Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> vol. 45 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>A critical reflection on the psychology of retention</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Co-constructing integrity: A conceptual framework</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The use of an integrity framework can positively influence the impact senior management has on middle management's experience of integrity and subsequently contribute towards creating a positive work environment and establishing healthy relationships between these two groups. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to obtain insights from psychology practitioners about the potential application of, and the value added by, a particular integrity framework within organisations. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Establishing a positive work environment and organisational culture that upholds integrity and that is conducive to behaviour marked by integrity, requires investment into the development of leadership integrity. Utilising an integrity framework will enable psychology practitioners and organisational leadership to create an environment in which healthy relationships can be established between all stakeholders, in particular, between senior and middle managers, allowing integrity to flourish. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A hermeneutic, qualitative study was undertaken and convenient sampling was used. Participants included industrial and counselling psychologists. A listening post was convened and the data obtained were analysed using thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings indicate organisations can use the framework effectively by customising it according to their specific needs, organisational strategy, vision and mission PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION: The framework will enable senior management to influence follower behaviour positively regarding their integrity within the organisation. The framework will assist middle managers in gaining a better understanding of the impact senior management has on their experience of integrity. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study also highlights the important role organisations play in creating and establishing an ethical work climate that will ensure corporate integrity. This will enable organisations to provide value to their corporate stakeholders and to society at large. <![CDATA[<b>Do wage and wage satisfaction compensate for the effects of a dissatisfying job on life satisfaction?</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Research regarding subjective well-being (including life satisfaction and domain-specific satisfaction) is necessary, given the effects thereof on health, work performance, social relationships and ethical behaviour of employees RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationships among life satisfaction, job satisfaction and wage satisfaction, as well as how these relationships related to gross wage category in a South African sample. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: While research has shown that wage level and wage satisfaction are positively associated with both job and life satisfaction, the question arises whether wage level and satisfaction would compensate for the negative effect of a dissatisfying job on life satisfaction. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional design was used. A non-probability convenience sample (N = 763) in the form of the WageIndicator data set was obtained. Hierarchical log-linear analyses and cross-tabulations were carried out to determine the relationships that existed among the constructs. MAIN FINDINGS: Although job satisfaction and wage satisfaction were strongly related at a low level of wage satisfaction, fewer people were satisfied with their jobs at a high level of wage satisfaction level. Moreover, while job and life satisfaction were strongly related at a low level of job satisfaction level, relatively fewer people were satisfied with their lives at a high level of job satisfaction level. Wage dissatisfaction was associated with dissatisfaction with life but was more strongly associated with life satisfaction at a high level of wage satisfaction. Wage category and wage satisfaction did not interact with the job satisfaction level in affecting life satisfaction. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers should attend to the perceptions of wage dissatisfaction at low wage and wage satisfaction levels. Such dissatisfaction may have a negative impact on the job and life satisfaction of employees and result in detrimental effects on employees and organisations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the relationships between wage, wage satisfaction, job dissatisfaction and life satisfaction. <![CDATA[<b>Workplace flourishing: Measurement, antecedents and outcomes</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The continuous growth of employee attrition, especially within the highly skilled talent pool, is becoming increasingly problematic. Therefore, one should continually explore the different factors that impact employee retention and performance. This casts the attention to the person-environment fit and workplace flourishing (WF) RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study explored relationships among person-environment fit, WF, intention to leave (ITL), in-role performance and organisational citizenship behaviour MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Disease-driven research heavily outweighs health promotion research. Therefore, more research is needed regarding positive employee behaviours such as strengths, optimal functioning and flourishing. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used with 258 secondary school teachers from two Gauteng districts. The Perceived Fit, Flourishing-at-Work, Turnover Intention, In-Role Behaviour and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour scales were administered. Structural equation modelling and mediational analyses were performed. MAIN FINDINGS: Results confirmed WF's three-factor structure. Person-environment fit positively associated with WF. Workplace flourishing negatively related to ITL, while positively relating to in-role performance and organisational citizenship behaviour. Person-environment fit indirectly affected in-role performance and organisational citizenship behaviour via WF. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations should continually modify their strategic frameworks to maintain a healthy balance between individual and environmental characteristics. This will lay the foundation for a favourable work environment. When such an environment is institutionalised, talent retention and performance should follow. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study results should provide new insight into the relationship between the person-environment fit and WF, as well as the effect it may have on ITL and performance. <![CDATA[<b>Minorities' experiences of office gossip</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Office gossip can result in someone from a minority group feeling powerless, being resigned to the out-group and be deprived of social networks RESEARCH PURPOSE: This article sought to explore the extent to which research has been conducted on minorities' experiences of office gossip within organisations MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Previous organisational research on employees' experiences of office gossip focused on employees in general and not on specific groups of employees such as minority workers. The literature review of this study therefore points to key areas identified in past studies where experiences of minorities related to gossip are lacking. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Based on a systematic review of the literature published over the last 60 years, the author focused on key areas where office gossip related to minorities is lacking. MAIN FINDINGS: The author found that existing research relating to minorities' experiences of office gossip had focused only on two categories: women minorities and racial minorities. Limited research had been conducted on other minority groups' experiences of office gossip PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations could benefit from having knowledge about the experiences of minority employees, such as foreign nationals, gays, lesbians and obese individuals, to mention but a few. Managers could exert influence to change a work environment and culture to be more inclusive so as to minimise office gossip that would possibly make minorities feel excluded. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This article aimed to fill the gap identified in the literature regarding research on workplace gossip as related to minority employees. <![CDATA[<b>Predictive performance models in the South African Business Process Services industry</b>]]> ORIENTATION: An earlier systematic literature review study (Jacobs & Roodt, 2011) conducted on research in Business Process Services (BPS) industry sector companies identified a number of variables that could be empirically linked to turnover intention and individual performance. The literature pointed to a potential health promotion process, as well as an individual performance process in the BPS environment. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test two different predictive models that may explain two distal outcomes, namely turnover intention and individual employee performance, in the South African (SA) BPS industry. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: There is little, if any, peer-reviewed, empirical research available on the BPS industry that links variables to either proximate or distal outcome variables, such as turnover intention and individual employee performance. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A two-stage, census-based sampling approach was followed that initially targeted 40 organisations within the industry that employ about 13000 employees. Sixteen of these organisations (employing about 6800 individuals) indicated that they wish to voluntarily participate in the study; 821 individuals were targeted to participate in the cross-sectional survey and 487 usable responses were obtained (a 59% response rate). Multivariate data analyses were conducted from an exploratory perspective to retrospectively explain relationships in the structural models. MAIN FINDINGS: An overall health promotion process model that predicted the distal outcome, turnover intention, was confirmed within the context of this exploratory study, where human resource management (HRM) practices, job demands (JDs) and job resources (JRs) were related to burnout as the only proximate outcome. On the other hand, an individual performance enhancing process model was also confirmed within the context of this exploratory study by using HRM practices, JRs and JDs, together with proximate variables, such as employee competence and engagement, to explain the distal outcome, individual performance. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study has implications for executive (strategic) management, human resource (HR) professionals and work unit team leaders in the BPS industry. This study shows which JRs contribute towards the reduction of burnout and turnover intention in the BPS context. On the other hand, it explains how HRM practices, as well as JRs and JDs, in combination with employee competence and engagement, can be used to promote individual performance. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This is the first SA study that uses a range of variables in a multivariate analysis to predict turnover intention and individual performance in the SA BPS industry. <![CDATA[<b>Gender traits in relation to work versus career salience</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The concepts of work- and career-role salience are used interchangeably, yet work focuses on the short-term aspect and career on the long-term aspect. RESEARCH PURPOSE: We utilised gender traits, that is, masculinity, femininity and psychological androgyny, to find greater nuances in the salience of work versus career roles. We also set out to confirm the adapted factor structure of the revised Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Generally, self-reported sex is used to determine differences in role salience between men and women, as opposed to considering the gender roles people associate with. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A sample of 395 South African employees was used. Structural equation modelling and t-tests were applied. MAIN FINDINGS: We confirmed work- and career-role salience as distinct constructs. The factor structure of the revised BSRI holds for this study. With regard to gender traits, femininity decreased work-role salience, while psychological androgyny increased work-role salience. Masculinity had a direct effect on work-role salience while indirectly influencing career-role salience through work-role salience. Women were found to be significantly more feminine and psychologically androgynous than men. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Utilising gender traits may have greater career guidance relevance for individuals than traditional approaches utilising differences between the sexes. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study confirmed that work and career roles are to be viewed as separate constructs and that people may view the importance placed on work- and career-role salience differently. The study further contributes by including gender traits as a significant contributor to role salience. <![CDATA[<b>Strengths use, deficit correction, thriving and performance of academics at universities of technology</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Research regarding strengths use, deficit correction and thriving of academics in higher education institutions is necessary, given the possible effects thereof on their task and contextual performance. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationships among strengths use and deficit correction, thriving at work and performance of academics. Furthermore, it sought to investigate whether performance-related pay moderates the effects of thriving on performance. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No studies were found regarding the relationships among a balanced strengths- and deficit-based approach, thriving at work, and performance in the context of South African higher education. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used, with a convenience sample of 276 academic employees from three universities of technology in South Africa. The participants completed the Strengths Use and Deficit Correction Scale, the Thriving at Work Scale, a scale that measured perceptions of performance-related pay and measures of task and contextual performance. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that perceived organisational support for strengths use, as well as individual strengths use and deficit correction, predicted thriving at work. Thriving predicted task and contextual performance. A significant interaction was found between thriving and perceptions of performance-related pay. The most robust relation between thriving and performance existed when performance-related pay was perceived to be good. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Higher education institutions must invest resources to enable academics to thrive at work via the balanced strength- and deficit-based approach. This approach should be seen as a core development tool for academics to increase employees' thriving at work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding strengths use and deficit correction, thriving and performance of academics in higher education institutions. It also resulted in new knowledge regarding the interaction effects of performance-related pay and thriving on task performance of academics. <![CDATA[<b>The principled leadership scale: An integration of value-based leadership</b>]]> ORIENTATION: A need exists to investigate leader behaviour necessary to curb the corruption that has infected and weakened South Africa's moral fibre. Such leader behaviour would need to be underpinned by a set of universal moral values. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a new measure, the principled leadership scale (PLS), by integrating the value-based behaviours inherent in transformational, servant, authentic and ethical leadership. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Leader behaviour intrinsic to value-based leadership was found to be closely aligned with universal moral values. Because the study found a considerable overlap between the behaviours mentioned in the value-based leadership theories, it sought to integrate these behaviours under one construct and to develop a reliable and valid scale to assess this construct. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Data from the quantitative study were analysed by means of item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory bi-factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling. MAIN FINDINGS: The confirmatory bi-factor solution corroborated a strong general principled leadership factor and four moderately weak group factors. The statistical analyses provided good fit of the PLS measurement model with the empirical data. PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study found acceptable measurement properties of the PLS that may be used for applications, such as the selecting, training and developing of ethical leadership in organisations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study adds value in that it is the first to integrate the four value-based leadership theories under one construct and to develop a potential psychometrically sound instrument to measure principled leadership. <![CDATA[<b>Women's prospects for career advancement: Narratives of women in core mining positions in a South African mining organisation</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Even though there has been a phenomenal increase in the number of women employed in the mining industry, the figures hide many gender inequalities as the gendered impediments to career advancement persist despite South Africa's remarkable equity policy regime. However, it is unclear, from the perspective of the women themselves, how their career advancement is encumbered. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study reflects on the prospects for career advancement by exploring the work and organisational experiences of women in core mining positions in an open-cast mining organisation in South Africa. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: To reflect on the prospects for career advancement of women in core mining positions. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Eight professional women, selected through a purposive sampling procedure, participated in in-depth unstructured interviews. Data were analysed using Creswell's simplified version of the Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen method, guided by the lens of gendered organisations. MAIN FINDINGS: Three themes emerged: (1) male domination that has marginalised women and compelled them to emulate masculinity has legitimised existing gender barriers, (2) the long, awkward and unpredictable hours of work have deepened women's time constraints because they have to combine the home or family caretaker role with work, and (3) the essence of being a woman in a mining organisation. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study may present South African managers with a better understanding of how work and organisational features, policies, daily practices and discourses impede career advancement of women in core mining positions. Organisations should train managers to create conditions that minimise barriers and maximise performance and advancement, and align retention strategies. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study builds on existing knowledge about career advancement of women by providing new and valuable information specific to women in core mining positions in an open-cast mining organisation in South Africa, seen through the lens of gendered organisational theory. The findings highlight the need for organisational theory research that is responsive to the subtle issues and gendered assumptions that sustain encumbrances to women's career trajectories. <![CDATA[<b>The South African perspective on the lean manufacturing Respect for People principles</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Many industries have adopted the popular continuous improvement (CI) approach, lean manufacturing, to facilitate CI initiatives. However, several studies have confirmed that the low success rate of lean implementation can be attributed to the disproportionate focus on lean tools and techniques at the expense of the human factor, as expressed in the Respect for People (RFP) principles mentioned in lean literature. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To provide qualitative insight into the understanding and applicability of the Japanese RFP principles within the South African context. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: An improved understanding of these RFP principles within the South African context can contribute to more successful lean implementations. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A phenomenological approach was followed to conduct the study in different South African industries. Purposive, expert sampling was used and 22 individuals took part in the exploratory discussions. Data analysis was performed using applied thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The South African participants identified all the Japanese RFP principles as applicable to the South African context. However, additional RFP themes were also identified, specifically job security and aligned commitment. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings are of importance to organisations planning to implement a Japanese-designed optimisation technique within a South African context. Organisations should pay attention to the original Japanese RFP themes and the additional RFP themes identified in this study. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the limited research available on lean manufacturing and the RFP principles within the South African context. New RFP themes are provided for organisations implementing a Japanese CI methodology within a South African context. The comparison of the understanding of the RFP themes in Japan and South Africa also contributes to the field of industrial psychology. <![CDATA[<b>Authentic leadership and work engagement: The indirect effects of psychological safety and trust in supervisors</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The orientation of this study was towards authentic leadership and its influence on psychological safety, trust in supervisors and work engagement. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of authentic leadership on trust in supervisors, psychological safety and work engagement. Another aim was to determine whether trust in supervisors and psychological safety had an indirect effect on the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. An additional objective was to determine if authentic leadership indirectly influenced psychological safety through trust in supervisors. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Globally, businesses are faced with many challenges which may be resolved if leaders are encouraged to be more authentic and employees more engaged. In this study, investigating the role of trust in supervisors and psychological safety on the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement is emphasised. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study was quantitative in nature and used a cross-sectional survey design. A sample of 244 employees within the South African mining industry completed the Authentic Leadership Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Workplace Trust Survey and Psychological Safety Questionnaire. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that authentic leadership is a significant predictor of both trust in supervisors and psychological safety. This study further found that authentic leadership had a statistically significant indirect effect on work engagement through trust in supervisors. PRACTICAL OR MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The main findings suggest that having more authentic leaders in the mining sector could enhance trust in these leaders. Authentic leadership thus plays an important role in creating a positive work environment. This work environment of authenticity and trust could lead to a more engaged workforce. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: Limited empirical evidence exists with regard to the relationship between authentic leadership, work engagement, psychological safety and trust in supervisors. This is particularly true in the mining sector. This study aimed to contribute to the limited number of studies conducted. <![CDATA[<b>Labour market interventions to assist the unemployed in two townships in South Africa</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Given the absence of organised and accessible information on programmes relating to unemployment in South Africa, it may be difficult for beneficiaries to derive value from existing programmes; and for stakeholders to identify possible gaps in order to direct their initiatives accordingly RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of existing employment initiatives within two low-income communities in South Africa, with the aim of identifying possible gaps in better addressing the needs of the unemployed MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Unemployment in South Africa does not appear to be the result of a lack of initiatives or a lack of stakeholder involvement, but rather the result of haphazard implementation of interventions. In order to intervene more effectively, addressing the identified gaps, organising and better distribution of information for beneficiaries is suggested. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: The data were collected via documentary research complemented with structured interviews. Relevant documents (N = 166) and participants (N = 610) were consulted during the data collection phase, using convenience and purposive sampling. MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 496 unemployment programmes were identified. Most of the interventions were implemented by the government. Vocational training followed by enterprise development and business skills training were the most implemented programmes. Less than 6% of programmes contained psychosocial aspects that are necessary to help the unemployed deal with the psychological consequences of unemployment. Finally, in general, benefactors involved in alleviating unemployment seem unaware of employment initiatives in their communities PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The compilation of an inventory of employment programmes may be valuable, as it will assist in identifying the most prominent needs of the South African labour market. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the availability of existing unemployment programmes, projects and interventions, and the need for specific interventions. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring subjective career success using the Kaleidoscope Career Model</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Currently, the workplace consists of four different generations of employees, of which the youngest, Generation Y (Gen Y), will become more prevalent in the next few years. Therefore, attracting and retaining employees of this generation are essential for organisations RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate how Gen Y IT employees experience career success by using the Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) as an interpretive lens MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Generation Y remains an understudied cohort with regard to perceptions of career success. Motivated by the potential value of constructing contexts, which promote career success among Gen Y, the KCM was used as a framework for exploring meanings associated with career success among this cohort. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive voluntary sample of 24 Gen Y IT employees. Data were analysed in a two-step process by, firstly, identifying elements associated with the central parameters of the KCM and, secondly, collating these to identify various sub-dimensions of each parameter, to identify associated meanings for subjective career success. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings describe more richly the needs for authenticity (i.e. making a difference or work as an enabler of lifestyle), balance (within time and over time) and challenge (i.e. career success implies growth/turning problems into opportunities or goal attainment as signifier of success) as means to experience career success, specifically expanding the description of balance, where employees try to maintain a work-life balance not only within but also over time (synchronic vs. diachronic balance PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings have value for management and human resource practitioners with regard to the implementation of employment practices that will enhance perceptions of career success among Gen Y IT employees and the development of a supportive culture which underpin the latter. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study adds to our knowledge of Gen Y's perceptions of career success with particular emphasis on authenticity, balance and challenge. It furthermore contributes to career success literature by adding a career development lens to the latter. <![CDATA[<b>Preliminary development of the Higher Education Hindrance Demands Scale amongst academics in the South African context</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Over the past two decades, since the advent of democracy in South Africa, the country has undergone transformation in virtually all sectors of society. Education is no exception, with higher education institutions (HEIs) also experiencing change. The transformation of HEIs has brought about many new challenges, demands and stresses that may hinder the work performance of academics RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study seeks to determine the 'hindrance demands' unique to the South African context by developing and validating the Higher Education Hindrance Demands Scale (HEHDS). This scale includes a set of demands placed on academics' experiences in this context RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Data were collected from 184 academic staff members from HEIs based on a quantitative research design using a cross-sectional survey. Data were analysed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), while the reliability of the scale was obtained through Cronbach's coefficient alpha. MAIN FINDINGS: The results produced, as anticipated, a six-factor model consisting of: (1) workload, (2) higher education unrest, (3) change management, (4) decolonisation, (5) online teaching and learning and (6) psychological safety. The findings indicated excellent reliability, ranging between 0.74 and 0.90 PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Taking into consideration the context in which HEIs operate in South Africa, it is noteworthy that the recommendations in this article will assist in identifying the hindrance demands placed on academic staff. Researchers in the field are therefore called to validate the instrument developed through the use of confirmatory factor analysis. CONTRIBUTIONS OR VALUE-ADD: This study adds to the limited research on hindrance demands placed on staff in HEIs. <![CDATA[<b>Exploring organisational diversity climate with associated antecedents and employee outcomes</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Organisations are consistently changing and diversifying; therefore, researchers and practitioners are viewing diversity as an essential part of organisational behaviour literature and practice RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate a simple mediation model, with the diversity climate as the proposed mediator, transformational leadership as the model antecedent and organisational commitment as the outcome Motivation for the study: The South African diversity climate research is limited, including mediation investigations. Increased organisational diversification requires constant and relevant information with regard to diversity management. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative approach using a cross-sectional design collected 230 responses from a convenience sample. Transformational leadership was considered through six key behaviours associated with transformational leadership. Organisational commitment was considered as per the Psycones questionnaire and the organisational diversity climate was determined using a single-dimension diversity climate instrument. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and a simple mediation model. MAIN FINDINGS: Correlation results revealed that both transformational leadership and a diversity climate demonstrated practical effects with organisational commitment. Results from a standardised regression coefficient confirmed that transformational leadership predicts the diversity climate significantly. Both transformational leadership and diversity climate predicted commitment. The simple mediation model revealed that the diversity climate can be considered a mediator in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee commitment. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations would benefit from leadership assessments for current and future employees, especially organisations that would like to prioritise a constructive diversity climate and employee commitment. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Contributions are made towards limited diversity climate investigations by providing empirical evidence of the mediating role of a diversity climate. <![CDATA[<b>Job crafting, proactive personality and meaningful work: Implications for employee engagement and turnover intention</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Jobs in the financial services industry are in constant flux because of the ever-changing nature of the products and services provided to customers. This could result in employee disengagement and turnover intention RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the role of job crafting, proactive personality and meaningful work in predicting employee engagement and turnover intention among employees in the financial services industry based on the central tenets of the Job Demands-Resources theory MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Organisations or incumbents may redesign jobs. The self-initiated proactive behaviour that incumbents exhibit to shape the meaning of their work is known as job crafting. The relationships that exist among job crafting, proactive personality, meaningful work, employee engagement and turnover intention were, therefore, investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design was used to gather primary data in service-providing firms across South Africa (n = 391). MAIN FINDINGS: Results demonstrated that job crafting, proactive personality and meaningful work significantly predict variance in employee engagement and turnover intention. PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Specific human resource practices and interventions are proffered to foster job crafting, proactivity and meaningful work and, in doing so, address employee disengagement and turnover intention. CONTRIBUTION OR VALUE-ADD: The study highlights the importance of encouraging employees to craft their jobs as it has specific implications for prominent work-related outcomes, such as employee engagement and turnover intention, among employees in the financial services industry. <![CDATA[<b>Nurses' views on promotion and the influence of race, class and gender in relation to the Employment Equity Act</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Regardless of the implementation of the Employment Equity Act (EEA), No. 55 of 1998 and the abolishment of apartheid in 1994, African and mixed-race females are under-represented in managerial positions in the public sector of the Western Cape (WC) in South Africa and nationally in the private health sector. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore the views of nurses about promotion to managerial positions in view of the Employment Equity Act (EEA) and the possible influence of race, class and gender. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: South Africa has a history of racial hierarchies and gender inequities. It was therefore important to explore the influence of the EEA and race, class and gender on the promotion of nurses in the post-apartheid context. Research approach/design and method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was completed. Six hundred and eighty-eight (n = 688) nurses consented to participate and 573 (83%) questionnaires were returned. MAIN FINDINGS: Race as a social construct surfaced in the superior viewing of white and the inferior viewing of African nurses. Mixed-race and white nurses seemed disgruntled with the EEA because of the benefits it holds for African nurses. African nurses seemed angered by their under-representation in managerial positions in the private and public sectors in the WC. White nurses seemed convinced that African, mixed-race and Indian nurses experience upward mobility. Mixed-race nurses (public sector WC) showed concerns about the career successes of males in a female-dominated profession. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managerial structures should be required to invest in diversity training, create awareness of the noble intentions of the EEA and communicate the relevance of employment equity plans. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings provided evidence that reflected a need for diversity training and the creation of awareness about the longstanding influence of racial and gender hierarchies. <![CDATA[<b>A psycho-philosophical view on the 'conceptualisation' of psychological measure development</b>]]> ORIENTATION: When researchers' understanding and application of 'conceptualisation' can allude to nearly anything, it loses its philosophical purpose and stature. Negating the philosophical meaning of the term 'conceptualisation', because it appears obvious, will result in research inquiries becoming ambiguous and ideologically diminished. Paradigms and theoretical frameworks are rooted in philosophical principles, yet researchers often 'conceptualise' and conduct inquiries without understanding the foundation of their applied scientific methods RESEARCH PURPOSE: The historicity of psychological measurement development depicts a fusion of transdisciplinary knowledge systems and the stature of scientific methods is comprehensive. Yet the philosophical lenses through which researchers 'conceptualise' their measure to understand psychological behaviour are not as clear. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Contemporary psychometric literature postulates the 'conceptualisation phase' as a mere point of departure to develop a psychological measure, whereas philosophical literature depicts 'conceptualisation' as the mainstay of any research inquiry. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A qualitative design was used with the conceptual analysis of terminology as approach. Textual or typographical psychometric and psychological literature was purposively sampled and inductively and deductively analysed, using the philosophical framework of Van der Walt and Potgieter. MAIN FINDINGS: The definition of the 'conceptualisation phase' is principally characterised as the scientific method to measure the scientific reality, while the integral human component, represented by the measure developer, is overlooked. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Insights derived can enthuse future dialogues on the purpose and importance of the conceptualisation phase in the development of psychological measures. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: A potential delineation of what the 'conceptualisation phase' should encapsulate is proposed. <![CDATA[<b>The career development processes of women refugees in South Africa: An exploratory study</b>]]> ORIENTATION: There is an observed global movement of labour (freely and forcibly). South Africa emerges as a popular receiving ground for refugees. Within the career psychology literature, scant attention is given to understanding the career development concerns, post-settlement, of women refugees in the host country. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The study explored the career development processes of women refugees, post-settlement, in South Africa as a host country. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Calls have been made within local and international literature for studies that give attention to understanding the career development processes of minority groups. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Using a narrative inquiry approach, this study explored the career development processes of women refugees using a sample of 20 women refugees in South Africa. Relying on a snowball sampling procedure to recruit the participants, in-depth interviews were utilised as a data collection technique. MAIN FINDINGS: Drawing on participants' narratives, the findings illustrate how women refugees have been more concerned with fulfilling a short-term desire for survival and acquiring basic commodities at the expense of a longer focus of advancement and career progression. This is mainly compounded by the structural constraints that limit both their career development and their lived experiences. Issues exclusive to the women refugees are also revealed. Overall, the results illustrate how all the aforementioned factors intersect as barriers that hinder women refugees in developing their careers. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study provides information and strategies that policymakers in South Africa and other developing nations that are hosting refugees can use to facilitate the career development processes of women refugees. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge focussing on career development of women refuges, a populace that previously received limited focus both locally and internationally. <![CDATA[<b>On reproducibility and replicability: Arguing for open science practices and methodological improvements at the <i>South African Journal of Industrial Psychology</i></b>]]> PROBLEMATISATION: In recent years, psychology has been going through a crisis of sorts. Research methods and practices have come under increased scrutiny, with many issues identified as negatively contributing to low replicability and reproducibility of psychological research. IMPLICATIONS: As a consequence, researchers are increasingly called upon to overhaul and improve their research process. Various stakeholders within the scientific community are arguing for more openness and rigor within industrial and organisational (I-O) psychological research. A lack of transparency and openness further fuels criticisms as to the credibility and trustworthiness of I-O psychology which negatively affects the evidence-based practices which it supports. Furthermore, traditional gate-keepers such as grant agencies, professional societies and journals, are adapting their policies, reflecting an effort to curtail these trends. PURPOSE: The purpose of this opinion paper is, therefore, to stimulate an open dialogue with the South African Journal of Industrial Psychology (SAJIP) contributing authors, its editorial board and readership about the challenges associated with the replication crisis in psychology. Furthermore, it attempts to discuss how the identified issues affect I-O psychology and how these could be managed through open science practices and other structural improvements within the SAJIP. RECOMMENDATIONS: We enumerate several easily implementable open science practices, methodological improvements and editorial policy enhancements to enhance credibility and transparency within the SAJIP. Relying on these, we recommend changes to the current practices that can be taken up by researchers and the SAJIP to improve reproducibility and replicability in I-O psychological science. <![CDATA[<b>The impact of workplace bullying on flourishing: The moderating role of emotional intelligence</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Workplace bullying has detrimental effects on employee well-being. Emotional intelligence may moderate the relationship between workplace bullying and flourishing. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of the relationship between workplace bullying and flourishing and to investigate the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the workplace bullying-flourishing relationship MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: There is a paucity of studies exploring the moderating role of personal resources such as emotional intelligence in the relationship between workplace bullying and flourishing. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: The study used a cross-sectional design, quantitative approach and a convenience sampling method. Employees from a higher education institution (N = 1102) participated in this research. Descriptive, correlation and moderation analysis was used to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between workplace bullying and flourishing. Emotional intelligence significantly moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and flourishing PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations should develop and/or strengthen the level of emotional intelligence in employees in order to reduce the negative effect of workplace bullying on well-being. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings of this research contribute to the limited body of research investigating personal resources such as emotional intelligence as a moderator in the bullying-well-being relationship.