiah'? It seems that the term is much more complex than a single meaning would allow the reader to believe. This article thus focuses on the theological functioning of the term within the Hebrew Bible as well as in other Jewish writings. <![CDATA[<b>Snert: Ritual-liturgical measurements and recipes for social capital</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The questions of how social capital is measured and how it is generated have received ample attention in recent years. This article is an attempt at making a modest contribution towards addressing these issues and specifically also as a contribution from the fields of Liturgical and Ritual Studies. It is argued that commensality can be taken as both lens/barometer with regard to the presence or absence of social capital, as well as being a potential generator of social capital. In order to arrive at this conclusion regarding food and the eating habits of humankind, the phenomenon of commensality and its relation to social capital is approached here from three different angles, namely Social Anthropology, New Testament Studies and Ethnography. <![CDATA[<b>A holistic approach to pastoral care and poverty</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100023&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The previous approaches to pastoral care are no longer adequate or effective for addressing the many issues related to poverty. The church has done wonderful work in terms of Christian charity. However, more needs to be done to improve the worsening situation of the poor significantly. The clear distinction between pastoral care and Christian charity is a luxury that is no longer affordable. Once we have a holistic understanding of pastoral care and counselling, we will find that we cannot possibly restrict our pastoral attention to encouraging the poor, to giving random advice and to praying. A holistic pastoral theology could lead to empowerment and should be a key concept in pastoral care with poor people and societies. The article offers a theological theory for a holistic approach and some implications of the praxis of counselling. <![CDATA[<b>The role of ethics in preaching: New research in New Testament ethics and the implication for preaching</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100024&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt To the Reformers, legalism was one of the greatest dangers that threatened the heart of preaching and Christian life in general. Luther argued that where preaching solidifies and degenerates into legalism, the essence of the gospel of grace is lost. Therefore, the dynamic relationship between identity, ethics and ethos in the New Testament has to be rediscovered. It is argued that the classical Bultmanian distinction between indicative and imperative does not do justice to the implicit ethical dimension of Biblical texts. New research into ethics, represented by Zimmermann's heuristic categories, may help us in rediscovering the implicit ethical dimensions in the New Testament. Those who want to speak of the theology of ethical preaching should also take the new research in New Testament ethics into consideration. <![CDATA[<b>Natural (a)theologies in Ancient Israel: Descriptive perspectives from philosophy of religion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100025&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt According to popular consensus, the ancient Israelites shunned natural theology and belief in Yahweh was based on revelation and not reason. In relatively recent times, this view has come under increasing pressure as the presence of natural theology in the Hebrew Bible has turned into a topic of sporadic interest. In this article, a contribution to this discussion is made by way of placing the topic in its proper framework within the philosophy of religion. In doing so, it provides a descriptive introduction to what will for the foreseen future remain a controversial issue. <![CDATA[<b>A missiological glance at South African Black theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100026&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Black South African theologians created South African Black theology during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a conscious and theological dimension of the liberation struggle against apartheid. They drew inspiration from African-American theology, biblical hermeneutics and the raw material of their own experiences and suffering, whilst simultaneously creating a new theological paradigm and political orientation to liberate Black South Africans from apartheid and European domination. Inevitably, South African Black theology was a liberation theology aimed at helping to eradicate the existing socio-political order. This article gave a missiological overview of Black theology and examined and assessed the relevance of this theology to contemporary post-apartheid South Africa. The critical-theological research method was used. <![CDATA[<b>The literary composition of Joshua 3:1-17</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100027&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Joshua 3 and 4 confront the attentive reader with several literary problems, especially with regard to chronology. This article attempts to provide a solution to the problems in Joshua 3. The author reconstructed narratives, namely a Deuteronomistic and a post-priestly narrative. The Deuteronomistic narrative forms part of the original narrative of the Jordan crossing. It also forms part of an exilic Deuteronomistic History. The aim of this exilic Deuteronomistic History is to explain the loss of the land during the Babylonian exile. The post-priestly narrative of Joshua 3 and 4 most probably came into being when the priestly material (Gen-Num) was linked with the Deuteronomistic History. Thus, the post-priestly narrative of Joshua 3 and 4 elaborates on and expands the original Deuteronomistic narrative of the Jordan crossing. The merging of these two narratives is the cause of the chronological and other literary problems in Joshua 3. <![CDATA[<b>An African view of women as sexual objects as a concern for gender equality: A critical study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100028&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt South African society consists of people who value honour, respect and dignity. One of the most worrying factors in our democratic country is the escalation of sex-related violations like rape, sexual harassment and sexual abuse. According to media reports, the rape and abuse of women are daily occurrences. Statistics also suggest that most marriages will at some point need to resolve the emotional trauma resulting from an extra-marital affair. It is imperative that whilst the police are trying to get the culprits into custody, we as a society should help to find out what has gone so wrong that the beautiful gift of a sexual relationship is being abused and degraded by the people. This delicate issue may be an indication of the influence of patriarchal systems in some African cultures. Rape statistics reveal that most of the perpetrators are well-known members of a community. There are many possible reasons why our society is facing this challenge; however, this study will explore the view that women are considered as sexual objects and how this perspective reveals itself as the cause of sexual offences. <![CDATA[<b>Guidelines for continuous theological training: Challenges for the Apostolic Faith Mission church</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100029&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Qualitative research done amongst a section of the broader membership as well as a region of the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM) church has identified the role expectations of the pastor. Studies have shown that pastors should be continuously equipped to enable them to meet all their role expectations successfully. Although successful pastorates are a priority for the AFM, no formal structures have been constituted to guide pastors to become involved in continuous theological training. A literature research was also undertaken in order to obtain a larger and representative picture of the continuous training of pastors. The research and literature study findings have led to the drafting of proposed guidelines for continuous theological training. The purpose of this article is to provide these guidelines to the AFM church role players for them to remain informed regarding continuous theological training. This will enable pastors to stimulate congregational growth and address different training needs. <![CDATA[<b>The status of psalm singing in the Dutch Reformed Church</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100030&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Over the past three decades, there have been consistent and increasing signs that psalms are disappearing from the repertoire of hymns that are sung in the Dutch Reformed (DR) Church. In an attempt to turn this tendency around, research was undertaken to determine the seriousness and the cause of the current situation. An empirical study was done to determine the frequency of use and the functionality of psalms, and to identify the practical factors that influence these. Results confirmed the low application frequency, dysfunctionality, unpopularity and sparse liturgical employment of psalms, and showed that most psalms that appear in the hymn book of the Church, Liedboek (2001), have not become part of the repertoire of hymns of the DR Church. Respondents also provided valuable information in their explanations of why psalms are out of touch with the needs of congregations in contemporary Afrikaans culture. The research concluded that psalm singing is falling into disuse in the DR Church in South Africa. Only a small number of psalms stand a chance to survive, and then only in congregations where the singing of psalms is propagated, where well-known psalms are sung regularly and where new psalms are being learned. <![CDATA[<b>Poetically Africa dwells: A dialogue between Heidegger's understanding of language as the house of Being and African Being-with (<i>ubuntu</i>) as a possible paradigm for postfoundational practical theology in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100031&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>The Hebrew Bible in contemporary philosophy of religion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100032&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Over the last few decades, there has been an increased concern for the establishment of more sustained interdisciplinary dialogue between biblical scholars and philosophers of religion. In this article, aimed at biblical scholars, the author as biblical scholar offers a descriptive and historical overview of some samples of recourse to the Hebrew Bible in philosophical approaches in the study of religion. The aim is to provide a brief glimpse of how some representative philosophers from both the analytic and continental sides of the methodological divide have related to the biblical traditions in the quest for a contemporary relevant Christian philosophy of religion. <![CDATA[<b>Dialectics between reader and text: A discussion on hermeneutical homiletics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100033&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The fundamentalist reaction to contemporary theological discourse in South Africa expresses the need for homiletics to give serious attention to the pre-understanding of our existential situation in order to understand the Biblical text for preaching. Empirical research shows that most preachers concentrate on exegesis in sermon preparation, but do not succeed in actualising the message of the text in their own context. In homiletics, the question still remains whether the own context of the reader of a Biblical text should be seen as an integral part of the hermeneutical-homiletical theory. This article argues that there is a creative tension between reader and Biblical text in the hermeneutical process of sermon preparation, provided the two are treated equally. Because either the text or the reader sometimes dominates the process of understanding, a choice is made for an equal dialectical weight of reader and text in hermeneutical-homiletics, referring to H-G. Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur as sources. This approach opens up the possibility of topical preaching as a result of a creative tension between reader and text in sermon preparation. <![CDATA[<b>How 'religious' is religion and how 'natural' is naturalness? On the question of the naturalness of religion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100034&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The problem addressed in this article is twofold: firstly, how can a question be posed (on the naturalness of religion) consisting of two concepts (naturalness and religion) that are both somewhat vague and secondly, what are the implications of the preceding semantic mappings (or labelling) that determine the sense-making process (i.e. the conceptual problems that follows in the wake of the labelling). The aim of the article is to reflect from a historical perspective on the two concepts that make up the question, namely natural andreligion and finally to indicate what is meant by semantic mappings that determine conceptual problems. From this indication it is argued that 'scientific foul play' is the order of the day, that is, that both theology and science are as it were playing 'off-side', thus making the question in the contemporary discourses an emotionally messy endeavour and that, in the author's opinion, the question has therefore to be rephrased. <![CDATA[<b>Creative preaching: The importance of creativity in the preaching process</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100035&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Using the limited resources for proclaiming the gospel of Jesus Christ in a rapidly changing world presents problems for preachers. Preaching in the reformed tradition is based primarily upon the Bible and the tradition of the church. Given the limitations of the age of the source, the preacher runs the risk of boring the congregation with sermons irrelevant to their living conditions, by repeating the same basic message. Preachers may run out of ideas and ways of presenting a fresh, relevant message on a weekly basis. They start employing all kinds of tricks and gimmicks in order to stay relevant. Creative preaching is suggested as an answer to this dilemma. Creative preaching is developed and described as a process in which the preacher, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, employs creative methods like observation, association, imagination and creative thinking when creating a sermon. The sermon is structured to be creative and to stimulate the creativity of the listeners. Creative preaching could be described as stimulating preaching based on Scripture, imagination and the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. <![CDATA[<b>The biblical ethics of work: A model for African nations</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100036&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article has unpacked issues surrounding workers' poor attitude in terms of work and focuses on Nigeria and on Africa at large. It addresses the lapses of labour for both employers and the employees, which include misconduct, non-commitment, unfaithfulness, apathy and exploitation, amongst other things. It is the argument of this article that a misconception of work and a lack of work ethics are some of the major factors responsible for these negative attitudes. In order to get around this perceived problem, the article suggests a theological solution which is rooted in the Christian Scriptures. Thus polemic approaches as well as an exegesis of the Scriptures concerning the right concept and attitude to work are employed in this study. The synchronic approach to exegesis is employed in this work. This approach looks at the final form of the text as it stands in the Bible. The particular components of this approach applied in this article are narrative and rhetorical criticism whilst others involve lexical, grammatical and syntactical analysis. In addition, the Intercultural Hermeneutics approach of contextualization is employed. The article points out how work which, from a theological perspective, originated with creation and was not intended to be evil later became conceived as a kind of punishment. It also demonstrates how work became bifurcated into secular and spiritual spheres with its attendant negative consequences in the Middle Ages. It concludes with a presentation of the biblical ethics of work which is recommended as a benchmark for attitudinal change in stakeholders. <![CDATA[<b>Dating the Priestly text in the pre-exilic period: Some remarks about anachronistic slips and other obstacles</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100037&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article engages with the work of scholars such as Jacob Milgrom and Avi Hurvitz on dating the Priestly text (P) in the pre-exilic period. In response to Wellhausen's argument that P is guilty of archaising, Milgrom and Hurvitz have always maintained that there would be some 'anachronistic slips'. In this article the author points out a few examples from Leviticus which could be understood as 'anachronistic slips'. The author also shows the difficulties one encounters when attempting to interpret a text such as Leviticus 26 in the pre-exilic period. <![CDATA[<b>Wa re o Bona e Hlotša, wa e Nametša Thaba! Bibele, Basadi ba MaAfrika ba Afrika-Borwa le HIV le AIDS</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100038&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The question of the history of the reception of the Christian Bible in South Africa particularly by African- South Africans has not been a smooth ride. It was part of a bigger package that included among others, the importation of European patriarchy onto African soil, the land grabbing exercise which resulted in among others, the impoverishment of African peoples and, the emasculation of the African man. The latter in turn led to the intensification of patriarchy within the average African family. The preceding situation, was not helpful to the context and/or situation of African women who were already then, at the bottom of the patriarchal ladder, because, as can be expected, within the context of the Black church and theology then, little if any except for a handful of liberation theologians and members of some ecumenical bodies, was done to make the theology propagated then, relevant to pertinent issues which affected the lives of Black people. Given the historical marginalisation of women in the Bible and Theology, not only in South Africa, but also globally, it becomes obvious that even in our context, mainstream theology and biblical hermeneutics left issues pertaining to gender justice basically untouched. It is no wonder, as we will argue in this paper, that given that already vulnerable situation into which African women have been thrown into by the preceding factors as well as by how the Bible continues to be used in our HIV and AIDS contexts, their situation may be succinctly captured as that of a limping animal that has been made to climb the mountain! The Northern Sotho proverb or saying: Wa re o bona e hlotša, wa e nametša thaba (while limping, you let it climb the mountain) simply means that a certain situation is being aggravated (by an external factor). The present article will use the preceding proverb as a hermeneutical lens through which to analyse the reception of the Bible by African women in the HIV and AIDS context of South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>The pastors' handling of trauma analogous to Jesus' healings and exorcisms</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100039&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The pastor's handling of trauma analogous to Jesus' healings and exorcisms, studied from a cross-cultural perspective, can be understood as acts of relocation or cope-healings. Special attention is given to the way in which Jesus healed, the results of his healings and how those who where healed and witnessed Jesus' healings reacted. It is argued that the way in which Jesus healed can be used by pastors as paradigm to heal those who experience trauma. <![CDATA[<b>The influence of religious and cultural diversity on the moral orientation of the current South African society: A challenge for the church</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100040&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article takes into account the morality crisis in South Africa against the background of the rich diversity in the country. It deals with the question whether religious and cultural diversity in particular contributes to moral decay in the community. Different peoples do not only have different experiences of life, but also different value systems on account of their different backgrounds and belief systems. They are the products of diverse influences which bring about different identities and moral orientations. On the one hand this can lead to conflict in societies. On the other hand, diversity in terms of religion and culture enriches societies. Much depends on how these differences are managed. Identity and leadership be regarded as two of the most important elements in the makeup of a prosperous society, especially when it comes to the factor of morality. Diversity demonstrates a great deal of dynamics in itself. It progressively develops new forms as people live actively amidst new circumstances and relationships. As the church is a central player in the field of building moral values, the church has the obligation to re-organise itself in terms of traditional diversity as well as the current contemporary religious and cultural experience. <![CDATA[<b>The exile of the patriarchs amongst the prophets: A new beginning or first beginnings?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100041&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Usually, the primary texts on the patriarchs of the Old Testament are considered to be those in Genesis, not only as to the extent of the material offered, but also regarding the dating accorded the patriarchs in relation to the texts concerned. References to the Old Testament patriarchs in the prophetic texts are often considered to be on the margins. In this article, this 'exile' is reversed, at least as far as the dating of the patriarchs in relation to textual references to them are concerned. Repatriating the importance of the earliest prophetic mention of the patriarchs makes possible new insights into where the patriarchs could most plausibly fit into the religious history of ancient Israel. <![CDATA[<b>It only matters how it is obtained and how it is employed - the dangers and chances of money in the New Testament</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100042&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article examines statements about money and other forms of material wealth in the New Testament. After a general survey of the surprisingly many occurrences of money, coins, wealth or property and the contexts in which they appear, the article describes the spiritual dangers involved in the desire for and use of money as addressed by various New Testament books. A further section is devoted to an often neglected aspect, namely the positive chances of money rightly used that are also mentioned. Money, otherwise also called mammon, can be used to support those in need and to further the kingdom of God and even to express spiritual truths and bonds. This is followed by a summary of New Testament statements on obtaining money legitimately and using it properly. A final section reflects on the way how Christians today are to use the means that have been entrusted to them. <![CDATA[<b>'The hastening that waits': A critical assessment of the tangebility of unity within the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100043&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The tale of the Reformed Church tradition in South Africa remains conspicuous with challenges also within the current democratic context. Whilst the political past of South Africa contributed towards a Reformed church divided along racial lines, a struggle continues for a genuinely unified Reformed church today. Conceding to the present discussions about the possibility of uniting all Reformed congregations that were divided along racial categories of Black, Coloured, Indian and White, this article aspires to delve into the intricacies pertaining to the already achieved unity between the 'Coloured' and a huge portion of the 'Black' Reformed congregations, that is to say, the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa. This article will argue that although it is fundamental that the church of Christ must be united, it is equally imperative that the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA) waits and assesses whether it has already achieved tangible unity. <![CDATA[<b>'The Word of Yahweh is right': Psalm 33 as a Torah-psalm</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100044&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt This article investigates some of the similarities between the Torah-psalms and Psalm 33. It is suggested that the 'Torah-psalms' should be re-contextualised and understood as part of a post-exilic endeavour to provide an interpretation of the emerging 'canon' of Hebrew scripture for the faithful of the late Persian period. Psalm 33 can also be counted amongst the literary products of this endeavour. The service it rendered to its audience was to establish a connection between Yahweh's work of creation, his redemption of Israel and his divine rule over all the world through the power of his 'word'. <![CDATA[<b>A critical assessment of Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence as a dogma based assault on Scripture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100045&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>Reading Christian scriptures in China</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100046&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>The beauty of theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100047&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>Hearing the inaudible</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100048&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>Holmes se Apostoliese Vaders in Grieks en Engels - 'n moet vir elke boekrak</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100049&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>Four portraits - one Jesus</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100050&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>The universe as communion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100051&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>Handbuch Theologische Ausbildung: Grundlagen - Programmentwicklung - Leitungsfragen</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100052&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b><i>Biblische Texte vom Glück</i></b><b>: Ligpunte vir lesers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100053&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate. <![CDATA[<b>Ignatius van Antiochië - 'n nuwe blik op 'n ou kerkvader</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2074-77052010000100054&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt The aim of this article has been to critically assess and unmask Anton Szandor LaVey's Philosophy of Indulgence reflected in The Satanic Bible (1969) as a dogma based assault on Scripture. The main task of this article has been to expose some contemporary ethical and dogmatic utterances used to express disagreements which LaVey alludes to in The Satanic Bible against Scripture. The debate in which these disagreements are expressed is their interminable character of the concept of what defines human morality. The philosophy under review has been assessed according to its effects on humanity. Does it create a just world and a set of values in the same way Scripture does or does it create unity of purpose or divergent views that put the world and the church on crossroads? The conclusion of this work posits a challenge towards evaluating the theology of nature, which now appears to be the main theological framework of the 21st century debate.