Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> vol. 36 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Special issue dedicated to professor Deo Strümpfer</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>The popularisation of Positive Psychology as a defence against behavioural complexity in research and organisations</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Positive Psychology's focus on positive behaviour has resulted in research and organisational consultants to focus relatively more on positive behaviour, thus avoiding negative and often unconscious behaviour and its manifestations. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis. MAIN FINDINGS: Four themes manifested - namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer's work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer's work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality. <![CDATA[<b>Job crafting</b>: <b>towards a new model of individual job redesign</b>]]> ORIENTATION: For a long time, employees have been viewed as passive performers of their assigned job tasks. Recently, several scholars have argued that job design theory needs to address the influence of employees on their job designs. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting. MAIN FINDINGS: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories. <![CDATA[<b>Positive Psychology and the training of psychologists</b>: <b>students' perspectives</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The development of positive psychology interventions have burgeoned internationally and are relevant to the professional training of psychologists RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the personal and professional impact of including positive psychology in the professional training of clinical and counselling psychologists. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: It is not known how students previously educated in a pathogenic paradigm experience the exposure to positive psychology, and resultant paradigm shift, as part of their professional training RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A qualitative research design was implemented. Data consisted of written documents submitted by the participants and was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: Integrating positive psychology in the professional training curriculum was valuable and enriching on both a professional and personal level. The participants reported an experience of positive emotions and increased sense of self-understanding and psychological well-being. Professionally they experienced a sense of increased self-efficacy. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Positive psychology should be considered as part of the basic training of psychologists since it may enhance the development of trainee psychologists' professional self, enhance aspects of psychological well-being as well as prevent stress and burnout. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This is the first South African study to explore the impact of including positive psychology principles and interventions in professional training. <![CDATA[<b>Factors associated with employee engagement in South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Knowledge of the factors associated with employee engagement is important for practitioners and researchers in industrial/organisational psychology in South Africa. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with employee engagement using two models, namely the personal engagement model of Kahn (1990), and the work engagement model of Schaufeli and Bakker (2004). MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Scientific knowledge is needed regarding the factors that are associated with employee engagement. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Survey designs were used with two samples taken from various South African organisations (n = 467 and n = 3775). The Work Engagement Scale, the Psychological Conditions Scale and the Antecedents Scale were administered for purposes of study 1. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Job Demands-Resources Scale were administered for purposes of study 2. MAIN FINDINGS: The results of study 1 showed that two psychological conditions, namely psychological meaningfulness and psychological availability, were positively associated with employee engagement. Work role fit was the best predictor of psychological meaningfulness and employee engagement. The results of study 2 showed that all job resources were positively associated with employee engagement. Organisational support and growth opportunities were the best predictors of vigour, dedication and absorption. PRATICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Interventions to increase employee engagement should focus on work role fit. Job resources, including an intrinsically rewarding job, organisational support and advancement opportunities should be made available to increase employees' engagement. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study isolated the most important factors associated with employee engagement in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Positive states in relation to entrepreneurship orientation</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The main issue of this article concerns the construction and evaluation of an instrument measuring positive states and its relationship with entrepreneurship orientation. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The principal objective of the study was the construction of a normative scale to measure the positive states associated with appreciative ability and to relate it to a scale of entrepreneurial orientation. A secondary objective was to determine whether there was a statistically significant relationship between the measures of the constructs and the biographical variables of gender and culture. MOTIVATION: As appreciative ability is a relatively new construct and no instrument exists for measuring the positive states emanating from this construct, it was decided to develop such an instrument and to relate it to entrepreneurship orientation. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The primary data were obtained by means of the newly designed instrument, the Positive States Questionnaire and the Entrepreneurship Orientation Questionnaire. A convenience sample of 210 second year commerce students was drawn. MAIN FINDINGS: From a principal factor analysis applied to the two instruments, two factors each were obtained. A significantly high correlation was found, indicating a strong relationship between entrepreneurship orientation and the positive states. No significant differences were found between gender or population in the entrepreneurship orientation and positive states measures. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study produced an instrument with highly acceptable metrical properties which may be used in future studies and for entrepreneurship development. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The results of the study suggest that positive states are invaluable attributes for the entrepreneur and should be explored in the assessment and development of entrepreneurs. <![CDATA[<b>Factor and item response theory analysis of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The concepts of the Protean Career and the Boundaryless Career show potential as frameworks for research and practice in the contemporary world of work. Briscoe, Hall and DeMuth (2006) developed the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales, which consist of the Self-Directed Career Management, Values Driven, Boundaryless Mindset and Mobility Preference subscales. However, the standardisation and replication studies conducted by Briscoe et al., left some questions unanswered in terms of the psychometric properties of the subscales. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales with the aim of clarifying the structure of the scales, examining the quality of the items and evaluating the measurement precision of the scales. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Responses of adults to the items of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales were analysed with factor analytic and Rasch item response model techniques. MAIN FINDINGS: Factor and Rasch analyses revealed that three of the four postulated dimensions were replicated, but the Values Driven dimension split into two factors. Misfitting items were identified and sources of their misfit were uncovered. The Rasch analysis showed that three of the four subscales provide most of their psychometric information at the lower ends of their respective latent traits (where relatively few persons are located). Hence, the trait estimates of persons with low scores are more precise than those of persons with high scores. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Overall, the quality of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales is satisfactory, but some aspects that may be improved are identified. Researchers may use at least three of the four subscales with confidence, but more work is possibly needed on the Values Driven subscale. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study provides researchers with information on the psychometric properties of the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitude Scales. The study also highlights ways in which the scales may be improved. <![CDATA[<b>Industrial psychology</b>: <b>Goodness of fit? Fit for goodness?</b>]]> ORIENTATION: This theoretical opinion-based paper represents a critical reflection on the relevance of industrial psychology. RESEARCH PURPOSE: Against a historical-developmental background of the discipline, the inquiry questions its goodness of fit, that is its contribution to organisation and society. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Regular introspection in the discipline ensures that it remains relevant in both science and practice. As such, such introspection calls for a meta-theoretical imperative, to ensure that industrial psychology is fully aware of how the theoretical models applied in the discipline influence people and the society that they form part of RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The question of industrial Psychology's potential fit for goodness that is broader than what is merely good for the organisation and its employees is explored with a view to enhancing its relevance. The exploration is conducted through the utilisation of theoretical argumentation in which industrial psychology is analysed in terms of contextual considerations that require the discipline to evaluate its real versus its potential contribution to society. MAIN FINDINGS: It is found that the fit is limited to its relevance for inwardly focused organisational behaviour due to its endorsement of the instrumental (strategic) motives of organisations that subscribe to an owner and/or shareholder agenda. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: In light of the main finding, industrial Psychology's potential fit for goodness is explored with a view to enhancing its relevance in an era of goodness. The creation of a scientific and practical interface between industrial psychology and business ethics is suggested to facilitate movement away from a descriptive approach. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The heuristics of reflection, reform, research and resources are suggested to facilitate movement towards a normative (multiple stakeholder) paradigm aimed at broad based goodness and sustainability. <![CDATA[<b>Biological contributions to well-being</b>: <b>the relationships amongst temperament, character strengths and resilience</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Positive psychology emphasises the nurturing of personal strengths, yet little research to date has investigated the role of nature in psychological wellness. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The study aimed to address this dearth by investigating the relationship between temperament, with its biological roots, and psychological well-being and also to ascertain whether character strengths and resilience can be predicted by certain temperament traits. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Although the biological bases of mental illness have been researched extensively in past studies, there is very little research regarding the biological bases of psychological wellness. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This quantitative study selected a sample of 620 participants and applied four measuring instruments, namely the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, the Values in Action - Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) , the Sense of Coherence scale and the Resilience scale to measure temperament and well-being. Correlations and logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: There are relationships between certain biologically based temperament traits and the psychological constructs of character strengths and resilience. Logistic regression models, using temperament as the independent variable, correctly predicted high and low scores on the Sense of Coherence scale, the Resilience scale and the (VIA-IS) with 64% - 76.1% accuracy. PRATICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the physiological substrates of flourishing and being able to predict strengths based on temperament promise advances in applying positive psychology concepts. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Values, ethics, character strengths, virtues and resilience are universal and may be entrenched in biology, according to some theorists. This has not been researched much, however. The current study addressed this dearth. <![CDATA[<b>Validation of three Setswana measures for psychological wellbeing</b>]]> ORIENTATION: From the perspective of positive psychology, it is important to evaluate people 's strengths. There is, however, a lack of validated measures for these purposes in many of the South African official languages. As language is a medium for cultural meanings, measures of mental health should be validated in the mother tongue of the people involved. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was therefore to explore the psychometric properties of Setswana versions of three measures of psychological wellbeing, namely the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) (the 29-item version) (Antonovsky, 1987), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffen, 1985) and Affectometer 2 (AFM) (Kammann & Flett, 1983). RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was implemented for this study. Questionnaires were translated, back-translated and evaluated in a research-committee approach. A stratified sample of 738 Setswana-speaking participants completed the questionnaires in randomly selected sites of the North West province of South Africa as part of the multi-disciplinary Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans project. Reliability indices, means, standard deviations, ranges of scores, patterns of correlations and factor structures were established for all the scales. MAIN FINDINGS: The present Setswana SWLS and AFM are reliable and valid for use in this group, as is, to some extent, the SOC. The factor structures of the three scales were also consistent with the latent factor structures of the original scales. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: These validated measures are instruments for use in the clinical, community and work contexts of Setswana-speaking people. <![CDATA[<b>Thinking of change in terms of 'gains' or 'losses'</b>: <b>promotion versus prevention focus as a moderator in the job demands-resources model</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Promotion and prevention regulatory foci have been established as self-regulation systems with implications for the study of change. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The study aimed to test moderating effects of promotion and prevention focus within the job demands-resources model in a context of organisational change. Predictors included job demands and resources whilst outcomes included emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study intended to understand whether individual differences in promotion and prevention focus play an important role during the experience of organisational change. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A sample of 164 teachers from the Netherlands participated in a quantitative survey design before a new governmental policy was implemented in their schools and 189 different teachers working in the same schools participated in the survey after the implementation of the policy. Cross-sectional moderated regression analyses were used to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Promotion focus moderated the relationship between job demands and openness to change, whilst both promotion and prevention focus moderated many of the relationships between job resources on the one hand and emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change on the other hand. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Knowing that organisational change can have different meanings for promotion and prevention focused employees, managers can facilitate employee adaptation to change. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research provides a theoretical framework that incorporates self-regulation as a moderator in the job demands-resources model. At the same time, implications for organisational change were co-examined.