Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-076320090001&lang=en vol. 35 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Occupational stress, sense of coherence, coping, burnout and work engagement of registered nurses in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the occupational stress, sense of coherence, coping, burnout and work engagement of registered nurses in South Africa. A crosssectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 818 registered nurses. The Nursing Stress Inventory, the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, the COPE, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were administered. The results show that the experience of depletion of emotional resources and feelings of depersonalisation by registered nurses were associated with stress due to job demands and a lack of organisational support, focus on and ventilation of emotions as a coping strategy, and a weak sense of coherence. Work engagement was predicted by a strong sense of coherence and approachcoping strategies. <![CDATA[<b>Psychometric properties of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this research was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist when administered to a convenience sample of 241 fire-fighters from a metropolitan municipality. The results indicate that these two measuring instruments yielded acceptable internal-consistency reliability coefficients for most of the subscales of the questionnaires. Construct validity was investigated by means of exploratory factor analysis. It was concluded that the measuring instruments are fit to be used for diagnostic and developmental purposes and during counselling to enhance the psychological well being of fire-fighters and their families. <![CDATA[<b>Balancing dual roles in self-employed women</b>: <b>an exploratory study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study is aimed at exploring how self-employed women cope in balancing their dual roles as mothers and executives. Through the elicitation of constructs by making use of Kelly's repertory grid technique, the personal construct system of five self-employed white women in Gauteng across varying industries was established. While being successful dual earners, they still bore the primary responsibility for nurturing their families and assuring their well-being. The successful balancing of their dual roles was attributed to the following central themes, which emerged from all the participants: quality time spent with children and family, structure and planning, coping with guilt, support structures and self-reliance, and balance between work and life. <![CDATA[<b>Fluid intelligence and spatial reasoning as predictors of pilot training performance in the South African Air Force (SAAF)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pilot selection is a form of high-stakes selection due to the massive costs of training, high trainee ability requirements and costly repercussions of poor selection decisions. This criterion-related validation study investigated the predictive ability of fluid intelligence and spatial reasoning in predicting three criteria of pilot training performance, using an accumulated sample of South African Air Force pilots (N = 108). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses with training grade achieved as criterion were performed for each of the phases of training, namely practical flight training, ground school training, and officers' formative training. Multiple correlations of 0.35 (p < 0.01), 0.20 (p > 0.05) and 0.23 (p > 0.05) were obtained for flight, ground school and formative training results, respectively. Spatial ability had incremental validity over fluid intelligence for predicting flight training performance. <![CDATA[<b>The relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Regardless of where one lives in the world, one cannot escape three defining forces of our time: globalisation, the information revolution and the speed of change (Cascio, 2001). To ensure continued organisational performance and to maintain the competitive advantage, organisations must therefore constantly implement changes in strategy, structure, process and culture (Higgs, 2002; Langley, 2000). Goleman (1998) proposes a solution of self-awareness as a key skill in handling stress, thereby indicating that a lack of emotional intelligence in such an unstable environment means possible failure that can impact on everyone's future. The general aim of this research was to determine whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and stress management in a group of managers. This was done through a quantitative study of the relationship between stress management and emotional intelligence. These constructs were operationalised by means of a combination of scales present in the Feelings and Emotions domain of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32i) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On EQ-i). The correlation and regression results seem to indicate that stress management (the ability to cope with stress) is a component of emotional intelligence, while stress can be either an input or an outflow of emotional intelligence or the lack thereof. <![CDATA[<b>Employee perceptions of the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study assesses managerial perceptions of the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation in three production companies in Gauteng. A sample comprising 668 employees was drawn from a population of 1 259 (53% response rate) using simple random sampling and data were collected through self-developed questionnaires and personal interviews. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that whilst the South African Transformation (SAT) Agenda has propelled change in the political and economic spheres, similar developments have not been realised in the South African labour market. Hence, based on the findings, recommendations are made to enhance the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation, and the need for urgent government intervention, through legislative amendments, is emphasised. <![CDATA[<b>Prediction of Type A behaviour</b>: <b>a structural equation model</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The predictability of Type A behaviour was measured in a sample of 375 professionals with a shortened version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS). Two structural equation models were constructed with the Type A behaviour achievement sub-scale and global (total) Type A as the predictor variables. The indices showed a reasonable-to-promising fit with the data. Type A achievement was reasonably predicted by service-career orientation, internal locus of control, power self-concept and economic innovation. Type A global was also predicted by internal locus of control, power self-concept and the entrepreneurial attitude of achievement and personal control. <![CDATA[<b>Occupational stress, ill health and organisational commitment of employees at a university of technology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, ill health and organisational commitment. A survey design was used. The sample (N=353) consisted of academic (n=132) and support staff (n=221) at a university of technology. The Organizational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET) and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The results showed that different organisational stressors contributed significantly to ill health and low organisational commitment. Stress about job security contributed to both physical and psychological ill health, whereas overload and job aspects contributed to psychological ill health. Stress about control and resources contributed to low organisational commitment. Low individual commitment to the organisation was predicted by five stressors, namely work-life balance, overload, control, job aspects and pay. <![CDATA[<b>Psychometric comparison of paper-and-pencil and online personality assessments in a selection setting</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The goal of the study was to determine whether the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32i) yielded comparable results when two different modes of administration, namely paper-and-pencil and Internet-based administration, were used in real-life, high-stakes selection settings. Two studies were conducted in which scores obtained online in unproctored settings were compared with scores obtained during proctored paper-and-pencil settings. The psychometric properties of the paper-and-pencil and Internet-based applications were strikingly similar. Structural equation modelling with EQS indicated substantial support for the hypothesis that covariance matrices of the paper-and-pencil and online applications in both studies were identical. It was concluded that relationships between the OPQ32i scales were not affected by mode of administration or supervision. <![CDATA[<b>Sense of coherence and employees' perceptions of helping and restraining factors in an organisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and reliability of the 13-item version of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (OLQ) and to investigate whether employees with a strong sense of coherence perceived helping and restraining factors in their organisation differently to those with a weak sense of coherence. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The total population (N = 2 678) of employees in a financial institution in Gauteng participated in the study. The OLQ was administered and it showed acceptable reliability and construct validity. Individuals with high scores (n = 300) and those with low scores (n = 300) on sense of coherence differed regarding their perceptions of helping and restraining factors in their work and organisation. <![CDATA[<b>Using the career orientations inventory (COI) for measuring internal career orientations in the South African organisational context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study investigated the use of the Career Orientations Inventory as a measure to determine the career orientations of a random sample of 2 978 participants at predominantly managerial and supervisory level in the service industry. Whereas an exploratory factor analysis yielded a nine-factor structure, a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed five constructs as measures of the career orientations domain. A similar factorial pattern was observed across the African and white groups and a weaker factorial pattern across the Indian and coloured groups. The findings of this study contribute valuable new knowledge to both the practice and the field of Career Psychology. <![CDATA[<b>The survey of perceived organisational support</b>: <b>which measure should we use?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The psychometric properties of the original 36-item Survey of Perceived Organisational Support (SPOS) was examined along with a variety of shorter versions currently in use (16 items, eight items and three items). Factor analysis of the original SPOS measure is supportive of the original finding that the SPOS is unidimensional. Correlations among factor scores and SPOS scale scores suggest that either the eight-item or 16-item version would be just as effective as the 36-item version but even more efficient. Convergent validity results also indicate similar proportions of variance in versions of SPOS scores accounted for by selected organisational variables. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological career resources as predictors of working adults' career anchors</b>: <b>an exploratory study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources and career anchors of a sample of 2 997 working adults at predominantly managerial and supervisory levels in the service industry. The Psychological Career Resources Inventory and the Career Orientations Inventory were applied. Stepwise regression analyses indicated dimensions of psychological career resources as significant predictors of participants' career anchors. The findings add valuable new knowledge that can be used to inform organisational career development support practices as well as career counselling and guidance services concerned with promoting individuals' employability and experiences of intrinsic career success. <![CDATA[<b>Flight instructors' perceptions of pilot behaviour related to gender</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study investigated flight instructors' perceptions with regard to gender-related pilot behaviour. The subjects fell into two sample groups. The first sample consisted of 93 flight instructors and the second sample was a control group of 93 commercial pilots. The Aviation Gender Attitude Questionnaire (AGAQ) was administered to measure the perceptions that both groups held about female pilots' flying proficiency and safety orientation. Statistical analysis revealed that flight instructors and commercial pilots differed significantly in their perceptions of female pilots' flying proficiency but that the two groups did not differ in their perceptions of female pilots' safety orientation. <![CDATA[<b>Towards a workplace conducive to the career advancement of women</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to start designing a workplace conducive to women's career advancement. Appreciative inquiry was selected as an appropriate methodology, given the slow progress that has been made in addressing gender equality at work. Seventeen men and women working in the finance division of a large organisation were invited to participate in an appreciative inquiry workshop. This was followed by interviews with four leadership team members. While no original ideas or solutions emerged from the interventions, participants of the appreciative inquiry process demonstrated a shift in thinking, more positive emotional responses, a shared vision for the future and improved willingness to assume accountability for change. <![CDATA[<b>The balance between work and home</b>: <b>the relationship between work and home demands and ill health of employed females</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between work and home demands, work-home interference (WHI), home-work interference (HWI), and ill health of 500 employed females from various occupations. A structural model was tested with structural equation modelling. The results indicated that work demands (work pressure and work overload) are related to ill health (physical ill health, anxiety, depression) via WHI. On the other hand, home demands (home pressure and home overload) are directly related to HWI and to ill health. <![CDATA[<b>Managerial competencies as critical ingredients for a total quality management initiative</b>: <b>perceptions of managers in a KwaZulu-Natal public sector division</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Total quality management (TQM) plays a pivotal role in organisational effectiveness. When successfully implemented, TQM tightly aligned with the organisation's overall business strategy maximises customer satisfaction and changes mindsets towards continuous quality improvement. One mechanism to accomplish TQM is by attaining managerial effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the extent to which the management in a KwaZulu-Natal public sector division displays the roles and competencies outlined in the Competing Values Framework (Quinn, Faerman, Thompson & McGrath, 2003). The study is based on a stratified random sample of 202 managers. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire measuring the dimensions of TQM and the roles/ competencies needed to create master managers that are crucial to enhancing TQM. <![CDATA[<b>Organisationally relevant variables and Keyes's Mental Health Continuum Scale</b>: <b>an exploratory study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In an exploratory study on a sample of convenience (n = 165), 11 self-report variables with presumed organisational relevance were related, as predictors, to the three subscores and summed score of the Keyes (2005a, 2005b; 2007) Mental Health Continuum Scale (long form). Keyes's scale was administered five to seven days after the first set of scales. The predictor scores were reduced to three factorial scores, labelled positive orientation, negative orientation and positive striving. When classified thus, the predictor variables showed significant and meaningful relationships with some or all of the Keyes subscores and the total score, although few reached medium effect sizes. <![CDATA[<b>Antonovsky's sense of coherence and job satisfaction</b>: <b>meta-analyses of South African data</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Data on the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and job satisfaction (JS) were collected from published sources, unpublished theses and unpublished reports. Twenty-four data sets using the SOC long form and 10 sets using the short form were found. Neither the form of SOC nor the type of JS measure moderated the relation. SOC accounted for approximately 18% of the variance in JS. Approximately 10% of the between-study variance was due to real differences in effect size. Correcting for measurement error, SOC accounted for approximately 25% of the variance in JS, and real differences in effect size accounted for less than 1% of the between-study variance. <![CDATA[<b>The psychometrical properties of translated versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: The investigation of the psychometric properties of translated versions of a burnout measure. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of translated versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Cognitive Weariness Scale. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: To adhere to Section 8 of the Employment Equity Act, Act No. 55 of 1998 (p. 7), which stipulates that 'Psychological testing and other similar assessments are prohibited unless the test or assessment being used (a) has been scientifically shown to be valid and reliable, (b) can be applied fairly to all employees, and (c) is not biased against any employee or group.' RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The current study follows the quantitative research tradition. This study was conducted with a convenience sample of members of the South African Police Service (SAPS; N = 685). The questionnaires were translated into Afrikaans and Setswana and were administered together with the original English version. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that a four-factor model, consisting of Exhaustion, Cynicism, Professional Efficacy, and Cognitive Weariness or Burnout, fitted the data best. The scales did not show measurement invariance for Afrikaans, Setswana and English samples. The reliabilities of the Exhaustion and Professional Efficacy subscales were acceptable in the three samples. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The implication of the results of the study under review is that the adapted MBI-GS scores obtained by the English, Afrikaans and Setswana home language speaking participants were not comparable in terms of the different translations of the instrument. Therefore, separate norms have to be developed to assess the extent of burnout experienced by the English, Afrikaans and Setswana home language speaking members of the SAPS who participated in the study. As the translated versions of the adapted MBI-GS are clearly not equivalent, more studies are needed to minimise the semantic differences existing between the different translations of the instrument. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: To date, no research regarding burnout has been conducted in South Africa within the different language groups by means of translated measuring instruments. <![CDATA[<b>The diversity-validity dilemma</b>: <b>in search of minimum adverse impact and maximum utility</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Selection from diverse groups of applicants poses the formidable challenge of developing valid selection procedures that simultaneously add value, do not discriminate unfairly and which minimise adverse impact. Valid selection procedures used in a fair, non-discriminatory manner that optimises utility, however, very often result in adverse impact against members of protected groups. More often than not, the assessment techniques used for selection are blamed for this. The conventional interpretation of adverse impact results in an erroneous diagnosis of the fundamental causes of the under-representation of protected group members and, consequently, in an inappropriate treatment of the problem. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological empowerment of employees in selected organisations in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity and internal consistency of the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire (PEQ) for employees in selected organisations in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample (N = 1405) was used. The PEQ was administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a four-factor model for the PEQ, consisting of competence, meaning, impact and self-determination. A cross-validation study confirmed the construct equivalence of the four-factor model for a study sample (n = 679) as well as a replication sample (n = 726) that was randomly selected for the total sample. The subscales showed acceptable internal consistencies. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the origins of burnout among secondary educators</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Maslach and Leiter (1997) have suggested that burnout constitutes an erosion of the soul. Burnout is a non-discriminatory phenomenon with a pronounced negative impact on the individual employee and the organisation and is particularly prevalent among educators. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the probable reasons for burnout among secondary educators. STUDY MOTIVATION: Several South African studies have focused on the phenomenon of burnout among educators but the probable reasons for burnout in this population have not yet received adequate attention. This study extended earlier international research that probed this facet. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A mixed-methods design with a predominantly qualitative methodology was employed to explore the probable reasons for burnout among 59 educators from three urban secondary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. Data comprised Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey protocols and rich data work descriptions. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the five participants who tested highest on the burnout indicators. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that a negative learner profile and workload were the most frequently cited reasons for potential burnout. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Burnout requires considered attention and aggressive context specific intervention to contain its negative impact on both the educator and the student learning experience. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment centres</b>: <b>unlocking potential for growth</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Maslach and Leiter (1997) have suggested that burnout constitutes an erosion of the soul. Burnout is a non-discriminatory phenomenon with a pronounced negative impact on the individual employee and the organisation and is particularly prevalent among educators. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the probable reasons for burnout among secondary educators. STUDY MOTIVATION: Several South African studies have focused on the phenomenon of burnout among educators but the probable reasons for burnout in this population have not yet received adequate attention. This study extended earlier international research that probed this facet. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A mixed-methods design with a predominantly qualitative methodology was employed to explore the probable reasons for burnout among 59 educators from three urban secondary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. Data comprised Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey protocols and rich data work descriptions. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the five participants who tested highest on the burnout indicators. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that a negative learner profile and workload were the most frequently cited reasons for potential burnout. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Burnout requires considered attention and aggressive context specific intervention to contain its negative impact on both the educator and the student learning experience. <![CDATA[<b>Psychological testing</b>: <b>an introduction (2nd edition)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632009000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ORIENTATION: Maslach and Leiter (1997) have suggested that burnout constitutes an erosion of the soul. Burnout is a non-discriminatory phenomenon with a pronounced negative impact on the individual employee and the organisation and is particularly prevalent among educators. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the probable reasons for burnout among secondary educators. STUDY MOTIVATION: Several South African studies have focused on the phenomenon of burnout among educators but the probable reasons for burnout in this population have not yet received adequate attention. This study extended earlier international research that probed this facet. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A mixed-methods design with a predominantly qualitative methodology was employed to explore the probable reasons for burnout among 59 educators from three urban secondary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. Data comprised Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey protocols and rich data work descriptions. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the five participants who tested highest on the burnout indicators. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that a negative learner profile and workload were the most frequently cited reasons for potential burnout. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Burnout requires considered attention and aggressive context specific intervention to contain its negative impact on both the educator and the student learning experience.