Scielo RSS <![CDATA[African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-293620160002&lang=en vol. 8 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. AIM: The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. SETTING: The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. METHOD: A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. RESULTS: The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83%) and assurance (80%) domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR mode.l CONCLUSION: The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. <![CDATA[<b>Awareness of prevention of teenage pregnancy amongst secondary school learners in Makhado municipality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Sexuality plays a very significant role in the lives of both boys and girls. It is, therefore, considered important for schools to recognise and accept sexuality as part of the development process of the child. Professor Kader Asmal (previous South African Minister of Education) suggested that the earlier the school begins to teach learners about sexuality, the better because they can be easily misled by their peers if proper guidance regarding their sexuality is not given. AIM: The current study was conducted to assess the awareness of teenagers on the prevention of teenage pregnancy (TP) in six secondary school learners situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. SETTING: The study was conducted at six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province in 2014. METHODOLOGY: A quantitative descriptive survey study was conducted where data were collected, using self-administered questionnaires, from 381 systematically sampled participants from six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Data were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22.0. Necessary approval procedures and ethical clearance were obtained prior to data collection. RESULTS: Ninety-four percent of participants agreed that TP can be prevented through abstaining from sex, whilst 65% of participants agreed that TP could be prevented by using contraceptives such as pills and injections. Eighty-three percent of participants agreed that TP could be prevented through the use of condoms. Seventy-four percent participants disagreed that bathing after sex prevents teenage pregnancies. Furthermore, 28% participants agreed that TP can be prevented by oral sex. CONCLUSION: The conclusion drawn was that learners are aware of the measures for preventing TP. <![CDATA[<b>Substance use amongst secondary school students in a rural setting in South Africa: Prevalence and possible contributing factors</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: This study determined the prevalence of substance abuse amongst rural secondary school learners in a selected province of South Africa METHODOLOGY: The study adopted a quantitative approach using a descriptive survey design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 338 randomly selected learners, age 14 to 18 years, from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhembedzi circuit in the Limpopo Province. Permission to enter the circuit and the schools was obtained from the circuit manager and parents' or learners' informed consent was obtained prior to data collection RESULTS: The majority of the participants (94% male, 98% female) had never used substances. Most of the learners started using substances between the ages 15 to 20 years. The majority of learners who were using substances were male. Of the respondents, all the female (100%) students reported to have stopped substance abuse. The majority (63% male, 50% female) of the learners tried to stop substance abuse but failed. Most of the learners (72% male, 71% female) did not have family members who were substance users. The majority of the students attested that substances can be easily obtained in their communities or villages. The majority (68%) of the leaners knew that substance abuse is dangerous to health CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Rural secondary school learners in South Africa have a low prevalence rate of substance abuse. Hence, there is a need for a counselling program in each school to provide support and refer such learners to an appropriate institution for rehabilitation. <![CDATA[<b>Emergency nurses' ways of coping influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Millennium Developmental Goal 3 (MDG 3) aims at enhancing gender equity and empowerment of women. Emergency nurses who often encounter women injured by their intimate partners are at risk of developing vicarious traumatisation, which may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence. AIM: This article aims to, (1) describe emergency nurses' ways of coping with the exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence, and (2) recommend a way towards effective coping that will enhance emergency nurses' abilities to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence to contribute to the achievement of MDG 3. SETTING: The study was conducted in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. METHOD: A qualitative design and descriptive phenomenological method was used. Emergency nurses working in the setting were purposively sampled and interviewed. The data were analysed by searching for the essence and meaning attached to the exposure of emergency nurses to survivors of intimate partner violence. RESULTS: Emergency nurses' coping responses were either aimed at avoiding or dealing with their exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence. Coping aimed at dealing with the exposure included seeking support, emotion regulation and accommodative coping. CONCLUSION: Emergency nurses employ either effective or ineffective ways of coping. Less effective ways of coping may increase their risk of vicarious and secondary traumatisation, which in turn may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence. <![CDATA[<b>Formulating a return-to-work decision for employees with major depressive disorders: Occupational therapists' experiences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is worldwide one of the most concerning health problems as it is associated with reduced work productivity and permanent disability. Occupational therapists are often called upon to make a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD in order to facilitate continued employment. Sustaining employment is in alignment with achieving the Millennium Development Goal 1: Eradicating extreme poverty, as it is known that people suffering from mental health disorders are frequently denied employment opportunities leading to reduced financial resources and therefore possible poverty. AIM: This study described occupational therapists' experiences of formulating a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD. It formed part of a larger study. SETTING: Occupational therapists working in vocational rehabilitation or mental health in South Africa with a postgraduate qualification in vocational rehabilitation or mental health participated in the study. METHOD: A qualitative research design was used. Two separate focus groups explored 11 occupational therapists' experiences of formulating a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD. Ethics clearance number: S34/2007. RESULTS: Seven themes emerged, which were, (1) the biographical profile of the employee, (2) point of view of employer, (3) point of view of employee, (4) point of view of occupational therapist, (5) declaring the employee as temporary incapacitated, (6) declaring the employee as permanently incapacitated and (7) employee's level of motivation. CONCLUSION: Occupational therapists ought to have sound knowledge, skill, experience and the ability to collaborate with employees and employers in formulating a return-to-work decision. <![CDATA[<b>Strategies to sustain a quality improvement initiative in neonatal resuscitation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Many neonatal deaths can be prevented globally through effective resuscitation. South Africa (SA) committed towards attaining the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, SA's district hospitals have the highest early neonatal mortality rates. Modifiable and avoidable causes associated with patient-related, administrative and health care provider factors contribute to neonatal mortality. A quality improvement initiative in neonatal resuscitation could contribute towards decreasing neonatal mortality, thereby contributing towards the attainment of the MDG4. AIM: The aim of this study was, (1) to explore and describe the existing situation regarding neonatal resuscitation in a district hospital, (2) to develop strategies to sustain a neonatal resuscitation quality improvement initiative and (3) to decrease neonatal mortality. Changes that occurred and the sustainability of strategies were evaluated. SETTING: A maternity section of a district hospital in South Africa. METHODS: The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model formed the theoretical framework for the study. The Problem Resolving Action Research model was applied and the study was conducted in three cycles. Purposive sampling was used for the quantitative and qualitative aspects of data collection. Data was analysed accordingly. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the strategies formulated and implemented to address factors related to neonatal resuscitation (training, equipment and stock, staff shortages, staff attitude, neonatal transport and protocols) had probable sustainability and contributed towards a reduction in neonatal mortality in the setting. CONCLUSION: These strategies had the probability of sustainability and could potentially improve neonatal outcomes and reduce neonatal mortality to contribute toward South Africa's' drive to attain the MDG4. <![CDATA[<b>HIV-positive patients' perceptions of care received at a selected antiretroviral therapy clinic in Vhembe district, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Patients' experiences are a reflection of what has happened during the care process and, therefore, provide information about the performance of health care professional workers. They refer to the process of care provision at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) sites. AIM AND SETTING: This article explored the perceptions of HIV-positive patients of care received at the Gateway Clinic of the regional hospital that provides antiretroviral treatment in the Vhembe district. METHODS: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. A non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 20 HIV-positive patients who were above 18 years of age. In-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed through Tech's open coding method. RESULTS: One theme and two sub-themes emerged, namely positive experiences related to the environment and attitudes of health professionals, and negative experiences concerning the practices by health care providers. CONCLUSION: Patients' perceptions of quality of, and satisfaction with, health care may affect health outcomes. Recommendations are made to consider, practice and strengthen the protocols, the standard operating procedures and the principles of infection control in the health facilities. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Despite progress made by other countries worldwide in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4, 5 and 6, South Africa is experiencing a challenge in attaining positive outcomes for these goals. OBJECTIVE AND SETTING: To describe the challenges experienced by South Africa regarding the successful implementation of MDGs 4, 5 and 6. METHODS: An integrative literature review was used to identify and synthesise various streams of literature on the challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining MDGs 4, 5 and 6. RESULTS: The integrative review revealed the following themes: (1) interventions related to child mortality reduction, (2) implementation of maternal mortality reduction strategies, and (3) identified barriers to zero HIV and TB infections and management. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that poverty relief mechanisms be intensified to improve the socio-economic status of women. There is a need for sectoral planning towards maternal health, and training of healthcare workers should emphasise the reduction of maternal deaths. Programmes addressing the reduction of maternal and child mortality rates, HIV, STIs and TB need to be put in place. <![CDATA[<b>Male partners' views of involvement in maternal healthcare services at Makhado Municipality clinics, Limpopo Province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Male partners have a strong influence on pregnant partners' health and their access to care. Their involvement is critical in the delivery and uptake of maternal healthcare services and improving maternal and child health outcomes. AIM: The study sought to determine male partners' views on their involvement in maternal healthcare services. SETTING: The Makhado Municipality's Kutama, Madombidzha and Vleifontein clinics. METHODS: A qualitative study design, which is exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature, was used. The population comprised 15 men whose partners had been pregnant within the last 2 years. A non-probability, purposive sampling procedure was used. Data were collected via in-depth individual interviews using a voice recorder and an interview schedule guide. Tesch's open coding method was used to analyse data. RESULTS: The findings revealed one major theme, namely that maternal health issues are viewed as a woman'sdomain; and three sub-themes: culture and participation in childbirth, male partners' employment status, and male partners' unwillingness to participate in maternal health issues. CONCLUSIONS: The involvement of male partners in maternal healthcare services, and further research in promoting this activity, should be proposedto policymakers. <![CDATA[<b>Challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa. AIM: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. SETTING: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. METHODS: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District. RESULTS: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines' potency. CONCLUSIONS: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives. <![CDATA[<b>An exploratory study of the need for curriculum review of Master of Public Health Degree at a Rural-based University in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Master of Public Health (MPH) training programmes were developed worldwide in response to the crisis in human resources for health. AIM: To determine whether the MPH programme at the selected rural-based university in South Africa enabled students to achieve the MPH core competencies relevant for Lower Middle Income Countries. SETTING: The study was carried out at a rural-based University in South Africa. The target population was the 2011 first-year cohort of MPH students who by the beginning of 2014 had just completed their coursework. METHODOLOGY: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive research design was adapted. Eighty-five students were randomly selected to participate in the study. A structured questionnaire comprising seven competency clusters was developed. The selected students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Only those students who signed consent forms participated in this study. The questionnaire was tested for construct validity and reliability using 10 students with similar characteristics to those sampled for the study. Microsoft Excel software was used to analyse the data descriptively in terms of frequency and percentages. RESULTS: The students were confident of their competencies regarding public health science skills. Amongst these were analytical assessment, communication, community and inter-sectorial competencies as well as ethics. However, the students lacked confidence in context-sensitive issues, planning and management, research and development, and leadership competencies. Yet the latter is the backbone of public health practice. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: There is a need for revamping public health curricula. In this respect, a follow-up study that builds a deeper understanding of the subject is needed. <![CDATA[<b>Beliefs and practices of diabetic patients in Vhembe district of Limpopo Province</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition affecting over 18 million people worldwide. It can lead to debilitating complications and premature death if not effectively controlled. South Africa, like any sub-Saharan countries and the world at large, is no exception. The prevalence of diabetes among South African adults has increased by 50% from 2009 to date, and an increase of some 11 million new diabetes diagnoses is expected by the year 2020. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the beliefs and management practices of patients with DM in Vhembe district, Limpopo province. SETTING: The study was conducted at Vhembe district clinics. METHODS: A probability, purposive sampling was used to sample 100 diabetic patients. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19.0. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, and percentages were used to summarise the data from the study. RESULTS: The majority of the respondents had poor management practice of feet care and annual eye examinations. Twenty four (24.0%) of the respondents believed that DM can be cured and 22 (22.0%) did not believe that diet helps in the management of DM. CONCLUSION: The belief that DM is curable can have a negative effect as patients can quit taking treatment once the disease is under control. This happens irrespective of the national guidelines for the management of DM. Therefore, some strategies should be sought that could enhance the implementation of the guidelines in order to combat the disease. <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions and experiences of allopathic health practitioners on collaboration with traditional health practitioners in post-apartheid South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The indigenous health system was perceived to be a threat to the allopathic health system. It was associated with 'witchcraft', and actively discouraged, and repressed through prohibition laws. The introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 of 2007 brought hope that those centuries of disrespect for traditional health systems would change. The study examined the perceptions and experiences of allopathic health practitioners on collaboration with traditional health practitioners in post-apartheid South Africa. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive research methodology was used to collect data from allopathic health practitioners employed by Limpopo's Department of Health. In-depth focus group discussions and meetings were conducted between January and August 2014. Perceptions and experiences of working with traditional health practitioners were explored. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Pretoria and approval from the Department's Research Committee. RESULTS: Dominant views were that the two health systems were not compatible with respect to the science involved and the source of knowledge. Overall, quality of health care will be compromised if traditional health practitioners are allowed to work in public health facilities. CONCLUSION: Allopathic health practitioners do not appear ready to work with traditional health practitioners, citing challenges of quality of health care, differences regarding concept of sciences and source of knowledge; and lack of policy on collaboration. Lack of exposure to traditional medicine seems to impede opportunities to accept and work with traditional healers. Exposure and training at undergraduate level regarding the traditional health system is recommended. Policy guidelines on collaborations are urgently required. <![CDATA[<b>Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer prevention at Thulamela Municipality of Vhembe District in Limpopo Province</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a widespread and often fatal disease that affected 1 million women globally in 2005. Not only is it the second most common cancer in women but it was also the second leading cause of cancer deaths, accounting for over 250 000 in 2006. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer prevention among rural women in Vhembe District in Limpopo Province. METHODOLOGY: A quantitative descriptive approach was adopted. The quantitative design enabled the discovery of more information by means of direct questioning of a sample of women aged 30 years and older. A convenience sampling was used to select the respondents. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Measures to ensure ethical issues were adhered to RESULTS: The findings revealed that women lacked knowledge about cervical cancer and preventive methods, and displayed positive attitudes to the use of services if made available as health workers did not adequately inform them about the availability of the services. CONCLUSION: The awareness of cervical cancer among women in Vhembe District is limited. There is a need to educate and promote awareness of cervical cancer among women to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality. <![CDATA[<b>Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV and AIDS patients at the Kwa-Thema clinic in Gauteng Province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shown reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity in people living with HIV and AIDS. Since high levels of adherence of more than 95.0% is required to achieve effective suppression of viral load, researchers found it important to establish whether people are pursuing what is expected of them. AIM AND SETTING: The study was aimed at determining adherence to ART among HIV and AIDS patients at the Kwa-Thema clinic in Gauteng Province. METHODS: Quantitative cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Ethical clearance was sort from MEDUNSA Research Ethics Committee. Validity and reliability were maintained throughout the study. A non-probability systematic sampling was used. Data were collected using administered structured questionnaire, and a total of 290 respondents were involved. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 22. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the adherence to ART was 77.0%. Factors that were significantly associated with adherence were gender (χ2 = 3.78, df = 1, p < 0.05), level of education (χ2 = 3.52, df = 3, p = 0.032), co-treatment of HIV and other infections (χ2 = 5.46, df = 4, p = 0.019), ability to follow ART (χ2 = 12.82, df = 1, p = 0.000 < 0.05), and types of antiretroviral drugs. RECOMMENDATION: The study recommends intensification of health education campaign against stigma and gender discrimination. Providing feedback to patients regarding benefits of ART is important. CONCLUSION: The study concluded that adherence to ART at the Kwa-Thema clinic was suboptimal (less than 95%) at 77%, but comparable with the adherence levels in other developing countries. <![CDATA[<b>Survey of bar-lounges and restaurants regarding compliance with the current smoke-free regulation in Thulamela Municipality, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: The Tobacco Products Control Act, No. 83 of 1993 was introduced in South Africa in 1993. Due to the shortfalls of the 1993 Act, the Tobacco Products Control Amendment Act, No. 12 of 1999 was passed in 1999. The regulation relating to smoking of tobacco products in public places was gazetted in 2000 and implemented in 2001. SETTING: The setting for the study was all selected registered licensed bar-lounges including restaurants within the municipality. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To examine compliance levels with the current smoke-free regulation at bar-lounges and restaurants in Thulamela Municipality. Objectives of the study: To observe whether structural alterations had been effected to accommodate smoking patrons. To observe whether tobacco-related litter was present in nonsmoking areas and in the outdoor areas within 5 meters of windows and entry ways. To observe whether individuals or groups engaged in smoking in non-smoking areas. METHODS: An observational survey was conducted to measure the level of compliance by lounges and restaurants in Thulamela Municipality. A convenience sampling method was used to sample 56 bar-lounges, including restaurants. Data were collected using an observation log. Collected data were analysed using SPSS 20.0. RESULTS: The study findings noted low compliance with the legislation with only one establishment (1.8%) complying with the requirements of the legislation. CONCLUSION: The level of compliance with the legislation is in a very low state in Thulamela Municipality. Further research is needed to explore factors influencing non-compliance with the regulation. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of learners' exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. AIM: This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. SETTING: This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. METHODOLOGY: The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. RESULTS: The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION: In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school. <![CDATA[<b>University of Venda's male students' attitudes towards contraception and family planning</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being. AIM: This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students' sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda. METHODS: Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students RESULTS: This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students' negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda. CONCLUSION: The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students' sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda. <![CDATA[<b>Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362016000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SETTING: The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1-3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. RESULTS: Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socioeconomic standing. CONCLUSION: Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.