Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-076320210001&lang=pt vol. 47 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Exploring the consequences of person-environment misfit in the workplace: A qualitative study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: Although the literature on person-environment fit has burgeoned, misfit has been relatively overlooked. The 21st-century business environment has seen an increase in the number of employee misfits in the workplace, and this has proved a challenge to many organisations. It is uncertain how misfit impacts on employees and organisations experiencing this phenomenon. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to broaden the current misfit research boundaries by exploring the consequences of misfit as experienced by individuals at work. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: There exist several under-researched areas in the misfit terrain. One such is the effect of misfit in the workplace. This study aimed to fill this void. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A qualitative constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Using purposive and snowball sampling, 40 employee misfits participated in face-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data analysed by using four steps prescribed by grounded theory researchers. MAIN FINDINGS: Results highlight two themes that epitomise the consequences of misfit: (1) causing negative reactions in individual employees and (2) producing organisationally directed detrimental outcomes PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study provides managers with a more profound understanding of the adverse consequences of misfit in the workplace and this will assist them in dealing more effectively with misfits. CONTRIBUTIONS/VALUE ADDED: This research contributes to the literature in two ways: (1) it contributes to the theory of misfit by adding to the conception that misfit is a qualitatively different construct to that of low fit or the absence of fit, and (2) our approach sheds light on the multifaceted and intricate construct of misfit and its consequences. <![CDATA[<b>Flourishing in trying circumstances: A hermeneutic phenomenological exploration of volunteer well-being</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: Owing to the reliance on volunteer labour for their success, the behaviour and attitudes of volunteers is of central concern to non-profit organisations (NPOs). To optimise volunteer functioning and retention in a unique and challenging work context, it is necessary to understand their well-being. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore the work-life experiences of volunteers to better understand the manifestations of well-being in the volunteering work context. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Because of the unique and challenging work setting that constitutes volunteering, and the important contribution volunteers make to society and the economy, research is needed from an industrial and organisational psychology (IOP) perspective on the well-being of volunteers. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: This study was directed by a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology. Eight volunteers from an NPO operating in the South African provincial health sector participated in in-depth interviews. The data obtained were analysed using a six-stage theoretical thematic analytical process. MAIN FINDINGS: Guided by 'flourishing at work' as the theoretical framework, four themes were co-constructed from the data: learning and growing in competence, demonstrating an engaged state of mind, exhibiting emotional well-being and feeling socially integrated and connected. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study may assist NPOs in developing context-specific interventions aimed at managing and enhancing well-being in volunteers. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the well-being of volunteers, who are considered a distinct workforce in the field of IOP. <![CDATA[<b>Anxiety and excitement in the fourth industrial revolution: A systems- psychodynamic perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) creates numerous organisational changes. New technologies and their influences are studied; however, hardly any research focuses on studying the unconscious systems psychodynamics (SPs RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore and understand feelings in an organisational 4IR context from a SP perspective Motivation for the study: Scholars have recently issued calls to shift attention from describing the 4IR processes in terms of rapid structural, technological and disruptive changes towards the understanding of subjective 'lived-through' feelings and experiences and in situ responses to 4IR events. Based on this shift, the authors aim at exploring the 'lived-through' experiences in this study from a SP viewpoint. Research approach/design and method: This article presents findings from a qualitative study conducted in a technology organisation, analysing 16 interviews with managers in middle and top management positions. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings show SP playing out in terms of splitting, projection, projective identification and idealisation. Findings with regard to the five fundamental systemic behavioural conventions (dependency, flight/fight, pairing, me-ness, one-ness or we-ness) are also presented Practical/managerial implications: Managers experience anxiety and excitement as strongly influential in the 4IR transformational processes and as playing an important role in SP processes. Contributions/value-add: Organisations and employees need to be made aware of the new trends in the 4IR and the underlying unconscious processes within the organisation. Employees could undergo training to improve their understanding of intra- and inter-psychological and organisational processes and the impact on organisational change and transformation within the 4IR contexts. <![CDATA[<b>Determining the dimensionality and gender invariance of the MACE work-to-family enrichment scale using bifactor and approximate invariance tests</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: Uncertainty about which measurement model of the MACE work-to-family enrichment scale (MACE-W2FE) is best supported by the data called for clarification´. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The main aim of our study was to get clarity on the dimensionality of the MACE-W2FE. The secondary aim was to test for approximate invariance of the measure for gender groups. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Variations in the reported measurement models for the MACE-W2FE between studies are not conducive for theory development and called for clarification. Previous models reported were a multidimensional model and a second-order model. Approximate measurement invariance is a prerequisite for study differences between gender groups. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: We did seek to resolve the problem by using bifactor model analysis, factor strength indices and local indicator misspecification analyses using a sample of 786 South African employees. Invariance was tested using the alignment optimisation method. MAIN FINDINGS: In this study, we solved a substantive research problem by determining that the data from the study best supported a single breadth factor or first-order factor model that was essentially unidimensional. The invariance tests across gender groups confirmed approximate configural, measurement and scalar invariances for the unidimensional model. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Researchers and practitioners may include the MACE-W2FE in studies as a single-aggregated score without negligible loss in measurement precision. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The extended confirmatory factor analyses we conducted proved valuable in resolving the MACE-W2FE's dimensionality vacillations, thereby enhancing the validity of inferences made from scale scores. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of work resources and career adaptability on employee health: A case of sample of teachers in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: There is a rise in health-related challenges within the confines of the organisation. Strategies are needed not just from a human resources practitioner but also a theoretical basis in finding solutions to such challengesRESEARCH PURPOSE: Firstly, to determine the effects that work resources have on employee health and its two facets of physical and mental health. Secondly, to determine if career adaptability moderates the relationship between work resources and employee healthMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Studies exist in the literature that focus on the intersection of individual and organisational factors on health constructs such as mental health. Further, such studies continue to be an issue of inquiry especially within the public service professions such as teaching.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative research approach utilising a survey data collection technique was utilised. Simple linear regression and a hierarchical regression were performed to analyse the data.MAIN FINDINGS: Work resources do predict employee mental and physical health. Further, career adaptability does not moderate the relationship between work resources and employee health among teachersPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Based on the findings, recommendations are made that assist not just teachers but also those engaged in creating a context in which teachers can thrive from a management perspective.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings help us focus on the notion that in rural high schools of South Africa, a supportive work environment for assisting teachers to utilise work resources for organisational functioning, in a manner that is friendly to their mental and physical health is needed. <![CDATA[<b>Addressing gender discrimination in cognitive assessment using the English Comprehension Test</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: The empirically designed English Comprehension Test (ECT) is theorised to measure verbal reasoning and is currently undergoing validation. The test development produced two versions of the ECT, namely, ECT version 1.2 and ECT version 1.3. This study focuses on the latest test version, ECT version 1.3RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to statistically explore the performance of men and women who were assessed by the empirically designed ECTMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Cognitive assessment has often been used as a discriminatory tool against gender, race and/or languages. The discrimination against race and gender were the consequences of a patriarchal system and Apartheid in South Africa, as black men and women were deemed to be subordinate to white men. With the demise of Apartheid, measures have been put in place to guard against unfair assessment practices. In addition, legislation was developed to ensure that test developers and test users employed assessments that did not unfairly prejudice individuals based on their race, gender and language. These measures are imperative to ensure fairness and equal opportunities for men and women across race and language groups.RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This study used a quantitative cross-sectional design. The ECT was administered to a non-probability convenience sample of 881 individuals. The data were analysed by differential test functioning (DTF) in Winsteps and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) package.MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that the majority of the test items did not present any bias, but five possibly biased items were identified across gender groups in the test. These five items that were possibly biased appear to be affected by language and not gendered knowledge, and this, however, necessitates further investigation. The ANOVA results only indicated statistically significant differences across the different language groups, thereby confirming the DTF resultsPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: A major limitation of this study is the restriction of range and lack of generalisability.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study promotes the use of DTF and ANOVA as a means of ensuring fairness in assessment practices across gender groups. Moreover, it contributes to cross-cultural test development and validation research in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Call centre agents' emotional intelligence as predicators of their exhaustion and professional efficacy: The moderating effect of meaningfulness</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: Call centres in a digital work environment in Africa typically require high levels of sustained interpersonal contact with customers, which lead to exhaustion and call centre agent withdrawalRESEARCH PURPOSE: This study investigates the interaction effects between call centre agents' emotional intelligence and their sense of meaningfulness (as moderating mechanism) in predicting their exhaustion and professional efficacyMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Human resource practitioners need deeper understanding/insight of meaningfulness as a moderating mechanism in the link between call centre agents' emotional intelligence, levels of exhaustion and sense of professional efficacy. Such knowledge is important for informing wellness programmes for call centre agents.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative cross-sectional survey approach was followed. A non-probability sample of (N = 409) of permanently employed call centre employees in Lagos, Nigeria, and Johannesburg and Durban, South Africa participated in this study.MAIN FINDINGS: Moderated regression analysis showed that call centre agents' sense of meaningfulness and the ability to perceive and manage others' emotions significantly moderates exhaustion and professional efficacyPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Overall the results provide evidence of the importance of considering call centre agents' sense of meaningfulness, perceptions of emotions and managing others' emotions as a resource for supporting their exhaustion levels as well as professional efficacy in dealing with stress.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The research will add to the interventions needed to be developed to strengthen the relationship between sense of meaningfulness, perceptions of emotions and managing others' emotions and exhaustion and professional efficacy in the call centre industry within Lagos, Nigeria, and Johannesburg and Durban, South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Personality and psychological conditions in relation to job engagement amongst municipal workers in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: Increasing job engagement in a sustainable way remains a challenge and the question remains as to why employees, when working under comparable conditions display signs of job engagement whereas others display a few or no signs of job engagementRESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the linear relationships and establish usable models for the big five personality traits and psychological conditions on job engagement amongst municipal workersMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The motivation of this study is to examine the relationship between personality and psychological conditions on job engagement.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: The study employed a quantitative, cross- sectional research design using a questionnaire on a sample of 403 district municipal workers in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.MAIN FINDINGS: Findings show that conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, intellect and all psychological conditions had a positive relationship with job engagement while neuroticism has a negative relationship with job engagement. Hierarchical regression models revealed that psychological conditions add unique variance in predicting job engagement above and beyond that which is predicted by the personality traitsPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Job engagement can be enhanced through the hiring employees with certain personality traits and enhancing meaningfulness, safety and availability of psychological resources in the workplace.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study findings support a relatively rich literature which suggests that employees with certain personality traits such as conscientiousness, agreeableness, intellect and perceives that all psychological conditions are being met tend to be more engaged in their job. <![CDATA[<b>Illegitimate tasks of primary school teachers at selected schools in the Western Cape: A reality for a developing country?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: The quality of basic education in South Africa is in need of interventions to improve the general standard of education offered in many public schools. Teachers and their work experiences are important factors that impact this standardRESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to shed light on the factors that contribute to the experiences and outcomes of illegitimate tasks, as experienced by teachers, and the potential buffers to the negative effects of these tasksMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The motivation for this study was to inform human resource practices and interventions to enhance the work experiences of teachers.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Exploratory qualitative research was conducted with 10 primary school teachers (n = 10) from a selected Western Cape education district. Responses to semi-structured individual interviews were transcribed verbatim, unedited and categorised into main themes through directed content analysis.MAIN FINDINGS: Environmental and psychological factors that lead to the experience of unnecessary and unreasonable illegitimate tasks, the time-consuming nature and outcomes of these tasks, as well as mechanisms that can buffer the harmful effects of illegitimate tasks, were identifiedPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The identification of various contributing factors resulting in teachers' experience of different types of illegitimate tasks and associated outcomes. Potential interventions and recommendations for future research are made.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADDITION: Qualitative studies regarding teachers' experience of illegitimate tasks in the South African context are lacking. This article sheds light on the contributing factors, unnecessary and unreasonable tasks experienced and outcomes, as well as mechanisms that buffer the effect of illegitimate tasks amongst primary school teachers. <![CDATA[<b>Discrimination challenges and psychological well-being of black African queer employees</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: It is known that black queer employees are exposed to various forms of discrimination because of their sexual orientation being different from the norm. However, because of societal progression in terms of equality and inclusivity in Africa, it is hoped that the discriminatory challenge has lessened and that black queer employees are now in a position to experience well-being. When employees experience well-being, personal functioning and organisational performance are promotedRESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate black queer employees' experience of discrimination in the workplace, as well as their psychological well-beingMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Previous research studies investigating black queer individuals were mostly conducted in a developed world setting and approached from a pathological stance. As a result of progressive societal changes taking place in Africa, it seems necessary to also conduct research focussing on this minority social group from a positive psychological stance.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: The study was qualitative in nature, and data were collected from nine black queer employees. The research strategy of phenomenology was used, because it reveals the lived experiences of black queer individuals around a specific phenomenon; for example, sexual orientation.MAIN FINDINGS: The findings of the study show that although black queer employees did not report experiencing discrimination, there are still a number of discriminatory challenges to which they are exposed. The overall impression was that black queer employees are experiencing psychological well-being, despite the discriminatory challenges that they are exposed toPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Although much progress has been made in Africa to promote equality and inclusivity, more can be done to support black queer employees. Organisations should place more emphasis on wellness programmes, employee support programmes and health and safety initiatives, to promote a supportive working environment for black queer employees.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to the literature on the work experience and well-being of black African queer employees. <![CDATA[<b>The validation of a diversity climate measurement instrument for the South African environment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: South Africa had a distinctive diversity environment with unique diversity-related challenges. Researchers and practitioners required a validated diversity climate instrument that can be used to examine diversity management observations in a South African settingRESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to address a research opportunity to source, test and validate a diversity climate instrument for the South African environmentMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Studies examining the conceptualisation, validation and measurement invariance of a diversity climate instrument for the South African environment do not yet exist.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative approach with cross-sectional design was utilised. A total of 323 respondents from a convenience sample formed part of this study. Statistical analysis included reliability, validity and measurement invariance computations.MAIN FINDINGS: An applicable one-dimensional diversity climate assessment instrument was identified from literature. This study found evidence indicating that the instrument was reliable and valid across white and African population groupsPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The assessment of diversity climate will be an accurate indication on how well an organisation is managing diversity. A validated measuring instrument will be a valuable managerial tool for any South African organisation, which can assist with future decision making.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study was able to source and validate a diversity climate measuring instrument for a unique diversity setting, such as South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Self-management strategies of graduate employees to enhance work engagement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: The hiring of graduates is valuable to organisations. It is necessary to understand the self-management behaviours they display and the behaviours required to keep them engagedRESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore how self-management strategies enhance work engagement of recent graduates who find themselves in a new environment of the world of workMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Employee engagement is of both academic and practitioner interest. With organisations hiring graduates, it is valuable to understand the self-management behaviours needed to remain engaged.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A qualitative research approach was employed through an interpretivist research paradigm. A purposive sample of 12 graduate employees (median age = 24) in various fields of work were interviewed (women = 11, men = 1; black = 11, coloured = 1). The graduates participated in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis was conducted and five themes emerged.MAIN FINDINGS: Through an inductive approach, the five themes that emerged concerning self-management strategies used by graduates to enhance their work engagement are goal setting, self-cueing, self-observation, self-reward and self-punishment and work engagement practicesPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Self-management strategies help to sustain an engaged workforce. Organisations that make use of graduate recruitment will largely benefit from the findings.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: There is limited research on the topic pertaining to graduate employees. Graduates remain relevant in the organisation, and hence, the study makes a contribution to theory and practice. A model is presented with recommendations for graduates and the organisation, which, when implemented, have the potential to enhance work engagement. <![CDATA[<b>Leadership behaviour, team effectiveness, technological flexibility, work engagement and performance during COVID-19 lockdown: An exploratory study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken the world by storm. Little is known about leadership, motivation and employee performance during pandemics and associated lockdownsRESEARCH PURPOSE: The current study investigated a model of leadership behaviour, team effectiveness, technological flexibility, work engagement and performance in the context of a 'hard lockdown' in South AfricaMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting lockdown, it was considered from an academic-practitioner perspective to explore leadership behaviour, team effectiveness, technological flexibility, work engagement and performance.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Specifically, remote workers were sampled online via social media (n = 229). Structural equation modelling methods were used to analyse the data, also controlling optimism and pessimism at the item level.MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the resources of leadership behaviour and team effectiveness had direct positive paths to work engagement and that work engagement had a positive path to two performance factors: adaptivity and proactivity. Furthermore, there were significant indirect relationship present from leadership behaviour and team effectiveness to both adaptability and proactivity through work engagementPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: From the evidence it seems appropriate to recommend that organisations explore fostering the employee job resources in order to positively impact work engagement, which in turn can have beneficial performance outcomes for organisations who have employees working remotely whilst the COVID-19 regulations remain in force.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study was unique as it sampled from employees 'locked down' during a pandemic and gauged their perceptions of leadership behaviour, team effectiveness, technological flexibility, work engagement and performance. <![CDATA[<b>Erratum: Mental health research in African organisations: Advancing theory and practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632021000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ORIENTATION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken the world by storm. Little is known about leadership, motivation and employee performance during pandemics and associated lockdownsRESEARCH PURPOSE: The current study investigated a model of leadership behaviour, team effectiveness, technological flexibility, work engagement and performance in the context of a 'hard lockdown' in South AfricaMOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting lockdown, it was considered from an academic-practitioner perspective to explore leadership behaviour, team effectiveness, technological flexibility, work engagement and performance.RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Specifically, remote workers were sampled online via social media (n = 229). Structural equation modelling methods were used to analyse the data, also controlling optimism and pessimism at the item level.MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that the resources of leadership behaviour and team effectiveness had direct positive paths to work engagement and that work engagement had a positive path to two performance factors: adaptivity and proactivity. Furthermore, there were significant indirect relationship present from leadership behaviour and team effectiveness to both adaptability and proactivity through work engagementPRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: From the evidence it seems appropriate to recommend that organisations explore fostering the employee job resources in order to positively impact work engagement, which in turn can have beneficial performance outcomes for organisations who have employees working remotely whilst the COVID-19 regulations remain in force.CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study was unique as it sampled from employees 'locked down' during a pandemic and gauged their perceptions of leadership behaviour, team effectiveness, technological flexibility, work engagement and performance.