Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> vol. 44 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Incremental validity of work-related sense of coherence in predicting work wellness</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Sense of coherence and, more recently, work-related sense of coherence are regarded as significant variables in promoting the management of employees' wellness in modern organisations RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether work-related sense of coherence, as a context-specific application of sense of coherence, provides incremental validity over and above sense of coherence in explaining indicators of work wellness. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: It is important to know if the context-specific, work-related sense of coherence is a better predictor of work wellness in comparison with general sense of coherence in order to guide interventions aimed at the development and enhancement of employees' wellness. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (N = 734) of part-time and full-time working adults completing an online module at a distance education institution. A biographical questionnaire, the Work-related sense of coherence (SoC) Questionnaire, the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, the Fatigue Scale and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to achieve the objective of the study. MAIN FINDINGS: Work-related sense of coherence displayed incremental validity over and above that of sense of coherence in predicting work engagement and fatigue. However, sense of coherence was a stronger predictor of fatigue, while work-related sense of coherence was a stronger predictor of work engagement. PRACTICAL MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: In planning interventions to address the work engagement or fatigue of employees, work-related sense of coherence could be used as a practical indicator of coherent work experiences, especially in predicting work engagement. CONTRIBUTION: The results of the study should provide new insight into the shared variance between work-related sense of coherence and sense of coherence. The results indicated that the factors are interrelated but independent and that work-related sense of coherence adds incremental variance in predicting work engagement and fatigue in the context of work. <![CDATA[<b>'You have to keep your head on your shoulders': A systems psychodynamic perspective on women leaders</b>]]> BACKGROUND: Women leaders within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in South Africa have increased in numbers over the past years and they have changed the dynamics in these institutions. Yet, it is a subject that has hardly been explored from the perspective of women leaders. AIM: The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of women leaders in HEIs from a systems psychodynamic perspective using the conflict, identity, boundaries, authority, roles, task (CIBART) model, a well-researched model to analyse systems psychodynamics and to gain a deeper understanding of (un)conscious dynamics within organisations. METHODS: This qualitative study is based on Dilthey's modern hermeneutics. Interviews were conducted with 23 women leaders from the Higher Education Resource Services South Africa, network across 8 HEIs. Observations were conducted in one organisation to support the data analysis and interpretation. Data were analysed through content analysis. FINDINGS: Findings show that women leaders re-evaluate and reconstruct themselves constantly within organisations. This continuous re-evaluation and reconstruction become visible through the constructs of the CIBART model. The findings reveal deeper insights into systems psychodynamics, which considers anxiety within the system where women leaders seem to contain such anxiety by mobilising specific defence mechanisms. Certain diversity markers, such as race, gender, mother tongue, position within the organisation and generational belonging play a role in creating the dynamics. Women leaders' experience of de-authorisation and role confusion impacts significantly on women leadership and their action towards ownership. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The study provides new, valuable and context-specific insights into women leadership seen through the lens of the CIBART model, highlighting unconscious dynamics that need practical attention in the HEIs to empower women leaders for gender-specific leadership training. ORIGINALITY OR VALUE: Findings provide a foundation for future research on women leaders and applied solutions to empower women leaders, whilst reducing anxiety within the system. The study provides complex insights, which should create increasing awareness in women leaders towards being containers of anxiety and creating new ways of empowered women leadership. <![CDATA[<b>Demands-abilities fit, work beliefs, meaningful work and engagement in nature-based jobs</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Meaningful work and personal engagement are important dimensions of flourishing of employees, especially when individuals work in challenging jobs. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between demands-abilities fit, work beliefs, meaningful work and engagement in individuals in nature-based jobs MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Individuals working in nature often work under challenging circumstances without the necessary resources. A research gap exists regarding the effects of demands-abilities fit and work beliefs on meaningful work. It is also not clear how these antecedents and meaningful work will impact the engagement of individuals working in nature. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was used with a convenience sample of 161 nature-based employees. Data were collected using a structured online questionnaire consisting of items from the demands-abilities fit scale, work-life questionnaire, work and meaning Inventory, work engagement scale and a biographical questionnaire. MAIN FINDINGS: Work beliefs (calling, career and job) and demands-abilities fit predicted a large percentage of the variance in meaning making. Work beliefs (calling and job) and demands-abilities fit also predicted a large percentage of the variance in greater good motivations. Demands-abilities fit and a calling work orientation indirectly affected work engagement via meaningful work. The scales which measured calling and job orientations showed insufficient discriminant validity in relation to the scales which measured positive meaning and work engagement. PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers should consider implementing interventions to affect the demands-abilities fit (through human resource management interventions) and work beliefs of individuals working in nature (through job crafting). Promoting perceptions of meaningful work might contribute to higher personal engagement. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the effects of meaningful work and its antecedents on personal engagement. <![CDATA[<b>Workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work</b>]]> ORIENTATION: In order to create competitive advantage in an increasingly turbulent economic environment, sustainability of high performance is crucial. Only a few individuals have the drive, mindset, discipline and ability to sustain high performance on a daily basis. Thus, it is necessary to consider what can be done so that employees can sustain high performance over the long term. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to establish whether spiritual workplaces will enhance employees' work engagement and thriving at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Two important mechanisms for understanding the human dimension of sustainability are thriving at work and work engagement. However, because work engagement and thriving are affective-motivational states, it is necessary to consider contextual factors that promote these positive states. As work engagement and thriving at work move beyond mere energy, to a sense of connectedness, it seems important that spiritual workplaces are created. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: The study was quantitative in nature, and data were collected from employees working at small, medium and macro enterprises (SMMEs) in one geographical area in South Africa. The final sample consisted of 259 employees. A survey that was cross-sectional in nature was conducted by means of a self-administered questionnaire. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings of the study show that there is a positive and significant relationship between workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work. Furthermore, workplace spirituality significantly influences the variance in both work engagement and thriving at work. PRACTICAL OR MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: In order for SMMEs to promote work engagement and thriving at work, spiritual workplaces need to be created. Furthermore, emphasis needs to be placed on the work experience, rather than on work outcomes. It is also important that SMMEs develop employees holistically, that they create spiritually based organisational cultures and that they pay more attention to relationship management and networking. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to the literature on workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work. <![CDATA[<b>The experiences of employees participating in organisational corporate social responsibility initiatives</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This article is about the experiences of employees who actively participate in organisational corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The general aim of this study was to explore the experiences of employees who participate in CSR initiatives within an organisation where a well-developed framework exists. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Whilst an emergent number of studies have considered the various dimensions of CSR initiatives, the focus appears to be on stakeholders such as the recipients of CSR, organisations, consumers and shareholders but not the perspective of the employees who actively participate in CSR initiatives. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative research approach was employed with the intent of exploring the experiences of employees participating in organisational CSR initiatives. Data were collected and analysed from a purposive sample of 12 employees, by means of interactive qualitative analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The study revealed that the primary driver that motivates employees to participate in CSR is love. Love sparks a sense of compassion. Compassion, coupled with an enabling environment, stimulates generosity. By being generous, a feeling of hope and inspiration is induced in both the givers and receivers of generosity. A secondary outcome of generosity and hope and inspiration is bringing about change to others, and whilst going through this journey and making a difference in the lives of others, participants experience a progressive change within themselves. This change evokes a feeling of fulfilment, and ultimately a feeling of complete joy. CONTRIBUTIONS OR VALUE-ADD: This research complements existing CSR literature by focussing and reporting on the experiences of the employee as an important stakeholder. <![CDATA[<b>Tales of the unexpected: Integrating career shocks in the contemporary careers literature</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This article addresses the interplay between individual agency and contextual factors in contemporary career development processes. In light of the prominence of the former in the contemporary scholarly debate, we present a case for a more comprehensive approach by heeding the latter as well RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main aim of this article was to provide a definition and conceptualisation of career shocks, as well as an agenda for future research on this topic MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Most of the contemporary careers literature has overemphasised the role of individual agency in career development. While certainly important, we argue that we also need to address the role of context - in this case, career shocks - in order to gain a fuller appreciation of career development processes MAIN CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We provide a definition of career shocks based on the existing literature related to chance events and turnover. In addition, we provide an overview of attributes of career shocks, potentially valuable theoretical perspectives and key issues for future research CONTRIBUTION: This article brings together several existing streams of literature related to career shocks and provides an integrative definition and conceptualisation. We hope that this will ignite future research on an important but often overlooked topic <![CDATA[<b>Developing a measure for student perspectives on institutional effectiveness in higher education</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This study outlines institutional effectiveness (IE) in higher education (HE) and interrogates its underlying elements from a student perspective. Following a review of contemporary perspectives on student educational outcomes, the study identifies and explores the importance of four pertinent indicators of IE in the context of a South African (SA) higher education institution (HEI). RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the structural validity and reliability of the Student Educational Outcomes Effectiveness Questionnaire (SEEQ), administered to students at an SA HEI, collecting data on their perceptions of IE. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Institutional effectiveness is a contested concept in HE and several approaches to define it, using various sets of underpinning elements, can be found. The conceptualisation and measuring of IE within the SA HE sector is a hugely neglected area of research. This study therefore attempted to delineate and to gauge IE, utilising the perceptions and preferences of students at an SA HEI RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Data for this study were collected using a self-selection sample (N = 807) of students from four schools at the selected HEI. Reliability and exploratory factor analyses were performed to explore the internal consistency and structural validity of the above-mentioned SEEQ. MAIN FINDINGS: The reliability of SEEQ is deemed to be acceptable and the validity of the four theoretical constructs (or dimensions) hypothesised in respect of IE from a student perspective were supported. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Preliminary empirical evidence suggests that SEEQ could be employed in a cautious manner by HEIs (especially in SA), with a view to gauge IE, as well as to promoting the scholarship and management of institutional performance and student success. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: This article presents a multidimensional approach to the depiction and measurement of IE from a student perspective. It makes a handy initial contribution to a grossly under-researched phenomenon in the SA HE sector. <![CDATA[<b>The role of career concerns and workplace friendship in the job embeddedness-retention practices satisfaction link</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The demand for retaining top talent in the highly competitive and turbulent working environment has made retention research relevant and important. A central question in retention research revolves around the psychological factors that drive employees to remain at an organisation. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This research explores the mediating and conditional (moderating) processes underlying the link between employees' job embeddedness and satisfaction with organisational retention practices. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Several research studies are available with regard to the association between job embeddedness and retention practices. However, there seems to be a paucity of information available on the psychological process of workplace friendship underlying the job embeddedness-retention practices satisfaction link, as well as the boundary conditions of this process as set by employees' career concerns. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study followed a cross-sectional, quantitative research design. Data were collected from a convenience sample of (N = 200) permanently employed staff members within a South African higher education institution. Moderated-mediation analysis was performed to achieve the research objective. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings indicated career concerns as important boundary conditions for the psychological (mediating) process of workplace friendship in the job embeddedness-retention practices satisfaction link. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Enhancing work conditions and practices to support the evolving career development needs and concerns of valuable employees may be key to maintaining person-environment correspondence and retaining them. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: The findings extend retention theory by adding new insights into under what circumstances employees' job embeddedness positively influences their satisfaction with organisational retention practices. The study provides new evidence of the important role of employees' career development needs in retention theory and practice. <![CDATA[<b>Adults changing careers through university education: Making meaning of quantitative career assessment scores through an integrative structured interview</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Career change in adulthood is becoming a norm and university education is a pathway to new careers. Career psychologists are well positioned to assist adult career changers. Contemporary approaches to diverse client groups and integrating career assessment with narrative career counselling are needed. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This article reports on an innovative approach to assisting adult career changers through the complementarity of an integrative structured interview (ISI) and the self-directed search (SDS) career assessment questionnaire. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The overall aim of this research was to explore the career transition experiences of adult university learners. The secondary aims were to investigate the complementarity of quantitative career assessment (i.e. the SDS) and narrative interviewing (i.e. the ISI) and how adult university learners engaged with the ISI. This article reports on the secondary aims by considering excerpts from case study interviews. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, multiple case study research presents case studies of two adult university learners: an Australian male student and a South African female student. Participants completed the SDS prior to engaging in a four-part semi-structured interview that incorporated the ISI. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings revealed that the participants told rich stories that related past, present and future life and work experiences to their SDS three-letter codes. Their stories revealed how quantitative career assessment scores and narrative career counselling may be integrated through a structured interview. PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Adult career changers told meaningful stories about their quantitative SDS scores. The findings suggest that narrative career counselling may be useful for adult career changers and that the ISI could provide a model for career psychologists who support them. Implications of the findings suggest that managers and human resource personnel working in organisations may assist adult career changers by offering them access to psychological support that uses quantitative career assessment as a foundation for career story telling. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: The research provides an innovative response to challenges in career psychology to develop contemporary responses to diverse client groups and to integrate career assessment with narrative career counselling. <![CDATA[<b>Employee engagement in Nigeria: The role of leaders and boundary variables</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Engaged employees make a valuable contribution to organisational agility and productivity in challenging business environments. Hence, identifying factors that enhance employee engagement is important in the Nigerian context. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to show that various leadership styles have different effects on employee engagement, and that the employee voice and the perception of organisational support are boundary variables through which leadership style affects employee engagement. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: High unemployment rate and job insecurity in Nigeria make it necessary to determine leadership styles and other factors that enhance employee engagement. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Cross-sectional survey design was used with samples taken from organisations located in Lagos, Nigeria (n = 300). Existing measures of study variables that have been validated were used for the study. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and structural equation modelling techniques were used for data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The relationship between leadership style and employee engagement is not direct but mediated through boundary variables, employee voice and perception of organisational support. Servant leadership style has the highest total effect on employee engagement. Autocratic style is detrimental to the engagement of employees. Encouraging employee voice enhances the employee's perception of the organisation as supportive. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Though leadership is known to be the main driver of employee engagement, not all leadership styles enhance employee engagement. The effect of leadership on employee engagement is influenced by the favourable environment created by the leader's behaviour. Organisations must use the determination of potential leadership style as recruitment tool for new managers and those to be promoted. The performance evaluation of leaders must include behavioural factors that capture leaders' ability to create a favourable environment that encourages the employee voice and perception of organisation as supportive. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Leadership styles are not equally effective in enhancing employee engagement. There are boundary variables arising from the environment created by leadership behaviour that enhance the effect of leadership style on employee engagement. The study was performed in Nigeria where high unemployment rate and job insecurity created a unique challenge in getting employees engaged. <![CDATA[<b>Perceptions of factors that affect employability amongst a sample of final-year students at a rural South African university</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The unemployment rate within the South African context is on the rise. Given this, there is a need to understand factors influencing employability amongst a sample of final-year students in preparation for their transit into the labour market. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The overall objective of this research was to explore final-year students' perceptions of factors that affect employability. This was amongst a sample of students that were enrolled at a rural university in South Africa. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Within graduate employability studies, calls have been made to understand the factors around employability especially within a context of high unemployment. This study allows for an understanding of the journey from higher education into the labour market for previously disadvantaged individuals. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: An interpretivist, qualitative research approach using an exploratory research design was adopted to explore student perceptions and concerns of employability. Focus-group interviews were used as a data gathering technique amongst 30 final-year students about to exit the university system. Data were recorded, transcribed and processed, and narrative analysis used. MAIN FINDINGS: Through the analysis, a set of six factors were perceived to influence employability: (1) poor socio-economic status, (2) a poor education system, (3) curriculum issues, (4) the choice of higher education institution and (5) social connections to which the student belongs to. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Through the identified factors, career counsellors can better understand their clients and those issues that shape their lived experiences. The findings can also assist the provision of better career guidance services. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study provides an understanding of the complex issues facing potential graduates through lived experiences. It provides an understanding of student perceptions towards employability, which policymakers should consider when addressing the issue of unemployment in the country. <![CDATA[<b>The use of organisational network analysis as a diagnostic tool during team coaching</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Organisational network analysis (ONA) examines relationships between people and is a potential diagnostic tool to use during team coaching interventions. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this research was to investigate how ONA can be used during a team coaching intervention aimed at addressing business challenges. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The use of ONA as a diagnostic tool in individual coaching has been researched, but has not been applied in the emerging field of team coaching. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: An action research methodology employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was used in this research. A purposive sampling approach was used to select a leadership team of four people who received 11 team coaching sessions. Quantitative data were collected from the leadership team and their 18 direct reports, using pre- and post-test intervention ONA questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected after the coaching intervention using semi-structured interviews with the leadership team. MAIN FINDINGS: Organisational network analysis helped to identify team coaching goals based on business challenges. It indicated the extent to which team coaching enhanced communication between the leadership team and their reports, enabling them to address business challenges. Organisational network analysis results taken out of context could, however, be misinterpreted. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Team coaches, ONA practitioners and leadership teams could use ONA as a diagnostic tool during team coaching interventions to identify team coaching goals based on business challenges, to gain insights into team dynamics and to assess the contribution of team coaching for addressing business challenges. Organisational network analysis should not be taken at face value and should ideally be triangulated with other data sources such as interviews. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: On a scholarly level, this research provides empirical evidence for the benefits of using ONA during a team coaching intervention. On a practice level, suggestions are provided for the manner in which ONA can guide team coaching interventions. <![CDATA[<b>Positive interaction between work and home, and psychological availability on women's work engagement: A 'shortitudinal' study</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Women's work engagement is affected by how well they balance their work and personal life, and their level of confidence in their capability at work RESEARCH PURPOSE: Determine whether women's daily psychological availability mediates daily positive work-home interaction and daily positive home-work interaction on daily work engagement MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Research into negative work-home and home-work interaction is in abundance. Limited studies focus on the positive effects on women's experiences at work (i.e. work engagement). Little is known about women's psychological availability and how it affects their work. Furthermore, little research provides us insights into the day-level experiences of women at work RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative, shortitudinal design was used. Data analyses accounted for multilevel structure in the data (within-person vs. between-person differences). Female employees (n = 60) from various industries in Gauteng, completed electronic diaries in the form of a survey for 10 consecutive working days MAIN FINDINGS: Daily psychological availability mediates between daily positive work-home interaction and daily work engagement. Daily positive home-work interaction did not predict daily work engagement, but had a significant effect on daily psychological availability PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Examining systems and structures that promote opportunities for women to become more psychologically available at work impacts their sustainable retention CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study found significant relationships between day-level uses of personal resources and spillover effects of home-work and work-home on day-level work engagement. The study further contributes to the literature on positive work-home and home-work interaction <![CDATA[<b>Impression management within the recruitment interview: Narratives of employees at a South African higher education institution</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Job interviews remain a popular platform on which organisations source talent. Interviewees seek to make an impression in interviews to influence the decision to be hired. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The study explores why and how impression management manifests within the recruitment interview setting. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Calls exist within the local and international literature for studies that explore the concept of impression management further as a basis to improve activities such as recruitment and selection. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN/METHOD: An interpretivist research paradigm using the qualitative approach and the exploratory research design was utilised. In-depth interviews with 20 employees at a South African higher education institution were conducted. Narrative analysis formed the basis of the data analysis by adopting the three levels of the meaning-making approach used in previous studies. MAIN FINDINGS: Two major narratives emerged. Firstly, when exploring why impression management occurs in the recruitment interview, the strategising behaviour was identified. Secondly, when exploring how impression management occurs in the recruitment interview, the switching behaviour was identified. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study provides information that organisational strategists and recruiters can use to enhance not only the recruitment process but also the decisions informed by such processes. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge in an area of study that has received scant empirical focus locally and internationally. This can be a catalyst for future research on impression management. <![CDATA[<b>Perceived organisational support and well-being: The role of psychological capital as a mediator</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Today's competitive work environment requires organisations and employees to successfully cope with challenges to maintain healthy levels of well-being. It is, therefore, imperative to investigate which organisational and psychological factors contribute to well-being in employees. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study served to analyse whether psychological capital (PsyCap) mediates the relationship between perceived organisational support (POS) and well-being. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: In light of the positive psychology movement, this study aimed to investigate how positive constructs actively contribute to employee well-being. Knowledge of organisational and psychological factors that enhance well-being in employees will be of great benefit to organisations that aim to create positivity in the workplace in order to avoid the negative consequences of work-related stress and a toxic work environment. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional, non-experimental design, applying convenience and snowball sampling, was used to recruit 159 South African employees who completed an online survey that assessed the constructs under investigation. MAIN FINDINGS: It was found that POS, PsyCap and well-being are positively correlated to one another. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that PsyCap fully mediates the relationship between POS and well-being. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings imply that organisations should be committed to target their employees' PsyCap to enhance well-being in their workforce. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings show that it is not sufficient just to provide organisational support to enhance well-being. Organisations also need to acknowledge the important role of their employees' PsyCap to ensure that they are well equipped to deal with challenges in the workplace while maintaining healthy levels of well-being.