Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> vol. 45 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>A critical reflection on the psychology of retention</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>Co-constructing integrity: A conceptual framework</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The use of an integrity framework can positively influence the impact senior management has on middle management's experience of integrity and subsequently contribute towards creating a positive work environment and establishing healthy relationships between these two groups. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to obtain insights from psychology practitioners about the potential application of, and the value added by, a particular integrity framework within organisations. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Establishing a positive work environment and organisational culture that upholds integrity and that is conducive to behaviour marked by integrity, requires investment into the development of leadership integrity. Utilising an integrity framework will enable psychology practitioners and organisational leadership to create an environment in which healthy relationships can be established between all stakeholders, in particular, between senior and middle managers, allowing integrity to flourish. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A hermeneutic, qualitative study was undertaken and convenient sampling was used. Participants included industrial and counselling psychologists. A listening post was convened and the data obtained were analysed using thematic analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings indicate organisations can use the framework effectively by customising it according to their specific needs, organisational strategy, vision and mission PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION: The framework will enable senior management to influence follower behaviour positively regarding their integrity within the organisation. The framework will assist middle managers in gaining a better understanding of the impact senior management has on their experience of integrity. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study also highlights the important role organisations play in creating and establishing an ethical work climate that will ensure corporate integrity. This will enable organisations to provide value to their corporate stakeholders and to society at large. <![CDATA[<b>Do wage and wage satisfaction compensate for the effects of a dissatisfying job on life satisfaction?</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Research regarding subjective well-being (including life satisfaction and domain-specific satisfaction) is necessary, given the effects thereof on health, work performance, social relationships and ethical behaviour of employees RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationships among life satisfaction, job satisfaction and wage satisfaction, as well as how these relationships related to gross wage category in a South African sample. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: While research has shown that wage level and wage satisfaction are positively associated with both job and life satisfaction, the question arises whether wage level and satisfaction would compensate for the negative effect of a dissatisfying job on life satisfaction. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional design was used. A non-probability convenience sample (N = 763) in the form of the WageIndicator data set was obtained. Hierarchical log-linear analyses and cross-tabulations were carried out to determine the relationships that existed among the constructs. MAIN FINDINGS: Although job satisfaction and wage satisfaction were strongly related at a low level of wage satisfaction, fewer people were satisfied with their jobs at a high level of wage satisfaction level. Moreover, while job and life satisfaction were strongly related at a low level of job satisfaction level, relatively fewer people were satisfied with their lives at a high level of job satisfaction level. Wage dissatisfaction was associated with dissatisfaction with life but was more strongly associated with life satisfaction at a high level of wage satisfaction. Wage category and wage satisfaction did not interact with the job satisfaction level in affecting life satisfaction. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers should attend to the perceptions of wage dissatisfaction at low wage and wage satisfaction levels. Such dissatisfaction may have a negative impact on the job and life satisfaction of employees and result in detrimental effects on employees and organisations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the relationships between wage, wage satisfaction, job dissatisfaction and life satisfaction. <![CDATA[<b>Workplace flourishing: Measurement, antecedents and outcomes</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The continuous growth of employee attrition, especially within the highly skilled talent pool, is becoming increasingly problematic. Therefore, one should continually explore the different factors that impact employee retention and performance. This casts the attention to the person-environment fit and workplace flourishing (WF) RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study explored relationships among person-environment fit, WF, intention to leave (ITL), in-role performance and organisational citizenship behaviour MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Disease-driven research heavily outweighs health promotion research. Therefore, more research is needed regarding positive employee behaviours such as strengths, optimal functioning and flourishing. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used with 258 secondary school teachers from two Gauteng districts. The Perceived Fit, Flourishing-at-Work, Turnover Intention, In-Role Behaviour and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour scales were administered. Structural equation modelling and mediational analyses were performed. MAIN FINDINGS: Results confirmed WF's three-factor structure. Person-environment fit positively associated with WF. Workplace flourishing negatively related to ITL, while positively relating to in-role performance and organisational citizenship behaviour. Person-environment fit indirectly affected in-role performance and organisational citizenship behaviour via WF. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations should continually modify their strategic frameworks to maintain a healthy balance between individual and environmental characteristics. This will lay the foundation for a favourable work environment. When such an environment is institutionalised, talent retention and performance should follow. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study results should provide new insight into the relationship between the person-environment fit and WF, as well as the effect it may have on ITL and performance. <![CDATA[<b>Minorities' experiences of office gossip</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Office gossip can result in someone from a minority group feeling powerless, being resigned to the out-group and be deprived of social networks RESEARCH PURPOSE: This article sought to explore the extent to which research has been conducted on minorities' experiences of office gossip within organisations MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Previous organisational research on employees' experiences of office gossip focused on employees in general and not on specific groups of employees such as minority workers. The literature review of this study therefore points to key areas identified in past studies where experiences of minorities related to gossip are lacking. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Based on a systematic review of the literature published over the last 60 years, the author focused on key areas where office gossip related to minorities is lacking. MAIN FINDINGS: The author found that existing research relating to minorities' experiences of office gossip had focused only on two categories: women minorities and racial minorities. Limited research had been conducted on other minority groups' experiences of office gossip PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations could benefit from having knowledge about the experiences of minority employees, such as foreign nationals, gays, lesbians and obese individuals, to mention but a few. Managers could exert influence to change a work environment and culture to be more inclusive so as to minimise office gossip that would possibly make minorities feel excluded. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This article aimed to fill the gap identified in the literature regarding research on workplace gossip as related to minority employees. <![CDATA[<b>Predictive performance models in the South African Business Process Services industry</b>]]> ORIENTATION: An earlier systematic literature review study (Jacobs & Roodt, 2011) conducted on research in Business Process Services (BPS) industry sector companies identified a number of variables that could be empirically linked to turnover intention and individual performance. The literature pointed to a potential health promotion process, as well as an individual performance process in the BPS environment. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test two different predictive models that may explain two distal outcomes, namely turnover intention and individual employee performance, in the South African (SA) BPS industry. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: There is little, if any, peer-reviewed, empirical research available on the BPS industry that links variables to either proximate or distal outcome variables, such as turnover intention and individual employee performance. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A two-stage, census-based sampling approach was followed that initially targeted 40 organisations within the industry that employ about 13000 employees. Sixteen of these organisations (employing about 6800 individuals) indicated that they wish to voluntarily participate in the study; 821 individuals were targeted to participate in the cross-sectional survey and 487 usable responses were obtained (a 59% response rate). Multivariate data analyses were conducted from an exploratory perspective to retrospectively explain relationships in the structural models. MAIN FINDINGS: An overall health promotion process model that predicted the distal outcome, turnover intention, was confirmed within the context of this exploratory study, where human resource management (HRM) practices, job demands (JDs) and job resources (JRs) were related to burnout as the only proximate outcome. On the other hand, an individual performance enhancing process model was also confirmed within the context of this exploratory study by using HRM practices, JRs and JDs, together with proximate variables, such as employee competence and engagement, to explain the distal outcome, individual performance. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study has implications for executive (strategic) management, human resource (HR) professionals and work unit team leaders in the BPS industry. This study shows which JRs contribute towards the reduction of burnout and turnover intention in the BPS context. On the other hand, it explains how HRM practices, as well as JRs and JDs, in combination with employee competence and engagement, can be used to promote individual performance. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This is the first SA study that uses a range of variables in a multivariate analysis to predict turnover intention and individual performance in the SA BPS industry. <![CDATA[<b>Gender traits in relation to work versus career salience</b>]]> ORIENTATION: The concepts of work- and career-role salience are used interchangeably, yet work focuses on the short-term aspect and career on the long-term aspect. RESEARCH PURPOSE: We utilised gender traits, that is, masculinity, femininity and psychological androgyny, to find greater nuances in the salience of work versus career roles. We also set out to confirm the adapted factor structure of the revised Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Generally, self-reported sex is used to determine differences in role salience between men and women, as opposed to considering the gender roles people associate with. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A sample of 395 South African employees was used. Structural equation modelling and t-tests were applied. MAIN FINDINGS: We confirmed work- and career-role salience as distinct constructs. The factor structure of the revised BSRI holds for this study. With regard to gender traits, femininity decreased work-role salience, while psychological androgyny increased work-role salience. Masculinity had a direct effect on work-role salience while indirectly influencing career-role salience through work-role salience. Women were found to be significantly more feminine and psychologically androgynous than men. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Utilising gender traits may have greater career guidance relevance for individuals than traditional approaches utilising differences between the sexes. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study confirmed that work and career roles are to be viewed as separate constructs and that people may view the importance placed on work- and career-role salience differently. The study further contributes by including gender traits as a significant contributor to role salience. <![CDATA[<b>Strengths use, deficit correction, thriving and performance of academics at universities of technology</b>]]> ORIENTATION: Research regarding strengths use, deficit correction and thriving of academics in higher education institutions is necessary, given the possible effects thereof on their task and contextual performance. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the relationships among strengths use and deficit correction, thriving at work and performance of academics. Furthermore, it sought to investigate whether performance-related pay moderates the effects of thriving on performance. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: No studies were found regarding the relationships among a balanced strengths- and deficit-based approach, thriving at work, and performance in the context of South African higher education. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used, with a convenience sample of 276 academic employees from three universities of technology in South Africa. The participants completed the Strengths Use and Deficit Correction Scale, the Thriving at Work Scale, a scale that measured perceptions of performance-related pay and measures of task and contextual performance. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed that perceived organisational support for strengths use, as well as individual strengths use and deficit correction, predicted thriving at work. Thriving predicted task and contextual performance. A significant interaction was found between thriving and perceptions of performance-related pay. The most robust relation between thriving and performance existed when performance-related pay was perceived to be good. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Higher education institutions must invest resources to enable academics to thrive at work via the balanced strength- and deficit-based approach. This approach should be seen as a core development tool for academics to increase employees' thriving at work. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding strengths use and deficit correction, thriving and performance of academics in higher education institutions. It also resulted in new knowledge regarding the interaction effects of performance-related pay and thriving on task performance of academics. <![CDATA[<b>The principled leadership scale: An integration of value-based leadership</b>]]> ORIENTATION: A need exists to investigate leader behaviour necessary to curb the corruption that has infected and weakened South Africa's moral fibre. Such leader behaviour would need to be underpinned by a set of universal moral values. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a new measure, the principled leadership scale (PLS), by integrating the value-based behaviours inherent in transformational, servant, authentic and ethical leadership. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Leader behaviour intrinsic to value-based leadership was found to be closely aligned with universal moral values. Because the study found a considerable overlap between the behaviours mentioned in the value-based leadership theories, it sought to integrate these behaviours under one construct and to develop a reliable and valid scale to assess this construct. RESEARCH APPROACH/DESIGN AND METHOD: Data from the quantitative study were analysed by means of item analysis, exploratory and confirmatory bi-factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling. MAIN FINDINGS: The confirmatory bi-factor solution corroborated a strong general principled leadership factor and four moderately weak group factors. The statistical analyses provided good fit of the PLS measurement model with the empirical data. PRACTICAL AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The study found acceptable measurement properties of the PLS that may be used for applications, such as the selecting, training and developing of ethical leadership in organisations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study adds value in that it is the first to integrate the four value-based leadership theories under one construct and to develop a potential psychometrically sound instrument to measure principled leadership.