Scielo RSS <![CDATA[SA Journal of Industrial Psychology]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2071-076320140001&lang=es vol. 40 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>A structural model of job resources, organisational and individual strengths use and work engagement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Organisations will not be able to maintain a competitive advantage by merely focusing on the development of their employees' weaknesses. Employees should also be provided with sufficient job resources and opportunities to develop and use their strengths, as this could lead to work engagement. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To test a structural model of job resources, perceived organisational support for strengths use, proactive behaviour towards strengths use and work engagement amongst South African employees. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: To gain more knowledge and a better understanding of the outcomes of following an organisational and individual strength-based approach focused on the use of strengths within the South African context. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative approach with cross-sectional research design was used. An availability sample (N = 401) of employees from various occupational groups in South Africa was used. Structural equation modelling was used to test the model. MAIN FINDINGS: The results indicated that perceived organisational support for strengths use and employees' proactive behaviour towards strengths use were strongly and positively associated with work engagement in the structural model. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Knowledge of using strengths from an organisational and individual perspective could assist organisations in gaining a better understanding of the relationship with work engagement. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study adds to the limited research on using strengths from both an organisational and individual perspective and possible outcomes within the South African context. <![CDATA[<b>The relationship between servant leadership, organisational citizenship behaviour and team effectiveness</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Team effectiveness and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) are outcomes vital for team success. Servant leadership practices also play a critical role in team effectiveness and OCB. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to analyse the relationships between servant leadership, OCB and team effectiveness in the South African school system. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The changing nature of leadership, coupled with the increased use of teams, necessitates a study on how follower-focused leadership practices enhance team member effectiveness. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A non-probability sample of 288 teachers was drawn from 38 schools in the Western Cape in South Africa. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on the data. MAIN FINDINGS: The team effectiveness and refined servant leadership questionnaires displayed high levels of internal consistency. The organisational citizenship behaviour scale exhibited moderate reliability coefficients. Good fit was found for the structural and measurement models of the latent variables through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Positive relationships were found between servant leadership, team effectiveness and OCB. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings emphasise the role played by servant leadership behaviours in promoting positive behaviours and outcomes for teams. Future studies should develop the theoretical model further, by identifying other variables that influence team effectiveness positively and testing the model using revenue-oriented teams. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Schools today face the challenge of developing strategies for achieving team effectiveness. The servant leadership style recognises and promotes the one-on-one development of followers likely to promote positive outcomes and team effectiveness. <![CDATA[<b>The role of leadership in shaping organisational climate: An example from the fast moving consumer goods industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: The 21st century has presented challenges and opportunities to organisations. Although South Africa is the most competitive economy in sub-Saharan Africa, the country needs to focus on these opportunities to improve competitiveness. Although there is research on leadership and organisational climate, a debate continues about the contribution of organisational climate and the role of leadership to creating the desired organisational climate. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim was to explore the relationship between leadership and organisational climate in a South African fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) organisation. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Few studies focus on leadership and organisational climate in South Africa. This study builds on the knowledge that exists. An understanding of the effect of leadership on organisational climate in South Africa allows for customised solutions to the problems of leadership, organisational climate and business performance. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Using a descriptive, cross-sectional field survey approach, 896 participants (all of whom worked in one organisation) participated in the survey. MAIN FINDINGS: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) multivariate analyses revealed a new set of organisational dimensions, confirmed the relationship between leadership and organisational climate as well as the relationship between organisational climate and its various dimensions. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings emphasised the importance of certain generic and specific leadership practices for creating the desired organisational climate in South Africa and in the FMCG environment. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the body of knowledge about the relationship between leadership and organisational climate in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Meaningful work can yield benefits for organisations and lead to positive work outcomes such as satisfied, engaged and committed employees, individual and organisational fulfilment, productivity, retention and loyalty. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support) to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415) consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Employers identifying their employees' commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves). CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Nurse recruitment to and participation in empirical research is increasingly important in understanding and improving nursing practice. However, the low participation and recruitment rate amongst nurses is not well understood. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81%) returned the questionnaires. MAIN FINDINGS: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person) successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation. <![CDATA[<b>Mall shopping preferences and patronage of mature shoppers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Retailers often consider other market segments ahead of mature consumers because they perceive that they have limited purchasing power. This study addressed this misperception by investigating the buying behaviour of mature consumers. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the buying behaviour of mature consumers (older than 55) in Port Elizabeth shopping malls. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The perception of mature shoppers as old people with limited financial resources is untrue. This study investigates the behaviours of mature shoppers. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A model guided the investigation. The authors facilitated four focus groups to gain insight into mature consumers' buying behaviours. A field survey followed with a sample of mall shoppers (n = 680). The authors performed content analysis of the focus group material and used SPSS and AMOS programs to analyse the data quantitatively. MAIN FINDINGS: Focus group interviews revealed specific buying behaviours of mature shoppers. The survey showed significant relationships between various determinants that influence respondents' buying behaviours with adequate model fit indices. These results confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the model that comprises mall shopping anticipation, experience and patronage. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Mature shoppers' expectations exceeded their experiences, suggesting dissatisfaction with some aspects of their experiences. Retailers and shopping mall managers need to redesign malls if they wish to cater for the segment of ageing shoppers and their spending power. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study contributes to the research available in South Africa on service at shopping malls that cater for mature consumers. <![CDATA[<b>The relationship between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction amongst employees in a public organisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: There is much research on extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction in organisations. However, empirical evidence on how such factors affect employees in public organisations in developing countries is lacking. RESEARCH PURPOSE: To examine the relationships between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction amongst employees in a public organisation. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Labour strife is an endemic phenomenon in South Africa's public sector as evidenced by the high incidences of industrial action and labour turnover. This study contributes to this subject by identifying the extrinsic factors that could be optimised with a view to enhancing job and life satisfaction amongst government employees. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: The study used the quantitative research survey approach: a questionnaire was administered to 246 employees in a South African public organisation. Extrinsic motivation factors were identified using principal components analysis. Mean score ranking was used to compare the relative importance of all factors. The conceptual framework was tested using Spearman's rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. MAIN FINDINGS: Statistically significant relationships were observed between job satisfaction and four extrinsic motivation factors: remuneration, quality of work life, supervision and teamwork. The relationship with promotion was insignificant, but a statistically significant relationship was established with life satisfaction. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings may be used to implement strategies for enhancing employee performance and industrial relations within public organisations. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The study provides evidence of the interplay between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction for public servants in developing countries. <![CDATA[<b>The effects of motor vehicle accidents on careers and the work performance of victims</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Research into the long-term effects of motor accidents on the work performance and careers of victims in South Africa is limited. Results of this research are important for employers who must assist the employees after they return to work. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to contribute to research on the effects of the injuries by investigating the relationship between the severity of the injuries and the careers and growth potential of victims. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Employers could use the information on the effects of the injuries on the careers of victims to plan interventions and job accommodations to retain employees and to manage their well-being and performance. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The author conducted a quantitative survey on a purposive sample (N = 199) of adult victims of motor vehicle accidents in 2010 in South Africa. She used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyse the data. MAIN FINDINGS: The author observed a number of significant relationships between the effects of the different injuries on the careers and growth potential of victims. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Organisations and managers need to recognise the physical and psychological effects of injuries victims sustain in motor accidents and the associated responsibility of organisations to accommodate these employees. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The findings of the study can add to the literature and provide insights into the consequences of the injuries. They also provide information that can assist organisations to create an awareness of job accommodation and employee wellness of accident victims. <![CDATA[<b>Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called 'retirement swell' and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153) in 13 higher education institutions. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities) that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors. <![CDATA[<b>Factorial invariance of the Adult State Hope Scale</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Given the interest in the impact of positive psychology on employees, it is imperative to use reliable and valid instruments to operationalise positive-psychology constructs. One such construct is hope. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the degree of factorial invariance across race and gender by using a sample of aspiring chartered accountants. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Previous research on the hope construct and associated measuring instruments have been conducted, using homogenous samples from Westernised cultures. Researchers need to be careful to assume that hope looks and behaves in exactly the same manner across cultures and groups. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: A cross-sectional quantitative research design was used. A sample of 295 aspiring chartered accountants participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the degree of factor similarity across groups, utilising Tucker's coefficient of congruence. To supplement the exploratory factor analysis, a series of increasingly restrictive multi-group analyses were conducted to test the invariance of model parameters across the groups. MAIN FINDINGS: No significant differences were found in the factor patterns for the agency and pathways factors for (1) the white and designated groups and (2) females and males. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Evidence related to factorial invariance was found. This should inform researchers and practitioners that both pathways and agency look similar across racial and gender groups. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: Researchers are urged to use various statistical techniques, in combination, to determine the degree of factorial invariance across groups. <![CDATA[<b>The role of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence and leadership style as attributes of leadership effectiveness</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Researching the impact of psychological constructs on police leadership may add value when appointing people in leadership positions or developing people for leadership roles in the police environment. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between three constructs, namely emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness in a policing context. MOTIVATION FOR THIS STUDY: In the police sector, there are difficulties in linking leadership to organisational outcomes since common police-leadership measures are affected by multiple contributory factors. This study explores the psychological constructs of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on the leadership effectiveness of the police. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: This research adopted a quantitative approach to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as attributes of leadership effectiveness. A total of 107 police personnel in commanding positions made up the sample. The measuring instruments used were the Assessing Emotions Scale, the Self-efficacy Scale and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X). MAIN FINDINGS: The results confirmed a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness. The correlations were significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy should be considered as attributes during the selection of leaders in police organisations or used for developmental purposes to enhance these attributes in police leaders. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The insights gained from the findings may be used to guide the selection of future leaders in the policing environment, and they could also be used to establish future developmental programmes and research initiatives. <![CDATA[<b>Constructing racial hierarchies of skill - Experiencing affirmative action in a South African organisation: A qualitative review</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-07632014000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es ORIENTATION: Apartheid in South Africa constructed racial, economic, social and political segregation, the consequences of which are still experienced today. Government has made concerted efforts to 'deracialise' South Africa, most notably through affirmative action (AA) measures. RESEARCH PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore employees' social constructions of AA in a South African organisation. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Research in this field focuses mostly on attitudinal perspectives of AA with an emphasis on traditional approaches. Subjective, contextualised approaches to AA have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to critically engage with the embodied nature of prejudice, particularly in reference to how we understand and experience AA. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: This study aimed to explore AA from a social constructionist orientation, using semi-structured interviews. More specifically, this study used Potter and Wetherell's discursive psychology. MAIN FINDINGS: The findings illustrate how participants engage in discursive devices that continue to rationalise a racial order of competence. Ultimately, AA is a controversial subject that traverses many segments of life for all South Africans. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings contribute to the discipline of industrial psychology, particularly with regard to policies around preferential treatment, and can add value to the ways in which organisational policy documents are conceptualised. The findings also suggest the importance of developing an inclusive, non-discriminatory organisational culture. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This approach adds to the existing body of knowledge around the embodied nature of prejudice. The study's methodology highlights the value of studying context in meaning-making and implied inferences that underlie talk.