Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-076320100001&lang=en vol. 36 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>An evaluation of a psychosocial stress and coping model in the police work context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Stress is a social reality which does not exist in isolation, but in many social situations, especially work-related environments. Police officers in particular suffer from highly negative stress related outcomes. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine how Moos's hypothesised stress and coping model (1994) fitted a sample of police officers. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study was an attempt to understand police officers' unique needs and how the frequency and/or intensity of perceived stress could be reduced so that they would be able to cope more effectively with stress. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A non-experimental survey design, following the quantitative tradition, was used in pursuit of the research objectives. A random sample of 505 participants was extracted from a population of serving male and female police officers reflecting the typical South African ethnic groups. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to establish the adequacy of between the hypothesised Moos model and the sample. MAIN FINDINGS: The hypothesised theoretical framework was disproved. A respecified model and inter-correlations confirm that some officers experience burnout, while, paradoxically, others continue to be unaffected because of the buffering effect of social support, personality factors and other resilience factors not revealed in this study. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study calls on police management for awareness of the negative health consequences of prolonged stressors. Simultaneously, employee assistance programmes could be directed to problem-solving strategies, perceived self-efficacy and learned resourcefulness to improve control over prolonged negative stress consequences among members. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research provides a theoretical framework to understand, describe and assess individual well-being in the police work context. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the development of an organisational culture of control and dependency from a systems psychodynamic perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Globalisation and accelerating rates of change characterise the work environment. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to study the impact of the change process at a plant of a South African production company. MOTIVATIONS FOR THE STUDY: Problems were experienced in terms of production and a need for transformation at different levels was expressed. Co-dependence in the environment necessitated exploration of intra-organisational dynamics. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study focused on the management team at a specific plant, but by applying the systems psychodynamic perspective it was possible to also explore the mutual effect of relationships with other systems in the organisation, the company as a whole and the environment. Respondents included the directors of manufacturing and of human resources, the general manager, an 11-member management team and staff representatives. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews, group interviews and a group consultation session were held. MAIN FINDINGS: Hypotheses were formulated regarding the change experienced in the company, the overemphasis of control in the various systems, efforts to move from dependency to interdependence, personal authority as a requirement for interdependent functioning and problems with interrelatedness. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study illustrates the application of the systems psychodynamic approach in exploring the interaction between and mutual influence of various organisational systems, especially in times of change. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE ADD: At a broader level, the study contributes to the understanding of the application of the theory as well as suggesting the use of a methodology. Recommendations for an intervention of this nature were also made. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological career resources and coping resources of the young unemployed African graduate</b>: <b>an exploratory study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Youth unemployment in South Africa presents unique challenges to the young unemployed graduate and requires a range of psychological coping capacities from the young adult. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory) and coping resources (as measured by the Coping Resources Inventory) of a sample of 196 young unemployed African graduates. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: There is an increasing need for career counsellors and practitioners to explore the psychological attributes and career-related resources that young people employ or require to help them deal with the challenges posed by unemployment during the school-to-work transition phase of their lives. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A survey design and quantitative statistical procedures were used to achieve the research objective. Convenience sampling was used on a population of 500 unemployed graduate black people who attended a 12-week Work Readiness Programme (39% response rate). MAIN FINDINGS: Multiple regression analyses indicated that dimensions of psychological career resources contribute significantly to explaining the proportion of variance in the participants' coping resources scores. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The insights derived from the findings can be employed by career counsellors and practitioners to construct a more comprehensive career framework for the individual in the school-to-work transition phase. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings add valuable new knowledge that can be used to inform career services concerned with guiding and counselling young graduates in the school-to-work transition phase. <![CDATA[<b>Construct equivalence of the OPQ32n for Black and White people in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The construct equivalence of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32n) for black and white groups was investigated. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the structural invariance of the OPQ32n for two South African population groups. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The OPQ32n is often used for making a variety of personnel decisions in South Africa. Evidence regarding the suitability of personality questionnaires for use across South Africa's various population groups is required by practitioners for selecting appropriate psychometric instruments. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the results were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. The sample consisted of 248 Black and 476 White people from the SHL (South Africa) database. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the structural equivalence of the OPQ32n scale scores for these two groups. MAIN FINDINGS: A good fit regarding factor correlations and covariances on the 32 scales was obtained, partially supporting the structural equivalence of the questionnaire for the two groups. The analyses furthermore indicated that there was structural invariance, with the effect of the Social Desirability scale partialled out. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The present study focused on aspects of structural equivalence only. The OPQ32n therefore passed the first hurdle in this particular context, but further investigation is necessary to provide evidence that the questionnaire is suitable for use in personnel decisions comparing the population groups. CONTRIBUTION: Despite the positive findings with regard to structural equivalence and social desirability response style, it should be borne in mind that no assumptions regarding full scale equivalence can be made on the basis of the present findings. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological emPowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The psychological empowerment of employees might affect their engagement. However, psychological empowerment and employee engagement might also be influenced by job insecurity. RESEARCH PURPOSES: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Employee engagement results in positive individual and organisational outcomes and research information about the antecedents will provide valuable information for the purposes of diagnosis and intervention. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A correlational design was used. Survey design was conducted among 442 employees in a government and a manufacturing organisation. The measuring instruments included the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, the Job Insecurity Inventory, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. MAIN FINDINGS: Statistically significant relationships were found between psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that affective job insecurity had a main effect on three dimensions of psychological empowerment (viz. competence, meaning and impact) and on employee engagement. Affective job insecurity moderated the effect of psychological empowerment on employee engagement. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The implication of the results is that interventions that focus on the psychological empowerment of employees (viz. meaningfulness, competence, self-determination and impact) will contribute to the engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption) of employees. If job insecurity is high, it is crucial to attend to the psychological empowerment of employees. CONTRIBUTION: This study contributes to knowledge about the conditions that precede employee engagement, and shows that the dimensions of psychological empowerment (namely experienced meaningfulness, competence, impact and self-determination) play an important role in this regard. <![CDATA[<b>The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a <b>South African information and technology organization</b></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees' understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees' perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisations are facing more challenges than ever before. These challenges are not unique to any specific organisation or industry, but affect all organisations. Organisational climate in particular is constantly challenged by changes impacting organisations today. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: An organisational climate questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 696 employees from a population of 1453 employees working in three regions in which the organisation was operational. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to investigate the structure of the climate model. MAIN FINDINGS: The revised 12-factor model (after the confirmatory factor analysis) fitted the data best and the researchers therefore decided to proceed with the revised 12-factor model (11 dimensions) for further analysis. A stepwise regression was conducted and nine dimensions of organisational climate were found to predict job satisfaction. The results indicated a strong positive correlation (r = 0.813, p < 0.01) between organisational climate and the dependent variable of job satisfaction. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study provided support for the view that line managers and human resource practitioners should be aware that different biographical groups have different needs that can influence their job satisfaction levels and different perceptions of the climate within the organisation and that this impacts on their behaviour. CONTRIBUTION: The findings of this study indicated a positive relationship between organisational climate scores and job satisfaction scores and thus, regardless of how the dimensions are perceived, organisational climate has an influence on job satisfaction. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluating the roles and competencies that are critical considerations for management development</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: If managerial roles/competencies are evaluated in an organisation, shortfalls in managerial functions can serve as areas for management development thereby enabling the potential to create master managers. RESEARCH PURPOSE:This study assesses the extent to which the current management cadre in a public sector division possesses the eight managerial roles/competencies (mentor, facilitator, monitor, co-ordinator, director, producer, broker, innovator) needed for effective management with the aim of identifying areas for management development. It also aims to assess whether the managerial roles relate to each other. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: In orderto avoid a 'hit and miss' approach to management development it is important to assess managerial roles/competencies to effectively identify areas for enhancement. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The empirical analysis entailed data collection through the use of questionnaires, administered to a sample of 202 from a population of 400 managers, drawn using the stratified random sampling technique, thereby generating a 51% response rate. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicate that managers in this public sector division are fulfilling the managerial roles in varying degrees, though not optimally. They do not display optimal paradoxical capability and behaviour complexity. Furthermore, the eight roles/competencies are interconnected. Managerial level, age and race were found to influence the extent to which managers possess and display various competencies. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The interconnectedness of the managerial roles/competencies implies that effective leaders should be ambidextrous in a figurative sense. Based on the results, a framework is generated that identifies areas for improvement in the managerial competencies required to ensure managerial effectiveness and hence presents skills to be developed or areas for management development in order to enhance each managerial role. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The need for managers to be able to display optimal paradoxical capabilities and behavioural complexities is becoming more and more pronounced. This study highlights potential areas for management development, thereby contributing to managerial effectiveness. <![CDATA[<b>Challenging the 'Four Corner Press' as framework for invitational leadership in South African schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Invitational leadership (IL) is consistent with current leadership trends and, because South African schools are in need of sound leadership, it is necessary to have a framework that can guide principals to act in accordance with the expectations of their educators. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study challenges the internationally accepted 'Four Corner Press' of Purkey and Novak (1984) as a framework for IL in the South African school context. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: IL appears to be a comprehensive model for successful school leadership. This necessitated an investigation to determine whether the 'Four Corner Press' reflects the expectations of teachers and, if so, whether it could serve as a valuable leadership tool. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A questionnaire containing 31 Likert-scale items, underpinned by the principles of IL, was disseminated to 600 educators conveniently drawn from the population of 88 828 teachers in Free State and Eastern Cape schools MAIN FINDINGS: The data obtained from the survey enabled the researchers to perform a factor analysis, which revealed that South African educators' expectations of leadership aligned with the 'Four Corner Press'. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The 'Four Corner Press' can be used as a plausible framework for IL in South African schools, which has implications for the development and training of principals. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The 'Four Corner Press' can be regarded as a reliable prototype of IL expectations within the South African context, which contributes to extending the body of knowledge of education leadership in South Africa . <![CDATA[<b>Industrial psychology students' attitudes towards statistics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics (SATS-36) for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students' attitudes. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a course in statistics if more is known about their attitudes towards statistics. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used and the SATS36 was administered to a sample of convenience consisting of 235 students enrolled in Industrial and Organisational Psychology at a large tertiary institution in South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: Results revealed that even though students perceive statistics to be technical, complicated and difficult to master, they are interested in the subject and believe statistics to be of value. The degree to which students perceived themselves to be competent in mathematics was related to the degree to which they felt confident in their own ability to master statistics. Males displayed slightly more positive feelings toward statistics than females. Older students perceived statistics to be less difficult than younger students and also displayed slightly more positive feelings concerning statistics. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: It seems that in preparing students for statistics, their perception regarding their mathematical competence could be managed as well. CONTRIBUTION: This study provides the first preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SATS-36 for a sample of South African students. <![CDATA[<b>Burnout and engagement of reformed church ministers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The ministry is one occupation where burnout is increasingly considered to be a consequence of the problems with which ministers have to cope. However, few studies focused on the positive antipode of a minister's work. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of job-demands and job-resources on ministers' burnout and engagement. Congregational commitment and health were included as possible consequences of burnout and engagement. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Ministers' well-being has become an important topic for both researchers and practitioners. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A survey design with a non-probability, purposive voluntary sample of 115 ministers was used. The Job-Demands-Resources Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Work Engagement Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and Congregational Commitment Scale were administered. MAIN FINDINGS: Regression analysis indicated that the pace, amount of work and emotional demands were indicators of burnout while growth opportunities, social support and job significance were indicators of engagement. Furthermore, it was found that exhaustion predicted somatic symptoms and depression, while mental distance predicted depression. Engagement predicted social functioning and affective commitment. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Interventions should be implemented to help ministers deal more effectively with any burnout symptoms experienced in order to prevent ministers who are already showing signs of burnout from getting sick to increase their engagement and to rehabilitate individuals who are ill as a result of the work place. CONTRIBUTION: The study contributes to knowledge regarding the effects of job-demands and resources on the well-being of ministers <![CDATA[<b>A competence executive coaching model</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Psychologists in industry are increasingly required to provide executive coaching services in their organisations or as part of their consulting services. An evaluation of coaching models as well as the development needs of individuals being trained as coaches, both locally and internationally, has led the authors to believe that there is a need for a competence executive coaching model. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to address the training and development needs of these consulting psychologists by presenting a competence executive coaching model for the planning, implementation and evaluation of executive coaching interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study was conducted while one of the authors was involved in teaching doctoral students in consulting psychology and executive coaching, specifically in the USA. The approach involved a literature review of executive coaching models and a qualitative study using focus groups to develop and evaluate the competence executive coaching model. MAIN FINDINGS: The literature review provided scant evidence of competence executive coaching models and there seems to be a specific need for this in the training of coaches in South Africa. Hence the model that was developed is an attempt to provide trainers with a structured model for the training of coaches. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The uniqueness of this competence model is not only described in terms of the six distinct coaching intervention phases, but also the competencies required in each. <![CDATA[<b>The construction of work-life balance</b>: <b>the experience of black employees in a call-centre environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Work-life balance, as a crucial aspect of employee and organisational wellness, remains an interesting field of research, especially due to the changing demographic employee profile. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to explore Black employees' construction of work-life balance in a customer care environment. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The conceptual debate regarding the construct of work-life balance in general as well as limited qualitative research with regard to Black employees' experience of work-life balance in a South African context motivated the study. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This qualitative study was designed from an interpretivist perspective. Ten employees, selected through purposeful sampling, participated in the study. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews and grounded theory was applied during data analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The grounded theory analysis of the data yielded six themes central to participants' construction of work-life balance. The findings suggest that work-life balance is conceptualised as a continuous, subjective and holistic valuation of satisfaction derived from multiple roles in relation to the importance to the individual at a given point in time. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Findings provide valuable managerial information to guide suitable strategies enhancing the work-life balance experience and by implication employees' general wellbeing, job satisfaction and commitment. CONTRIBUTIONS/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the evolving body of knowledge with regard to work-life balance and provides a unique context-specific perspective to the conceptual understanding of the construct. <![CDATA[<b>An exploratory study of the interaction between work and personal life</b>: <b>experiences of South African employees</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The interaction between work and personal life is an important field of research in the 21st century and of pressing concern for various individuals and organisations internationally and in South Africa. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between work and personal life and the experiences thereof in the South African context. MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY: South African employees are faced with various circumstances which could influence the interaction between their work and personal life and which could constitute different/unique experiences regarding this interaction. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A non-probability purposive voluntary sample was used. Data collection was done by means of semi-structured in-depth interviews with 92 participants. Content analysis was used to analyse and interpret the research data. MAIN FINDINGS: Four main themes (i.e. the experience of work, experiences and domains in the personal life, interaction between work and personal life, consequences associated with the interaction) were extracted from the data. Participants indicated stressful and supportive aspects in their work as well as additional personal dimensions in their personal life. Interaction between work and various personal dimensions were indicated, as well as consequences associated with different types of interaction. PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Individuals experienced interaction between their work and various other personal dimensions, where the forms of interaction were associated with certain consequences (i.e. spillover of emotions, energy depletion). CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Compared to international findings, unique findings were obtained relating to individuals' personal life and the consequences associated with the interaction. <![CDATA[<b>Towards happiness</b>: <b>experiences of work-role fit, meaningfulness and work engagement of industrial/organisational psychologists in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The work of industrial/organisational (I/O) psychologists presents an interesting and relevant context for studying meaning and engagement as components of happiness. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine how I/O psychologists experience the meaning of their work and to investigate the relationships between their experiences of work-role fit, meaning of work, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement, utilising the happiness framework proposed by Seligman (2002). MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: I/O psychologists spend more than 88% of their working day with people, and they are primary role models for happiness in the workplace. Information about their work engagement and experiences of meaning is therefore needed. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A survey design was used. A convenience sample (n = 106) was taken of I/O psychologists in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire, the Work-Role Fit Scale, the Work-Life Questionnaire, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, the Work Engagement Scale and a survey measuring the actual and desired time spent on six broad categories of work were administered. MAIN FINDINGS: Work-role fit predicted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The calling orientation to work predicted both psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. Work-role fit mediated the relationship between the meaning of work and psychological meaningfulness. Work-role fit partially mediated the relationship between a calling orientation to work and work engagement. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: A calling orientation to work should be fostered in I/O psychologists because it contributes to experiences of work-role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The results of this study contribute to scientific knowledge about work-role fit, engagement and meaning as components of happiness of I/O psychologists. <![CDATA[<b>Values underlying perceptions of breach of the psychological contract</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: This study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The study identifies the most important breaches and investigates which values underlie employee perceptions of breach of the psychological contract. It also addresses values that lead to employees interpreting incidents as breaches. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study calls on the fact that employees make inconsequential contributions to the terms of many formal employment contracts may imply that such contracts cannot be viewed as documents between equals. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred. MAIN FINDINGS: The data revealed lack of promotion, poor interpersonal relations between colleagues and bad treatment by seniors as three main breaches of the contract, and social recognition, world of peace and sense of accomplishment as three dominant values that underlie perceptions of contract violation. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The competent and intelligent manner in which lack of promotion is handled and communicated to employees is vital because it has implications for their willingness to contribute, their career prospects and their intention to stay in the organisation. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This research can serve as the basis for the development of survey or research instruments that are appropriate and relevant to the population. <![CDATA[<b>An overview of industrial and organisational psychology research in South Africa</b>: <b>a preliminary study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The generation and development of knowledge for the benefit of the discipline of industrial and organisational psychology by means of research is a core academic focus. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore general research trends in the field of industrial and organisational psychology in South Africa from 1950 to 2008. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: Research in the field tends to be influenced by either the changing needs of business or the occupational or personal fields of interest of academics, which often lead to an overemphasis on specific subdisciplines at the expense of others. This research aims to critically review dominant trends in the research focus areas in the field, in the light of present challenges in the changing work context. Recommendations are also made for possible future research. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A broad systematic review was carried out to analyse documented published and accredited South African research in the field (n = 2501). MAIN FINDINGS: Although there has been a proportional decline in personnel psychology research since 1990, there has been a proportional increase in both organisational psychology and employee wellness research since 1980 and 1990, respectively. Some areas of the industrial and organisational psychology field appear to be consistently under-researched. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The insights derived from the findings can be used by academia and researchers in the field to plan future research initiatives. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings provide preliminary insights that contribute to the body of knowledge concerned with the industrial and organisational psychology field in the South African context. <![CDATA[<b>Interference between work and nonwork roles</b>: <b>the development of a new South African instrument</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632010000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The interference between work and personal life is a central issue in the 21st century as employees attempt to balance or integrate their involvement in multiple social roles. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to, (1) develop new items for a more comprehensive work-nonwork interference instrument, (2) evaluate the newly developed items to retain those items that accurately capture the different dimensions and (3) eliminate undesirable items from the different subscales in the instrument. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Although the interaction between work and personal life has received extensive attention in the work-family fields of research, various theoretical, empirical and measurement issues need to be addressed. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect the data. MAIN FINDINGS: Initially, 89 items were developed. During the pilot study among mineworkers (n = 245), 41 poor items were eliminated on the basis of descriptive statistics, inter-item correlations, item-total correlations and the qualitative investigation of items highly redundant in terms of wording. Thereafter, the instrument (48 items) was administered to 366 support and academic personnel at a tertiary institution. Using Rasch analyses and item correlations, 18 additional items were eliminated, resulting in a 30-item instrument (15 items were retained to measure work-nonwork interference and 15 items to measure nonwork-work interference). PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: A major theoretical limitation to the measurement of work-family interference relates to the dimensionality and inconsistent measurement of the directionality of interference CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: With the development of this new instrument, several of the theoretical and measurement limitations voiced by previous researchers have been addressed, providing this instrument with distinct advantages over previous work-family instruments.