Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> vol. 38 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Taking charge as an extra role in the workplace is necessary for the survival of modern firms. Therefore, understanding the personal and organisational factors when one takes charge is critical for organisations. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support when taking charge at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Although many previous studies have examined the antecedents of taking charge in North American business environments, we know little about taking charge in the developing economies of Africa. Research about taking charge will provide valuable information for managers of businesses in developing countries in Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study used a cross-sectional survey design to examine the contributions of self-efficacy and perceived organisational support to taking charge at work amongst 201 bank workers in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria. MAIN FINDINGS: Regression analysis results showed that self-efficacy had a significant relationship with taking charge at work. The results also showed a statistically significant relationship between perceived organisational support and taking charge at work. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The implications of the results are that interventions that focus on improving self-efficacy will contribute to the behaviours of employees who take charge. In addition, organisations that develop strategies to make employees perceive the organisation as supportive will also have members that engage in more supervisory behaviours. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study was one of the first attempts to investigate taking charge at work in a developing economy of Africa. The results of the study, that self-efficacy and perceived organisational support have relationships with taking charge at work, will contribute to a better understanding of the concept and to building robust theories. <![CDATA[<b>Archetypal values of science and engineering staff in relation to their career orientations</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Career decision-making in the 21st century is increasingly guided by the individuals' deep-seated values and career orientations, as they are required to become proactive career agents in the pursuit of their career. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between individuals' archetypal values (measured by the Pearson-Marr Archetype Indicator) and career orientations (measured by the Career Orientations Inventory). The study also assessed the differences between race, gender, marital status, employment status and age groups regarding the archetypal values and career orientations of the individuals. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: Career counsellors and industrial psychologists are increasingly required to explore new career guidance frameworks that are relevant and appropriate to the evolving nature of careers. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative survey was conducted. A non-probability sample of 207 voluntary participants employed within the science and engineering sector was obtained. MAIN FINDINGS: Correlational analyses revealed that the participants' archetypal values related significantly to their career orientations. The various biographical groups differed significantly regarding their archetypal values and career orientations. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings highlight the importance of understanding the deep-seated archetypal values that seem to explain the individuals' career choices and decisions, and how these values differ regarding these choices and decisions. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The explanatory utility of the results may prove useful to enhance the individuals' self-insight in their career choices and experiences. This study represents original research that contributes new knowledge to the field of career psychology and career counselling practices. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of organisational context on organisational development (OD) interventions</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD) interventions. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few result in increased competitiveness, improvements and profitability. This emphasises the need for change interventions to give sufficient attention to leadership, cultures, managing change and adopting context-based OD interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This article is a literature review of the current trends and research in the area of OD interventions. It synthesises the influence that cultures and cultural orientations have on determining which OD intervention strategies organisations should adopt in different cultures. MAIN FINDINGS: The analysis emphasises how important it is to achieve congruence between the OD interventions organisations select and their local cultures. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: It is important to note the evolving nature of the political and economic climates that influence national cultures and that they emphasise that interventions that reflect OD values, which are tailor-made and shaped to the needs of local cultures, are necessary. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study links various OD interventions to Hofstede's dimensions for differentiating national cultures. It provides guidelines for aligning the practices and techniques of OD to the values and cultures of the organisations and societies in which they are to be implemented. <![CDATA[<b>Positive acculturation conditions and well-being in a mine in the North-West Province</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Multiculturalism seemed to have become the dominant strategy for dealing with pluralism in the South African public sphere. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The authors addressed the relationship between conditions that are considered to be conducive to multiculturalism and the practices perceived to accomplish this, vis-a-vis multiculturalism and well-being, as measured by ill-health and subjective work success. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Although multiculturalism has been recommended as an effective way of dealing with diversity at societal and local levels, little is known about its effects in the workplace. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Following a quantitative approach, the authors utilised a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black employees and White employees from a mine in North-West Province for the research. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to test scale validity and reliability. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and effect sizes were used to determine the effect of race on the experiences of miners, and multigroup path analysis (AMOS) was used to investigate whether or not identical relations between multiculturalism, work success, and ill-health could be found for Black employees and White employees. MAIN FINDINGS: Multiculturalism and mainstream tolerance coupled with ethnic integration demands at home and at work were associated with success at work but not with ill-health. Black employees experienced the workplace slightly more positively. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Multiculturalism and integration are related to subjective experiences of work success and, as such, should be supported in the workplace. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Our findings suggest that multiculturalism is relatively well supported by both groups in the workplace. This positive finding should not be regarded as obvious because empirical research has suggested that the majority of members of the host culture do not always favour multiculturalism. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring a model for finding meaning in the changing world of work</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This article explores the role that meaning, as logotherapy conceptualises it, can play to facilitate organisational changes. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore further a model an earlier paper proposed for using employees' experiences of meaning in work contexts to facilitate changes. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The researchers could not find a comprehensive model in the literature for addressing employees' experiences of meaning in, or at, work during organisational changes. A previous paper proposed such a model, but it addressed only one component fully. This article seeks to explore this model further to address this apparent gap in the literature. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The researchers used a literature review to conduct the study. The components of the model directed this review in order to find meaning at work. MAIN FINDINGS: The actions of organisations, which aim to create positive organisational contexts (through practices for improving meaning at work and transcendence) and to frame changes using 'Logo-OD', can improve employees' experiences of meaning during organisational changes. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the relationship between meaning and organisational change, and applying the model this article presents, can contribute to the overall success of change initiatives. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study's primary contribution stems from the novel framework it presents for organisations to use the knowledge about how employees search for meaning to facilitate changes. <![CDATA[<b>An implementation evaluation of a voluntary counselling and testing programme for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Employee wellness programmes have become standard interventions in most organisations. In South Africa, these programmes invariably contain an element to address the problem of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this evaluation was to assess whether or not a Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) programme for HIV and AIDS, at a South African university, was implemented as intended. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The evaluators were motivated to explore indications in the existing literature about these programmes that participants in VCT programmes are often not the intended target population who live a high risk lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A descriptive design was used to evaluate service utlisation, service delivery and organisational support. Questionnaire data from 285 respondents who participated in the programme and programme records supplied by the programme staff were consulted to answer the evaluation questions. MAIN FINDINGS: The evaluation showed that the highest uptake for the programme occurred amongst female students. The low uptake amongst men was a concern. It was found that the programme was delivered as intended and that there were enough resources to implement it according to standards set. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The systematic report on the programme process provided the programme managers with practical suggestions for programme improvement. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This was the first implementation evaluation of a VCT programme in a South African university context. As such it aimed to educate programme managers to think evaluatively about introducing new or continuing existing programmes. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluating the MBTI<sup>®</sup> Form M in a South African context</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Psychological instruments require continued refinement, updating and evaluation. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability, validity and differential item functioning of the MBTI® Form M across groups in South Africa using Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: To add to the continual research and improvement of the MBTI® Form M through the investigation of its psychometric properties across groups in South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study falls within the quantitative research paradigm. Classical test theory methods and Rasch analysis were used to evaluate the functioning of the MBTI Form M across gender and ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was completed consisting of 10 705 South African respondents. MAIN FINDINGS: Excellent reliability was found for the instrument across groups in the sample. Good evidence for construct validity was found using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Some evidence for uniform bias was found across ethnic and gender groups and a few items reflected non-uniform DIF across gender groups only. The effect of uniform and non-uniform DIF did not appear to have major practical implications for the interpretation of the scales. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results provided evidence that supports the psychometric validity of the MBTI instrument in the South African context. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study is the largest study to date regarding the psychometric functioning of the MBTI instrument in South Africa. It contributes to the evolution of the instrument in line with the legislative requirements concerning the use of psychometric tests in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention</b>: <b>unravelling a complex relationship</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Work-based identity, used as a reference to the self, is the answer to the question 'Who am I at work?' Work-related identities, derived from different social foci through identity formation processes, have as behavioural guides a significant influence on employee behaviour, which, in turn has an impact on work outcomes. Engagement, presented in different conceptualisations, is viewed by practitioners and academic researchers as an important antecedent of employee behaviour. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether work-based identity and work engagement differed (in combination with personal alienation, helping behaviour and burnout) as potential antecedents (amongst numerous others) of task performance and turnover intention. RESEARCH DESIGN: A census-based sampling approach amongst 23 134 employees in the employment of an ICT company yielded a sample of 2429 usable questionnaires. Scales used in the study were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS-20), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Work-based Identity, Personal Alienation, Helping Behaviour, Turnover Intention and Task Performance Scales. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings indicate that work-based identity and work engagement give similar appearing results as potential predictors of turnover intention and task performance. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Reducing withdrawal behaviours and enhancing work performance are everyday challenges for organisations. Interventions focused on enhancing work-based identity and work engagement in the work environment should have a meaningful impact when these behaviours need to be addressed. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Work-based identity as a multidimensional construct has the potential, with further refinement, to become a valuable construct that can play a leading role in future work engagement research. <![CDATA[<b>Identity at work</b>: <b>exploring strategies for Identity Work</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiation and regulation of employee work identity. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance). PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work. <![CDATA[<b>Depressed, not depressed or unsure</b>: <b>prevalence and the relation to well-being across sectors in South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Work engagement, burnout and stress-related ill health levels of individuals, suffering from depression, who are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression, or who do not suffer from depression, have not been investigated in South Africa. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of depression amongst employees in South African organisations and the relationship of depression with specific well-being constructs. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisations should know about the prevalence of depression and the effects this could have on specific well-being constructs. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional design was followed. The availability sample (n = 15 664) included participants from diverse demographics. The South African Employee Health and Wellness Survey was followed to measure constructs. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that 18.3% of the population currently receive treatment for depression, 16.7% are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression and 65% do not suffer from depression. Depression significantly affects the levels of work engagement, burnout and the occurrence of stress-related ill health symptoms. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between depression and employee work-related well-being. Proactive measures to promote the work-related well-being of employees, and to support employees suffering from depression, should be considered. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study provides insight into the prevalence of depression and well-being differences that exist between individuals, suffering from depression, who are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression, and who do not suffer from depression.