Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> vol. 37 num. 2 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>The Job Demands-Resources model</b>: <b>challenges for future research</b>]]> MOTIVATION: The motivation of this overview is to present the state of the art of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model whilst integrating the various contributions to the special issue. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the JD-R model, which incorporates many possible working conditions and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well-being. Moreover, the studies of the special issue were introduced. RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative studies on the JD-R model were reviewed to enlighten the health and motivational processes suggested by the model. MAIN FINDINGS: Next to the confirmation of the two suggested processes of the JD-R model, the studies of the special issue showed that the model can be used to predict work-place bullying, incidences of upper respiratory track infection, work-based identity, and early retirement intentions. Moreover, whilst psychological safety climate could be considered as a hypothetical precursor of job demands and resources, compassion satisfaction moderated the health process of the model. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings of previous studies and the studies of the special issue were integrated in the JD-R model that can be used to predict well-being and performance at work. New avenues for future research were suggested. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The JD-R model is a framework that can be used for organisations to improve employee health and motivation, whilst simultaneously improving various organisational outcomes. <![CDATA[<b>The Job Demands-Resources model</b>: <b>further evidence for the buffering effect of personal resources</b>]]> ORIENTATION: In work and organisational psychology, the adverse effects of job demands have often been demonstrated empirically for various indicators of job strain. RESEARCH PURPOSE: Using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the present study examined the role of compassion satisfaction, conceptualised as a personal resource, in buffering the relationship between job demands and job strain. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Accordingly, four demanding aspects of the job (i.e. role overload, insufficiency, ambiguity and conflict) and one personal resource (i.e. compassion satisfaction) were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high) job demands and (low) personal resources produces the highest levels of anxiety and depression as indicators of job strain. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Hypotheses were tested amongst 122 military chaplains. MAIN FINDINGS: Results showed that compassion satisfaction partially moderated the relationship between job demands and job strain. More specifically, when compassion satisfaction was high, the effect of role overload on job strain was significantly reduced. However, the relationships between the other three role stressors and job strain were not offset by compassion satisfaction. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The theoretical and practical implications of these findings for the JD-R model are discussed. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Despite the limitations of this study, the present findings still have important implications for future research and practice. Our findings highlight the fact that the empowerment of employees' personal resources, as outlined in the JD-R model, may not only be of value for employees to thrive, but may also be particularly beneficial in terms of compassion satisfaction being viewed as a protective factor to adverse working conditions. <![CDATA[<b>The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection</b>]]> ORIENTATION: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection. MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C), antecedent-focused and response-focused humorous coping (QOHC) and job-related affect (JAWS). MAIN FINDINGS: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably 'healthy' antecedent-focused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative job-related affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors. <![CDATA[<b>Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model</b>: <b>a study amongst Malaysian workers</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions. RESEARCH PURPOSE: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and motivational pathways (i.e. work engagement). MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: So far, integration of PSC in the JD-R model is only tested in a Western context (i.e. Australia). We tested the emerging construct of PSC in Malaysia, an Eastern developing country in the Asian region. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A random population based sample was derived using household maps provided by Department of Statistics, Malaysia; 291 employees (response rate 50.52%) from the State of Selangor, Malaysia participated. Cross-sectional data were analysed using structural equation modelling. MAIN FINDINGS: We found that PSC was negatively related to job demands and positively related to job resources. Job demands, in turn, predicted burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism), whereas job resources predicted engagement. Both burnout and engagement were associated with performance. Bootstrapping showed significant indirect effects of PSC on burnout via job demands, PSC on performance via burnout and PSC on performance via the resources-engagement pathway. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Our findings are consistent with previous research that suggests that PSC should be a target to improve working conditions and in turn reduce burnout and improve engagement and productivity. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: These findings suggest that JD-R theory may be expanded to include PSC as an antecedent and that the expanded JD-R model is largely valid in an Eastern, developing economy setting. <![CDATA[<b>Workplace bullying</b>: <b>a perspective from the Job Demands-Resources model</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Workplace bullying is characterised as a counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, yielding severe consequences for both the individual and the organisation. The occurrence of workplace bullying is often attributed to a stressful work environment. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to test the work environment hypothesis by applying the Job Demands-Resources model to workplace bullying. We expected job demands and job resources to relate to both perpetrators' and actors' reports of workplace bullying. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: We aimed to extend the outcomes examined in the Job Demands-Resources model to a specific form of counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, namely workplace bullying. From the point of view of the literature on bullying, we aimed to substantiate the well-known work environment hypothesis with empirical data. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: We applied structural equation modelling on questionnaire data of a large heterogeneous sample of Flemish employees (N = 749). MAIN FINDINGS: Job demands and job resources interacted in the prediction of perpetrators' reports of bullying: job demands associated positively to perpetrators' reports of bullying particularly under the condition of high job resources. Job demands related positively to targets' reports of bullying, while job resources related negatively. These associations were (partially) mediated by emotional exhaustion. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that workplace bullying may indeed be reduced by good job design, that is, by limiting the job demands and increasing job resources. Particular prevention plans may be developed for exhausted employees, as they are vulnerable to workplace bullying, in terms of both becoming perpetrators and victims. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study attests to the predictive validity of the JD-R model for perpetrators' and targets' reports of workplace bullying. The findings also underline the complex and multi-causal nature of workplace bullying. <![CDATA[<b>The Job Demands-Resources model as predictor of work identity and work engagement</b>: <b>a comparative analysis</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Research shows that engaged employees experience high levels of energy and strong identification with their work, hence this study's focus on work identity and dedication. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study explored possible differences in the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as predictor of overall work engagement, dedication only and work-based identity, through comparative predictive analyses. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: This study may shed light on the dedication component of work engagement. Currently no literature indicates that the JD-R model has been used to predict work-based identity. RESEARCH DESIGN: A census-based survey was conducted amongst a target population of 23134 employees that yielded a sample of 2429 (a response rate of about 10.5%). The Job Demands-Resources scale (JDRS) was used to measure job demands and job resources. A work-based identity scale was developed for this study. Work engagement was studied with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Factor and reliability analyses were conducted on the scales and general multiple regression models were used in the predictive analyses. MAIN FINDINGS: The JD-R model yielded a greater amount of variance in dedication than in work engagement. It, however, yielded the greatest amount of variance in work-based identity, with job resources being its strongest predictor. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Identification and work engagement levels can be improved by managing job resources and demands. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study builds on the literature of the JD-R model by showing that it can be used to predict work-based identity. <![CDATA[<b>Job demands and resources and their associations with early retirement intentions through recovery need and work enjoyment</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Job characteristics play a major role in shaping employees' early retirement decisions. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which job characteristics associate with early retirement intention, using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework. MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY: Early retirement presents a threat to existing health and pension systems, and to organisational functioning. Therefore, it is important to examine how work-related factors contribute to early retirement decisions. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Two parallel processes were theorised to shape early retirement intention: a health impairment process (i.e. job demands → recovery need → early retirement intention) and a motivational process (i.e. job resources → work enjoyment → early retirement intention). Survey data were collected from a heterogeneous sample of 1812 older workers (age > 45). Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. MAIN FINDINGS: Job demands and job resources were both associated with work enjoyment, which was associated with early retirement intention. Recovery need did not add to the prediction of early retirement intention. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: To retain older workers, companies should promote work conditions and practices that keep older workers motivated. Good health may be a necessary condition for retaining older workers, but it does not appear to be a sufficient one. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The results suggest that - for early retirement intention - the motivational process is more prominent than the health impairment process.